Annals of Otology Rhinology and Laryngology 2020-09-12

Perioperative Analgesia for Patients Undergoing Thyroidectomy and Parathyroidectomy: An Evidence-Based Review

Brandon K. Nguyen,James Stathakios,Daniel Quan,Jessica Pinto,Hosheng Lin,Anna A. Pashkova,Peter F. Svider

Publicatie 21-05-2020


To perform an evidence-based systematic review evaluating perioperative analgesia, including opioid alternatives, used for patients undergoing thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy. A comprehensive literature search from 1997 to January 2018 of Pubmed, Cochrane, and EmBase libraries was performed for studies reporting analgesic administration following thyroid or parathyroid surgery. This systematic review was based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Studies were evaluated for level of evidence and given a Jadad score to assess for risk of bias. Outcomes gathered included postoperative pain scores, time to rescue analgesia, rescue analgesic consumption, and adverse events. Thirty-eight randomized controlled trials met inclusion criteria. The GRADE criteria determined the overall evidence to be moderate-high. Studies utilizing NSAIDs reported reduced requirements for rescue analgesics. Acetaminophen studies presented with conflicting data on effectiveness. Gabapentinoid studies demonstrated lower pain scores and an increased time to rescue analgesic. Local anesthetics were effective at decreasing Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) pain scores while also reducing rescue analgesic consumption. Ketamine was shown to increased postoperative nausea and vomiting. NSAIDs and local anesthetic studies had an aggregate grade of evidence A, while all others had grade B evidence. There is significant evidence supporting the use of NSAIDs and local anesthetics in the perioperative period for pain management for thyroid and parathyroid surgeries. Acetaminophen, gabapentinoid and ketamine have some supporting evidence and may serve as adequate alternatives. Further multi-institutional RCTs are warranted to delineate optimal analgesic regimens. NA.

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Evaluation of Recurrent Maxillary Sinusitis due to Middle Meatal Antrostomy Site Stenosis

Hyo Jun Kim,Ji Ho Choi,Jae Yong Lee

Publicatie 22-05-2020


This study was performed to evaluate the incidence, timing, and factors contributing to recurrent maxillary sinusitis due to middle meatal antrostomy (MMA) site stenosis after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). The medical records and endoscopic photographs of 288 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis who underwent ESS were evaluated. Patients visited the clinic with similar schedule after ESS; recurrent maxillary sinusitis due to MMA site stenosis was investigated, including in terms of the incidence and timing. The preoperative computed tomography (CT) scans, intraoperative findings, and possible factors contributing to MMA site stenosis were examined. Recurrent maxillary sinusitis due to MMA site stenosis occurred in 10 patients. Most had unilateral sinusitis and stenosis was observed within 6 months postoperatively. All patients had severe inflammation, pus retention, and thick mucosal hypertrophy in the maxillary sinus on preoperative CT; intraoperative findings confirmed these conditions. In most patients, extensive trimming of the hypertrophied mucosa was performed intraoperatively through canine fossa trephination. MMA site stenosis is a rare condition after ESS. We hypothesized that rapid shrinkage and fibrosis of the sinus mucosa after extensive trimming thereof may be the main causes of stenosis. Residual mucosal inflammation, granulation formation, and persistent sinus crust and debris may also be contributing factors. Therefore, conservative trimming, meticulous dressing, and removal of sinus crust and granulation tissue near the MMA site should be performed in patients with MMA site stenosis.

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Herbal Drug EPs 7630 versus Amoxicillin in Patients with Uncomplicated Acute Bacterial Rhinosinusitis: A Randomized, Open-Label Study

Aleksandar Perić,Dejan Gaćeša,Aleksandra Barać,Jelena Sotirović,Aneta V. Perić

Publicatie 27-05-2020


Previous investigations suggest the use of extract from the root of Fifty ABRS patients were divided into two groups by randomization. Group 1 (n = 25) received EPs 7630 tablets, 3 × 20 mg/day per os for 10 days. Group 2 (n = 25) received amoxicillin tablets 3 × 500 mg/day per os, for 10 days. We assessed total symptom score (TSS), individual symptom scores for each symptom (nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea, postnasal drip, facial pain/pressure, loss of the sense of smell), endoscopic findings, including total endoscopic score (TES) and individual endoscopic signs (mucosal edema, mucopurulent secretion), before and after treatment. Samples of discharge taken from the middle meatus of all patients were cultivated for bacteria before and after therapy. Higher absolute improvement after treatment was found for TSS, nasal obstruction, facial pain/pressure, impaired sense of smell, TES, mucosal edema and mucopurulent secretion in EPs 7630 group compared to amoxicillin group ( Our results demonstrated better clinical and antimicrobial efficacy of EPs 7630 than amoxicillin. EPs 7630 was shown as a potent agent and good alternative to antibiotic treatment of uncomplicated ABRS.

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Recovery Over Time and Prognostic Factors in Treated Patients with Post-Infectious Olfactory Dysfunction: A Retrospective Study

Takao Ogawa,Keigo Nakamura,Sayuri Yamamoto,Ichiro Tojima,Takeshi Shimizu

Publicatie 27-05-2020


The aims of the present study were to clarify the time-course of olfactory recovery and the prognostic factors in PIOD patients treated with Toki-shakuyaku-san (TSS). A retrospective cohort study of patients with PIOD was conducted by reviewing patients' medical records. This study included patients who received TSS or a combination of TSS and zinc sulfate. Olfactory function was examined by T&T olfactometer at each 3-monthly follow-up visit. Patients with normal and mild olfactory dysfunction were excluded. Gender, age, treatment, duration of disease until the first visit and olfactory function scores of the T&T olfactometer at the first visit were analyzed as candidate clinical predictors of recovery. A total of 82 PIOD patients with ages ranging from 16 to 79 years were included. The mean duration of follow-up was 14.5 months (range 3-45 months). The number of patients with olfactory recovery increased for 24 months and the cumulative recovery rate was 77.3%. In about 60% of patients, olfactory recovery occurred within 6 months. Multivariate analysis showed that younger age (<65 years) and residual olfactory function were significantly associated with good olfactory recovery. We revealed recovery rates over time in patients with PIOD. The recovery of olfactory function often occurred during the early period (≤6 months). However, the number of patients with olfactory recovery increased for a long-term of 24 months after the first visit. Residual olfactory function and younger age were prognostic factors exactly. TSS may be a useful therapeutic agent for patients with PIOD. We believe that these results provide important information that is useful for counseling patients with PIOD.

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Voice-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Chronic Rhinosinusitis

Arthur W. Wu,Evan S. Walgama,Michela Borrelli,James Mirocha,Anca M. Barbu,Narine Vardanyan,Arash Shamsian,Stephanie Hopp,Martin L. Hopp

Publicatie 27-05-2020


Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) has long been associated with vocal dysfunction. However, studies quantifying the presence of voice dysfunction in CRS patients or the effects of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) are sparse. The goal of this study was to determine the voice-related quality of life in patients undergoing FESS for CRS using the validated Voice Related Quality of Life Survey (VRQL). We correlated the preoperative VRQL scores to the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) scores, and we determined the effect of FESS on postoperative VRQL scores. Consecutive patients undergoing FESS were preoperatively administered both the VRQL and the SNOT-22 surveys. Spearman (ρ) and Pearson ( A total of 102 patients were enrolled, and 81 patients completed the two surveys. A total of 51 (62.9%) patients had raw VRQL score ≥ 10, signifying presence of significant vocal symptoms. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) raw VRQL score of the entire study population was 12.4 ± 4.6, and the mean SNOT-22 score was 37.8 ± 19.2. The Spearman correlation coefficient between VRQL and the total SNOT-22 score was 0.34 ( This study demonstrates the increasing presence of vocal complaints with increasing severity of CRS. It also demonstrates that VRQL scores improve after FESS in those patients with preoperative vocal complaints. IV.

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Intramuscular Corticosteroids for Acute Upper Respiratory Infections Affects Healthcare Utilization

Sean M Parsel,Alaa E Mohammed,Daniel Fort,Blair M Barton,Edward D McCoul

Publicatie 27-05-2020


To examine the use of intramuscular corticosteroid (IMCS) injections for treatment of acute upper respiratory infections (URI) and the influence on healthcare utilization. This retrospective cohort study used patient encounter data from a large multicenter regional health care system between 2013 and 2017. Adult patients diagnosed with acute URI (acute pharyngitis, acute sinusitis, acute otitis media, and URI not otherwise specified) during ambulatory encounters were included. Follow-up encounters for a diagnosis of acute URI within 60 days were identified and patient characteristics, encounter details, and procedure codes were retrieved. Frequency data was used to calculate IMCS injection administration prevalence, utilization trends, and associations with covariates. Follow-up data for return encounters within 60 days for the same diagnosis was examined. Of the 153 848 initial encounters, 34 600 (22.5%) patients received IMCS injection for acute URI. Injection rates varied from 0.85% to 49.1% depending on specialty and practitioner type. Internal medicine, family medicine, urgent care, and otorhinolaryngology clinics most commonly administered IMCS. 3788 patients returned for a second encounter of which 751 (19.8%) received an injection. IMCS injection during the first encounter was associated with increased odds of repeat visit within 60 days (OR: 1.74; 95% CI: 1.61-1.88). IMCS use in the treatment of acute URI is highly prevalent despite lack of evidence for impact and safety. Prevalence is variable across multiple medical and surgical specialties including otorhinolaryngology. Administration of IMCS injection may contribute to the likelihood of a subsequent healthcare visit for the same indication.

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Factors Associated with Failure of Botulinum Toxin Injection in Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia

Kevin Zhao,Martial Guillaud,Amanda Hu

Publicatie 29-05-2020


Electromyography (EMG) Guided botulinum toxin (BTX) injection is considered first-line treatment for adductor spasmodic dysphonia (SD). Failure rate can range between 6% and 29%. Study objective was to determine which factors were associated with failure. This was a retrospective review conducted at a tertiary, academic center. Adductor SD patients presenting for BTX injections from August 2017 to October 2018 were eligible. Age, gender, Voice Handicap Index (VHI-10), Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE-V), number of injections, disease duration, unilateral/bilateral injection, right/left injection, dose quantity, body mass index (BMI), professional voice user, employment, psychiatric comorbidity, breathiness, and dysphagia were investigated. Outcomes included failure as defined by the patient and dosage change. Univariate and multivariate statistical analysis was conducted. Sixty seven out of 564 injections (12%) were categorized as failure by 131 patients. In multivariate analysis, dosage change was associated with shorter duration of good effect ( Failure rate was 12% and associated with patients' first injection with a physician, professional voice user, and lack of breathiness. Dosage change occurred in 29% of injections and was associated with injection side effects, bilateral injections, BTX dose, professional voice user, and shorter duration of good effect.

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Use of Steroid-Eluting Stents after Endoscopic Repair of Choanal Atresia: A Case Series with Review

Lyndy J. Wilcox,Matthew M. Smith,Alessandro de Alarcon,Madison Epperson,Hayley Born,Catherine K. Hart

Publicatie 29-05-2020


To describe a single institution's experience with the use of steroid-eluting stents after endoscopic transnasal repair of choanal atresia. A case series with review of children who underwent choanal atresia repair at a tertiary children's hospital from June 2017 to January 2018 was performed. Those who had a mometasone drug-eluting stent (Propel Five patients with a median age of 22 months at the time of repair met inclusion criteria. Two (40%) had bilateral atresia and 3 (60%) had confirmed CHARGE syndrome. A total of 6 mometasone drug-eluting stents were used in the 5 cases. Three patients were reassessed at least once in the OR; however, the majority (57.1%) of postoperative evaluations were able to be performed in the office or bedside setting. The first and last evaluations occurred a mean of 14 and 124 days after surgery, respectively. There were no instances of restenosis, repeat surgical interventions, or stent-related complications noted. Placement of a mometasone drug-eluting stent is a promising method to improve postoperative results and management of choanal atresia repair by limiting the need for repeat anesthetics and OR procedures, as well as the complications of traditional stents.

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The Clinical Significance of IGF-1R and Relationship with Epstein–Barr Virus Markers: LMP1 and EBERs in Tunisian Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

Nehla Mokni Baizig,Ben Ayoub Wided,Olfa El Amine,Said Gritli,Michele ElMay

Publicatie 29-05-2020


Tunisia is in the endemic area of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) based assays have been commonly used as standard markers for screening and monitoring the disease. So, it is very important to find novel factors for the early diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of this cancer. The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of IGF-1R (Insulin Growth Factor Receptor 1), LMP 1 (Latent Membrane Protein 1) and EBERs (EBV encoded RNAs) in order to determine their correlation with clinicopathologic parameters and survival rates in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We also looked for the relationship between these biomarkers. IGF-1R and LMP1 expression was performed by means of immunohistochemical method and EBERs were detected using in situ hybridization of paraffin embedded tumor tissues of 94 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and 45 non-cancerous nasopharyngeal mucosa samples. Our findings demonstrated that IGF-1R was over expressed in 47.87% of NPC patients and only in 2.22% of controls. Positive LMP1 expression was detected in 56.38% of NPC patients and all NPC patients were positive for the EBV-encoded RNAs staining. A statistically significant positive correlation was observed between IGF-1R expression and the tumor size ( IGF1-R and LMP1 could be valuable prognostic markers in Tunisian NPC patients.

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Assessment and Diagnostic Accuracy Evaluation of the Reflux Symptom Index (RSI) Scale: Psychometric Properties using Optimal Scaling Techniques

Andrea Nacci,Luca Bastiani,Maria Rosaria Barillari,Jerome R. Lechien,Massimo Martinelli,Nicola De Bortoli,Stefano Berrettini,Bruno Fattori

Publicatie 29-05-2020


To investigate the psychometric properties of the reflux symptom index (RSI) as short screening approach for the diagnostic of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) in patients with confirmed diagnosed regarding the 24-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring (MII-pH). From January 2017 to December 2018, 56 patients with LPR symptoms and 71 healthy individuals (control group) were prospectively enrolled. The LPR diagnosis was confirmed through MII-pH results. All subjects (n = 127) fulfilled RSI and the Reflux Finding Score (RFS) was performed through flexible fiberoptic endoscopy. The sensitivity and the specificity of RSI was assessed by ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis. A total of 15 LPR patients (26.8%) of the clinical group met MII-pH diagnostic criteria. Among subjects classified as positive for MII- pH diagnoses, RSI and RFS mean scores were respectively 20 (SD ± 10.5) and 7.1 (SD ± 2.5), values not significantly different compared to the negative MII-pH group. The metric analysis of the items led to the realization of a binary recoding of the score. Both versions had similar psychometric properties, α was 0.840 for RSI original version and 0.836 for RSI binary version. High and comparable area under curve (AUC) values indicate a good ability of both scales to discriminate between individuals with and without LPR pathology diagnosis. Based on balanced sensitivity and specificity, the optimal cut-off scores for LPR pathology were ≥ 5 for RSI binary version and ≥ 15 for RSI original version. Both version overestimated LPR prevalence. The original version had more sensitivity and the RSI Binary version had more specificity. It would be necessary to think about modifying the original RSI in order to improve its sensitivity and specificity (RSI binary version, adding or changing some items), or to introduce new scores in order to better frame the probably affected of LPR patient.

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Alternatives to Acid Suppression Treatment for Laryngopharyngeal Reflux

Mikayla J. Huestis,Katherine R. Keefe,Chase I. Kahn,Lauren F. Tracy,Jessica R. Levi

Publicatie 25-05-2020


Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) and associated symptoms can be refractory to treatment with acid suppressing medication. We investigated the role and evidence for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for LPR in this systematic review. Complementary and alternative treatment was defined in this systematic review as any non-acid suppressing medication, treatment, or therapy. A literature search was performed by two authors in consultation with a medical librarian using controlled vocabulary for "complementary and alternative medicine" and "laryngopharyngeal reflux" in the databases PubMed and EMBASE, with supplemental searches with Google Scholar. Twenty articles were included in this review for the modalities: alginate, diet modification, prokinetics, respiratory retraining, voice therapy, rikkunshito (RKT), hypnotherapy, and sleep positioning. The studies were analyzed for bias based on the Cochrane criteria for RCTs and Methodological Index for non-RCT (MINORS) criteria for all other studies. For each modality a level of evidence was assigned to the current body of evidence using the GRADE approach. There is mixed evidence with a high degree of bias and heterogeneity between studies for the modalities presented in the paper. Based on this review, an anti-reflux diet is recommended for all patients and there is some low-quality evidence to support alkaline water. For patients with predominant vocal symptoms there is evidence that supports voice therapy. There is insufficient evidence to recommend prokinetics at this time. For patients with predominant globus symptoms, alginate, RKT, and relaxation strategies may be used in conjunction with acid suppressing medications for symptom relief.

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Comment on “Outcomes of Adopting Endoscopic Tympanoplasty in an Academic Teaching Hospital”

Zhengcai Lou

Publicatie 22-05-2020


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Taste and Smell Dysfunction in COVID-19 Patients

José Manuel Abalo-Lojo,Jéssica María Pouso-Diz,Francisco Gonzalez

Publicatie 29-05-2020


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Response to Letter to the Editor: Fat Injection Pharyngoplasty for Velopharyngeal Insufficiency Management

Kevin J. Contrera,William S. Tierney,Paul C. Bryson

Publicatie 22-05-2020


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Early Outcomes in an Emerging Facial Nerve Center: The Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU) Experience

Natalie A. Krane,Jimmy S. Chen,Haley Hanseler,Wenelia Baghoomian,John Ng,Mark K. Wax,Myriam Loyo

Publicatie 12-09-2020


Nerve transfer (NT) and free gracilis muscle transfer (FGMT) are procedures for reanimation of the paralyzed face. Assessing the surgical outcomes of these procedures is imperative when evaluating the effectiveness of these interventions, especially when establishing a new center focused on the treatment of patients with facial paralysis. We desired to discuss the factors to consider when implementing a facial nerve center and the means by which the specialist can assess and analyze outcomes. Patients with facial palsy secondary to multiple etiologies, including cerebellopontine angle tumors, head and neck carcinoma, and trauma, who underwent NT or FGMT between 2014 and 2019 were included. Primary outcomes were facial symmetry and smile excursion, calculated using FACE-gram and Emotrics software. Subjective quality of life outcomes, including the Facial Clinimetric Evaluation (FaCE) Scale and Synkinesis Assessment Questionnaire (SAQ), were also assessed. 14/22 NT and 6/6 FGMT patients met inclusion criteria having both pre-and postoperative photo documentation. NT increased oral commissure excursion from 0.4 mm (SD 5.3) to 2.9 mm (SD 6.8) ( Measuring outcomes, critical analyses, and a multidisciplinary approach are necessary components when building a facial nerve center. At our emerging facial nerve center, we found NT and FGMT procedures improved smile excursion and symmetry, and improved QOL following NT in patients with facial palsy secondary to multiple etiologies.

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Considerations in Management of Acute Otitis Media in the COVID-19 Era

Suresh Mohan,Alan Workman,Miriam Barshak,D. Bradley Welling,Dunia Abdul-Aziz

Publicatie 11-09-2020


To present the otologic findings of a patient with COVID-19 and complicated acute otitis media, evaluate for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in middle ear fluid, and assess whether suctioning of middle ear fluid may be aerosol- generating. The case of a man with SARS-CoV-2 infection and complicated acute otitis media with facial paralysis is presented to illustrate unique clinical decisions made in context of the COVID-19 pandemic. A cadaveric temporal bone was used to simulate droplet spread during suctioning of fluorescein-labelled middle ear fluid and visualized with a blue-light filter. A 23-year-old male who presented with complicated acute otitis media with facial paralysis was found to have an acute infection with SARS-CoV-2, with positive viral PCR of nasopharyngeal swab, and a negative PCR of the middle ear fluid. He was placed on isolation precautions and treated with myringotomy, topical and systemic antibiotics, and antivirals. Consistent with observations during endonasal suctioning, suctioning of middle ear fluid was not found to be aerosol or droplet generating. The case of a patient with active COVID-19 presenting with complicated acute otitis media in whom middle ear fluid was sampled to evaluate the etiology of the infection and the potential middle ear predilection of SARS-CoV-2 is described. This study has implications for the clinical management of patients with both known and unknown SARS-CoV-2 infection who present with ear disease. While middle ear suctioning may not be aerosol-generating, the risk of coughing or prolonged close contact requires heightened precautions during otologic procedures in patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19.

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De-Epithelialized Heterotopic Tracheal Allografts without Immunosuppressants in Dogs: Long-Term Results for Cartilage Viability and Structural Integrity

Pengcheng Cui,Pengfei Liu,Shuqin Li,Ruina Ma

Publicatie 11-09-2020


Reconstruction of long segmental tracheal defects is difficult because no ideal tracheal substitutes are currently available. Tracheal allotransplantation maintains cartilage and epithelium viability but requires immunosuppression because of epithelial immunogenicity. We aimed to obtain an epithelium-decellularized allograft that maintains cartilage viability and to evaluate long-term outcomes of such allografts implanted on dog backs without immunosuppressants. Twenty-five tracheas harvested from mongrel dogs were used to explore the period of epithelium decellularization by combined use of 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate and an organ preservation solution and to assess the chondrocyte viability and immunogenicity of the tracheas after decellularization. Sixteen epithelium-decellularized tracheal allografts and 10 fresh tracheal segments (6 cm long) were implanted in 26 beagles for durations of 10 days and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations were used to evaluate the morphology, viability, and immune rejection of the allografts. Safranin-O staining was used to detect glycosaminoglycans. The epithelium disappeared after 24 hours of decellularization. At 72 hours, almost no nuclei remained in the mucosa, while the mean survival rate of chondrocytes was 88.1%. Histological analysis demonstrated that the allograft retained intact tracheal rings and viable cartilage after heterotopic implantation for 1 year, with no immunological rejection. There were no significant differences in the glycosaminoglycan contents among the implanted epithelium-decellularized allografts. Epithelium-decellularized tracheal allografts with chondrocyte viability can be achieved by combined use of a detergent and organ preservation solution, which showed satisfactory cartilage viability and structural integrity after long-term heterotopic transplantation. Further studies on orthotopic transplantation are needed to assess the feasibility of allografts in reconstructing long segmental tracheal defects.

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Patient-Reported Factors Associated with the Onset of Hyperfunctional Voice Disorders

Samantha Kridgen,Robert E. Hillman,Tara Stadelman-Cohen,Steven Zeitels,James A. Burns,Tiffiny Hron,Carol Krusemark,Jason Muise,Jarrad H. Van Stan

Publicatie 10-09-2020


Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of hyperfunctional voice disorders would be improved by better understanding their etiological contributing factors. Therefore, this study estimated the prevalence of etiological factors using self-reported data about disorder onset from a large cohort of patients with Phonotraumatic Vocal Hyperfunction (PVH) and Non-Phonotraumatic Vocal Hyperfunction (NPVH). Retrospective chart review extracted the self-reported rate (gradual, sudden) and events associated (voice use, anxiety/stress, upper respiratory infection [URI]) with disorder onset from 1,577 patients with PVH and 979 patients with NPVH. Both patient groups reported a gradual onset more than a sudden onset. Voice use was the most frequently reported event for PVH and the NPVH group self-reported all three events at equal frequency. The largest PVH subgroups were associated with voice use while the NPVH subgroups were associated with only voice use, only URI, or only anxiety/stress. The results support the general clinical view that PVH is most strongly related to the gradual accumulated effects of phonotrauma, while NPVH has a more heterogeneous etiology. The identified PVH and NPVH subgroups may have clinical relevance and future work could investigate differences in treatment and outcomes among these subgroups.

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Topical Triamcinolone on “Sweet Spots” to Block Dynamic Pain after Tonsillectomy and Uvulo-Palato-Pharyngo-Plasty

Joshua Kuang-Chao Chen,David M. Niddam,Tao-Hsin Tung,Lieber Po-Hung Li

Publicatie 10-09-2020


Severe pain on swallowing (or dynamic pain) has long been a problem in patients receiving tonsillectomy and uvulopalatopharyngoplasty for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and/or snoring. We have previously verified that dynamic pain after laser-assisted uvulopalatoplasty could immediately be mitigated by local treatments with topical triamcinolone on the "sweet spots" of the wounds. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of applying triamcinolone on "sweet spot" in surgical incisions instead of whole surgical wounds to alleviate dynamic pain of some oropharyngeal surgeries such as tonsillectomy and uvulopalatopharyngoplasty. This study is a retrospective case series based on chart review of the participants. Forty-five subjects (31 males; 12~68 years, mean 34 years) with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and/or snoring treated with tonsillectomy or uvulopalatopharyngoplasty were studied. Local treatments were done to sweet spots with triamcinolone on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 7th days after the surgery. Evaluation of dynamic pain relief was performed by using a visual analogous scale. Sweet spots treatment led to instantaneous reduction of dynamic pain. The average improvement level was ≥72% ( Dynamic pain after tonsillectomy and uvulopalatopharyngoplasty could immediately be mitigated by local treatments upon sweet spots. Local treatments upon sweet spots were highly suggested to begin early post-operatively and be included in the take-home routines for patients receiving tonsillectomy and uvulopalatopharyngoplasty.

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The Role of Speech-Language Pathologists in Otolaryngology Resident Education

Yassmeen Abdel-Aty,Sara Charney,David G. Lott

Publicatie 04-09-2020


Laryngology is an expanding field that has been increasingly incorporated into otolaryngology resident training programs nationwide. The exposure to the field is variable across training programs, despite the fact that laryngological complaints comprise a large proportion of consultations to otolaryngologists. Laryngology education is vital for the care of patients with voice, swallowing, and airway complaints as well as for the appropriate referral of patients to the laryngology team for specialized care. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) specialized in voice and swallowing disorders are well-trained in the assessment and treatment for these populations. This team recently published a paper regarding the experience of laryngology education in residency. During analysis of the results, an interesting beneficial trend developed regarding the positive impact of exposure to SLPs. This appeared to be distinct and deserved further analysis and discussion. We propose that involving SLPs in resident education may greatly enhance their training in laryngology. As per our previous paper, a cross sectional, multi-institutional study was designed to assess the exposure of residents to laryngology. Descriptive statistics were obtained for questions involving exposure to SLPs. Fisher's exact test was used to compare differences between groups. Most respondents (135/151, 89.4%) indicated having SLPs specializing in voice and swallowing disorders in their departments, although only half (77/151, 51.0%) stated that they spent formal time with them during training. Results show that residents with formal training with SLPs were more comfortable interpreting videofluoroscopic swallow studies (VFSS) ( Formal time with SLPs within otolaryngology residency programs varies across the country. Speech-language pathologists are a useful resource for laryngology resident training and should be included in their education.

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Laryngeal Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis: A Case Report and Literature Review

Allen S. Zhou,Lei Li,Thomas L. Carroll

Publicatie 31-08-2020


To describe a case of laryngeal Langerhans cell histiocytosis, discuss its characteristic features and management, and provide a review of the available literature. A patient presenting to a tertiary care medical center with dyspnea and hoarseness is described. A literature review of laryngeal Langerhans cell histiocytosis cases was performed through a search of articles indexed in the National Institutes of Health PubMed system. We report a case of a 69-year old male, who presented with a laryngeal mass highly suspicious for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, was treated with laser excision, and was subsequently found to have laryngeal Langerhans cell histiocytosis upon histological analysis. Including our current case, we found six prior reported cases of laryngeal Langerhans cell histiocytosis in the literature. Of the six cases, four were in adults, while two were in children. Dyspnea is a common presenting complaint present in all cases. Smoking may be a potential risk factor. Laryngeal Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare condition and an important consideration in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with a laryngeal mass and symptoms of dyspnea or hoarseness. Biopsy and histopathological analysis are key to the diagnosis. Surgical excision and radiotherapy are successful treatments used in clinical practice.

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Does Voice Therapy Improve Vocal Outcomes in Vocal Fold Atrophy?

Emma Bick,Lukas D. Dumberger,Douglas R. Farquhar,Heather Davis,Elizabeth Ramsey,Robert A. Buckmire,Rupali N. Shah

Publicatie 29-08-2020


Vocal fold atrophy is increasingly identified in the geriatric population. Current literature shows varying outcomes with voice therapy. Our goal was to analyze multidimensional vocal outcomes of these patients who underwent voice therapy. Secondary aims included determining compliance and analyzing differences in patients who undergo surgery. 197 patients with vocal fold atrophy were included and reviewed. Patients were categorized by treatment received. Patient-reported, perceptual, aerodynamic, and acoustic voice outcomes were analyzed before and after therapeutic intervention. Changes were calculated and significance determined using Wilcoxon signed-rank and rank-sum tests. 89(45%) received no therapy, 43(22%) incomplete therapy, 51(26%) complete therapy, 8(4%) surgery only, and 6(3%) therapy followed by surgery. Those who completed voice therapy showed significant improvement in voice related quality of life (VRQOL) ( Only 29% of patients with vocal atrophy completed voice therapy when recommended. Within this patient cohort, voice therapy results in significant improvement in multidimensional voice outcomes. Patients with vocal atrophy that undergo surgical treatment differ from those treated with voice therapy alone in their pre-treatment patient-reported measures.

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Comparison of Traditional Upper Airway Surgery and Upper Airway Stimulation for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Colin Huntley,Maurits Boon,Samuel Tschopp,Kurt Tschopp,Carolyn M Jenks,Erica Thaler,Peter Baptista Jardin,Janki Shah,Alan Kominsky,Eric J Kezirian,Clemens Heiser,Jonathan Waxman,Ho-Sheng Lin

Publicatie 29-08-2020


To compare patients with moderate-severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) undergoing traditional single and multilevel sleep surgery to those undergoing upper airway stimulation (UAS). Case control study comparing retrospective cohort of patients undergoing traditional sleep surgery to patients undergoing UAS enrolled in the ADHERE registry. 8 multinational academic medical centers. 233 patients undergoing prior single or multilevel traditional sleep surgery and meeting study inclusion criteria were compared to 465 patients from the ADHERE registry who underwent UAS. We compared preoperative and postoperative demographic, quality of life, and polysomnographic data. We also evaluated treatment response rates. The pre and postoperative apnea hypopnea index (AHI) was 33.5 and 15 in the traditional sleep surgery group and 32 and 10 in the UAS group. The postoperative AHI in the UAS group was significantly lower. The pre and postoperative Epworth sleepiness scores (ESS) were 12 and 6 in both the traditional sleep surgery and UAS groups. Subgroup analysis evaluated those patients undergoing single level palate and multilevel palate and tongue base traditional sleep surgeries. The UAS group had a significantly lower postoperive AHI than both traditional sleep surgery subgroups. The UAS group had a higher percentage of patients reaching surgical success, defined as a postoperative AHI <20 with a 50% reduction from preoperative severity. UAS offers significantly better control of AHI severity than traditional sleep surgery. Quality life improvements were similar between groups.

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Longitudinal Voice Outcomes Following Serial Potassium Titanyl Phosphate Laser Procedures for Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis

Wei-Chen Hung,Wu-Chia Lo,Kai-Min Fang,Po-Wen Cheng,Chi-Te Wang

Publicatie 27-08-2020


Repeated surgical interventions are usually required to control recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP), but at considerable risk of worsened postoperative voice quality. Potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser has been reported to effectively manage RRP; however, voice quality after repeated procedures has not been investigated. This study recruited 16 patients with RRP treated using KTP laser between 2013 and 2019. KTP laser procedures were performed under general anesthesia via direct suspension laryngoscope or under local anesthesia via flexible endoscope, depending on the need for pathological proof, patient tolerance, and lesion size and location. Disease control was investigated by videolaryngostroboscopy. Voice outcome was evaluated using a 10-item voice handicap index (VHI-10), acoustic and perceptual analyzes. We reviewed the medical records of 11 male and 5 female patients with RRP (age range: 23-73 years). Five patients received KTP laser once, six patients received it 2 to 5 times, and five patients received 6 to 15 procedures. Median VHI-10 decreased from 28.3 to 12.0 points after the initial procedure and were maintained at 10.1 to 11.0 points following subsequent procedures ( This longitudinal follow-up study revealed that serial KTP laser procedures can effectively control RRP while preserving phonatory function and maintaining adequate voice quality. level 4.

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Management of FDG avid Benign Sinonasal Schneiderian Papilloma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

Iram Shafqat,Allen S. Ho,Daniel Manzoor,Bonnie Balzer,Arthur W. Wu

Publicatie 27-08-2020


The inverted and oncocytic subtypes of sinonasal Schneiderian papillomas are benign tumors with possible rare malignant transformation and are typically managed with complete surgical resection and close follow-up. While computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are mainstays in preoperative evaluation of bony invasion and soft tissue extension of the lesion, their imaging characteristics by 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is less well characterized. To describe the clinical presentation and management of a PET positive sinonasal lesion. To conduct a literature review of FDG uptake in benign sinonasal papillomas. Case report (n = 1) and literature review of similar cases (n = 32). We report the case of a 69-year-old man presenting with an isolated left maxillary sinus mass with avid FDG uptake, discovered on PET/CT imaging. An endoscopic left maxillary mega-antrostomy provided successful definitive treatment for final pathologic diagnosis of oncocytic papilloma. Literature review of cases of sinonasal papillomas with avid FDG uptake found that oncocytic papillomas, on average, exhibit greater uptake than inverted papillomas and both may be mistaken as malignancies on PET. While PET imaging demonstrating avid FDG uptake is associated with an increased risk of malignancy, it does not rule out the possibility of a benign sinonasal papilloma nor other benign inflammatory lesions. Particularly, oncocytic papillomas may have very high FDG uptake and mimic malignant lesions.

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Occult Malignancy in Adult Tonsillectomy for Benign Indication

Noah Syme,Stefan Brettfeld,Ashley Dorneden,Von Samedi,Therese Bocklage,Orrin Myers,Fred Herzon,Duncan A. Meiklejohn

Publicatie 25-08-2020


National pathology guidelines recommend full pathologic analysis for all adult tonsillectomy specimens. We evaluated the available data on occult malignancy in adult tonsillectomy for benign indication, and created a screening system to reduce the risk of missed malignancies if routine histopathologic examination were to be discontinued. Retrospective chart review and systematic review of the literature. Tertiary care academic hospital and multi-hospital private healthcare system. A systematic literature review identified case series of adult tonsillectomy. Retrospective chart review at our institutions from 2000 to 2016 produced an additional case series. The pooled rate of occult malignancy was determined, and re-analyzed using criteria based on preoperative risk factors designed to identify patients requiring full pathologic analysis. The predicted effects of prospective application of the proposed criteria were calculated. Pooled occult malignancy prevalence was estimated. Literature review and our own case series yielded 12,094 total cases. Occult malignancy prevalence in the combined data was 0.033%, representing four occult malignancies. Three out of the four would have been selected for full pathology preoperatively with use of the proposed criteria. Statistical analysis indicates that the predicted frequency of occult malignancy incidence in cases negative for the criteria is 0.01%, or 1/10,000. Application of the proposed criteria to adults undergoing tonsillectomy for benign indication identifies a subset of patients with an estimated incidence of occult malignancy similar to that reported for pediatric tonsillectomy, and potentially may permit safe elimination of pathologic analysis of their tonsil specimens. Pooled analysis of case series from the literature and a single institution, level 4.

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Expression of Concern: The clinical significance of IGF-1R and relationship with Epstein-Barr virus markers: LMP1 and EBERs in Tunisian patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

Publicatie 22-08-2020


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‘Mini-Microsuture Technique’ for Phonosurgery: A New Simplified Method

İsmail İlter Denizoğlu,Engin BaŞer

Publicatie 21-08-2020


Phonomicrolaryngeal surgery involves the surgical treatment of benign disorders of the vocal folds. Postoperative scar tissue in vocal fold mucosa is undesired because mucosal hypodynamia may lead to prolonged impairment in voice quality. This study aims to present and share the outcomes of a new endolaryngeal suture technique. This study consists of patients who underwent vocal fold surgery followed by endolaryngeal microscopic suturation with a technique that we call the "mini-microsuture technique" between January 2018-December 2019. Videolaryngoscopic images were examined to observe the tissue healing process (suture elimination time, mucosal scar status, and wave pattern) at the first and the fourth week postoperatively. A retrospective analysis was made in 144 (57 males (39.5%) and 87 females (60.5%)) patients who underwent phonomicrosurgery with "Mini-microsuture technique." Mean age was 40.61 ± 13.54 (10-78) years. There were multiple pathological lesions in 41.66% (n: 60) of our patients, and 58.33% (n: 84) of them had single-lesion. 63.88% (n: 92) of the patients had bilateral vocal fold lesions where 36.22% (n: 52) of the patients had pathology in one vocal fold. The "mini-microsuture technique" is an easy and functional procedure that can be performed by a single surgeon under microscopy, which minimizes tissue trauma, prevents mucosal hypodynamia, and provides a better anatomical structure postoperatively for a symmetrical vibration. The technique does not significantly prolong operation time when mastered and is a cost-effective method in which surgery which can be concluded using a single suture material.

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Reconstruction of Mastoid Cortex Defects with Hydroxyapatite Cement for Negative Sequelae of Mastoidectomy

Julia Marie Naman Thomas,Michael Brian Gluth

Publicatie 21-08-2020


Mastoid cortex defects resulting from mastoidectomy surgery can rarely lead to negative sequelae, including unsightly post-auricular depression and discomfort. This study sought to evaluate the use of hydroxyapatite cement (HAC) to reconstruct mastoidectomy cortex defects. Retrospective chart review was undertaken for all patients that underwent reconstruction of the mastoid cortex using HAC at a single tertiary medical center between 2013 and 2019. Collected data included demographics, indications for mastoidectomy, complications, and associated symptom status. Twenty-nine patients that underwent mastoid cortex repair using HAC were included, and ten of these underwent mastoid revision in a secondary procedure to reconstruct the mastoid cortex with a specific goal to eliminate negative signs and symptoms. There were no associated postoperative complications and no instances of post-auricular depression following repair. All cases of secondary reconstruction resolved the primary signs and symptoms that prompted mastoid revision. HAC mastoid cortex reconstruction may be a safe and effective method to resolve negative sequelae resulting from previous mastoidectomy defects. Also, upfront HAC mastoid cortex reconstruction appears viable in select instances as an option to prevent potential future complications.

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General Complications after Endoscopic Sinus Surgery in Smokers: A 2005-2016 NSQIP Analysis

Jordan I. Teitelbaum,Catie Grasse,Dennis Quan,Ralph Abi Hachem,Bradley J. Goldstein,Xiaoyang Hua,David W. Jang

Publicatie 21-08-2020


Exposure to cigarette smoke has been associated with a higher incidence of postoperative complications across a variety of surgical specialties. However, it is unclear if smoking increases this risk after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Because complication rates after ESS are relatively low, a large national database allows for a statistically meaningful study of this topic. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) dataset from 2005 to 2016 was analyzed. Patients who underwent ESS were identified. Thirty-day postoperative complication rates between smokers and nonsmokers were compared. Complications included infection, thromboembolic events, reintubation, readmission, acute renal failure, and cardiovascular events. 921 patients who underwent ESS were identified. 182 (20%) were smokers and 739 (80%) were nonsmokers. 609 patients underwent outpatient ESS, while 312 patients underwent inpatient ESS. A total of 12 patients experienced postoperative surgical site infections involving the deeper tissues beyond the wound (organ/space SSI). On univariate analysis, smoking was associated with a higher incidence of organ/space SSI ( This study demonstrates an association between exposure to cigarette smoke and potentially serious surgical site infections in the 30-day postoperative period after ESS. Our findings may help when counseling smokers who are considering ESS. Further study is required to understand the nature of these infections and ways to prevent them.Level of Evidence: 2c ("health outcomes").

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Displacement of a Total Ossicular Replacement Prosthesis Following Ossicular Chain Reconstruction

Aparna Govindan,Rohini R. Bahethi,Zachary G. Schwam,George B. Wanna

Publicatie 21-08-2020


Herein we describe the diagnosis and management of total ossicular replacement prosthesis (TORP) displacement following tympanoplasty with ossicular chain reconstruction (OCR). Case report with literature review. A 40-year-old male with otorrhea and tympanic membrane perforation underwent a right revision tympanoplasty with OCR using a TORP with a tragal chondroperichondrial graft. On postoperative day (POD) 4, he developed vertigo and profound right-sided hearing loss. Temporal bone computed tomography showed the prosthesis in the vestibule. After a steroid taper with mild improvement in symptoms, the TORP was removed two weeks later and the patient continued to improve. TORP displacement into the vestibule is a very rare complication following OCR. Conservative management with high dose steroids may improve symptoms, however further middle ear exploration and surgical management may be warranted depending on the depth of displacement into the inner ear as well as symptom severity.

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Left Ear Hearing Predicts Functional Activity in the Brains of Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease Dementia

Alana Aylward,Susan R. Naidu,Catherine Mellum,Jace B. King,Keith G. Jones,Jeffrey S. Anderson,Norman L. Foster,Richard K. Gurgel

Publicatie 21-08-2020


To determine whether central speech processing ability, as measured by hearing in noise, differs between right and left ears in adults with Alzheimer's disease related dementia (AD) as well as whether differences in central speech processing ability correlate with an fMRI-based measurement of global functional brain connectivity. This prospective study was carried out at a tertiary referral center. Patients with an AD diagnosis and pure tone averages 40 dB HL or better were included. They were examined using resting-state fMRI and underwent central audiometric testing using the Dichotic Sentence Identification Test (DSI), the Dichotic Digits Test (DD), and the Synthetic Sentence Identification Test (SS), which test hearing in noise. DSI scores were correlated with resting-state fMRI connectivity between 361 distinct gray matter brain regions of interest (ROIs). Average global connectivity was calculated as mean functional connectivity between an ROI and the other 360 regions, a quantitative marker representing overall functional connectivity in the brain. Sixteen subjects had adequate fMRI and hearing data. The average age was 71.5 years old (±6.0). The average DSI score for the left ear was 40% (±34%) compared to 90% (±10%) in the right ear ( Correlation was noted between left sided DSI and functional connectivity in patients with AD. Auditory input from the left ear was more susceptible to impairment, suggesting that side-specific auditory input may influence central auditory processing.

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Epithelioid Sarcoma of the Tongue: An Unusual Tumor Mimic for Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Aasif A. Kazi,Nima A. Vahidi,Austin B. Wiles,Evan R. Reiter

Publicatie 20-08-2020


Epithelioid sarcoma is a rare soft tissue malignancy that usually presents in the distal extremities along fascial planes, aponeuroses or tendon sheaths. Very rarely, it presents as a primary or metastatic lesion of the head neck. Chart review and comprehensive literature review using PubMed and Google Scholar. A 17-year-old non-smoker was referred for evaluation of an ulcerative lesion of the right anterior-lateral tongue, progressing over several months. Incisional biopsy was concerning for squamous cell carcinoma. He underwent partial glossectomy and bilateral selective neck dissections, with reconstruction using a radial forearm free flap. Final pathology was consistent with epithelioid sarcoma, proximal type, demonstrating perineural invasion and close margins. Post-operative PET scan showed no persistent nor metastatic disease. He underwent post-operative radiation therapy to a total dose of 56 Gy to the primary site. Epithelioid sarcoma is a rare malignancy usually presenting in the extremities of young adults, which uncommonly presents in the head and neck as a primary or metastatic lesion. The infrequency of these lesions has prevented development of evidence-based treatment recommendations. As with most sarcomas, surgery is the mainstay of therapy for epithelioid sarcoma, while radiation has been used in an adjunctive role. Although a rare lesion, epithelioid sarcoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis for atypical epithelioid lesions of the tongue and oral cavity when patient demographics, gross lesion characteristics, or histopathology are not entirely consistent with more common lesions, such as squamous cell carcinoma.

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Otolaryngology Match 2020-21: Survey of Prospective Applicants in the Setting of COVID-19

Said Izreig,Sina J. Torabi,David A. Kasle,Rahmatullah W. Rahmati,R. Peter Manes

Publicatie 20-08-2020


To capture the perspectives of candidates applying for otolaryngology residency positions in the 2020-21 cycle, in the context of disruption caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Candidates planning to apply to the otolaryngology 2020-21 match were invited to complete a cross-sectional online survey. Distribution was via otomatch.com and word of mouth. Descriptive statistics were performed. Of 85 eligible responses (estimated 18.9% of all applicants), many have had at least one board examination (71.8%) disrupted. A majority (85.9%) believe evaluation of candidates will change due to the pandemic, and 54.1% report they were now less confident in matching. Female applicants (37.6% of respondents) were found to have significantly higher odds of decreased confidence in matching (OR 2.781 [95% CI 1.045-7.4044]; We find that candidates believe their candidacy will be assessed differently in light of the COVID-19 pandemic, are largely less confident in successfully matching, and are planning to apply and interview more broadly. These data are relevant to otolaryngology residency leadership to inform clear dialogue and a smooth transition into an unprecedented application cycle.

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Dysphagia and Dysphonia, a Pairing of Symptoms Caused by an Unusual Pair of Diseases: Castleman’s Disease and Myasthenia Gravis

Ahmed Abdelmeguid,Rebecca Rojansky,Gerald J. Berry,Karuna Dewan

Publicatie 19-08-2020


To describe a case of coincident Castleman's disease and myasthenia gravis that initially presented as rapidly progressive dysphagia and dysphonia and to review the unique pathophysiology of these two uncommon diagnoses. Case report and literature review. Castleman's disease, angiofollicular or giant lymph node hyperplasia, is a rare benign lymphoid proliferation. Traditionally, the disease is classified based on histologic and clinical characteristics. Fewer than 10 cases with concurrent myasthenia gravis have been reported. Myasthenia gravis and thymic epithelial tumors are both associated with acetylcholine receptor antibody. While patients with isolated Castleman's disease are usually asymptomatic, those who have concurrent myasthenia gravis and undergo surgical treatment are at increased risk of postoperative myasthenic crisis. Both pre- and postoperative plasmapheresis are suggested to improve muscle strength and prevent severe postoperative complications. In the setting of multiple cranial neuropathies including velopalatal insufficiency and bilateral ptosis it is important to consider myasthenia gravis. Castleman's disease occurs rarely in conjunction with myasthenia gravis but may increase the risk of myasthenic crisis.

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Comments on “Cardiothoracic Patients with Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis: Pneumonia Rates Following Injection Laryngoplasty” by Tsai et al

Jason H. Barnes,Diana M. Orbelo,Michael F. Armstrong,Semirra L. Bayan,Christine M. Lohse,Dale C. Ekbom

Publicatie 19-08-2020


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Recorded Flexible Nasolaryngoscopy for Neonatal Vocal Cord Assessment in a Prospective Cohort

Stephen R. Chorney,Karen B. Zur,Adva Buzi,Margo K. McKenna Benoit,Sri K. Chennupati,Stacey Kleinman,Sara B. DeMauro,Lisa M. Elden

Publicatie 14-08-2020


Assessing vocal cord mobility by flexible nasolaryngoscopy (FNL) can be difficult in neonates. To date, prospective studies evaluating the incidence and diagnostic accuracy of vocal cord paralysis (VCP) after surgical patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) ligation are limited. It is unknown whether video FNL improves diagnosis in this population. This study compared video recordings with bedside evaluation for diagnosis of VCP and determined inter-rater reliability of the diagnosis of VCP in preterm infants after PDA ligation. Prospective cohort of preterm neonates undergoing bedside FNL within two weeks of extubation following PDA ligation. In a subset, FNL was recorded. Two pediatric otolaryngologists, blinded to the initial diagnosis, reviewed the FNL video recordings. Eighty infants were enrolled and 37 with a recorded FNL were included in the cohort. Average gestational age at birth was 25.2 weeks (SD: 1.2) and postmenstrual age at FNL was 37.0 weeks (SD: 4.5), which was 9.5 days (SD: 14.7) after extubation following PDA repair. There were 6 diagnosed with left VCP (16.2%; 95% CI: 4.3-28.1%) at bedside, and 9 diagnosed by video review (24.3%; 95% CI: 10.5-38.1%) ( Video recorded FNL most often confirms a bedside diagnosis of VCP, but may also identify discrepancies. Physicians should consider the limitations of diagnosis especially when infants persist with symptoms such as weak voice or signs of postoperative aspiration. 2b.

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Machine Learning in Laryngoscopy Analysis: A Proof of Concept Observational Study for the Identification of Post-Extubation Ulcerations and Granulomas

Felix Parker,Martin B. Brodsky,Lee M. Akst,Haider Ali

Publicatie 14-08-2020


Computer-aided analysis of laryngoscopy images has potential to add objectivity to subjective evaluations. Automated classification of biomedical images is extremely challenging due to the precision required and the limited amount of annotated data available for training. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have the potential to improve image analysis and have demonstrated good performance in many settings. This study applied machine-learning technologies to laryngoscopy to determine the accuracy of computer recognition of known laryngeal lesions found in patients post-extubation. This is a proof of concept study that used a convenience sample of transnasal, flexible, distal-chip laryngoscopy images from patients post-extubation in the intensive care unit. After manually annotating images at the pixel-level, we applied a CNN-based method for analysis of granulomas and ulcerations to test potential machine-learning approaches for laryngoscopy analysis. A total of 127 images from 25 patients were manually annotated for presence and shape of these lesions-100 for training, 27 for evaluating the system. There were 193 ulcerations (148 in the training set; 45 in the evaluation set) and 272 granulomas (208 in the training set; 64 in the evaluation set) identified. Time to annotate each image was approximately 3 minutes. Machine-based analysis demonstrated per-pixel sensitivity of 82.0% and 62.8% for granulomas and ulcerations respectively; specificity was 99.0% and 99.6%. This work demonstrates the feasibility of machine learning via CNN-based methods to add objectivity to laryngoscopy analysis, suggesting that CNN may aid in laryngoscopy analysis for other conditions in the future.

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Novel Use of Vitamin B2 as a Fluorescent Tracer in Aerosol and Droplet Contamination Models in Otolaryngology

Edward S. Sim,Harish Dharmarajan,Devi Sai Sri Kavya Boorgu,Lindsey Goyal,Michael Weinstock,Rachel Whelan,Monika E. Freiser,Timothy E. Corcoran,Noel Jabbour,Eric Wang,David H. Chi

Publicatie 14-08-2020


During the COVID-19 era, a reliable method for tracing aerosols and droplets generated during otolaryngology procedures is needed to accurately assess contamination risk and to develop mitigation measures. Prior studies have not investigated the reliability of different fluorescent tracers for the purpose of studying aerosols and small droplets. Objectives include (1) comparing vitamin B2, fluorescein, and a commercial fluorescent green dye in terms of particle dispersion pattern, suspension into aerosols and small droplets, and fluorescence in aerosolized form and (2) determining the utility of vitamin B2 as a fluorescent tracer coating the aerodigestive tract mucosa in otolaryngology contamination models. Vitamin B2, fluorescein, and a commercial fluorescent dye were aerosolized using a nebulizer and passed through the nasal cavity from the trachea in a retrograde-intubated cadaveric head. In another scenario, vitamin B2 was irrigated to coat the nasal cavity and nasopharyngeal mucosa of a cadaveric head for assessment of aerosol and droplet generation from endonasal drilling. A cascade impactor was used to collect aerosols and small droplets ≤14.1 µm based on average aerodynamic diameter, and the collection chambers were visualized under UV light. When vitamin B2 was nebulized, aerosols ≤5.4 µm were generated and the collected particles were fluorescent. When fluorescein and the commercial water tracer dye were nebulized, aerosols ≤8.61 µm and ≤2.08 µm respectively were generated, but the collected aerosols did not appear visibly fluorescent. Endonasal drilling in the nasopharynx coated with vitamin B2 irrigation yielded aerosols ≤3.30 µm that were fluorescent under UV light. Vitamin B2's reliability as a fluorescent tracer when suspended in aerosols and small droplets ≤14.1 µm and known mucosal safety profile make it an ideal compound compared to fluorescein and commercial water-based fluorescent dyes for use as a safe fluorescent tracer in healthcare contamination models especially with human subjects.

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Evidence of Mobile Applications in Otolaryngology Targeted at Patients

Steven Arild Wuyts Andersen,Wayne D. Hsueh

Publicatie 13-08-2020


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Comments on “Cardiothoracic Patients with Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis: Pneumonia Rates Following Injection Laryngoplasty”

Ming-Shao Tsai,Geng-He Chang,Yao-Te Tsai,Cheng-Ming Hsu

Publicatie 13-08-2020


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Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis Office versus Operating Room: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Sophia Chen,Joseph Connors,Yan Zhang,Binhuan Wang,Dorice Vieira,Yael Shapira-Galitz,David Garber,Milan R. Amin

Publicatie 12-08-2020


Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis can be treated in the office or operating room (OR). The choice of treatment is based on several factors, including patient and surgeon preference. However, there is little data to guide the decision-making. This study examines the available literature comparing operative treatment in-office versus OR. A systematic review was performed following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews guidelines. Of 2,864 articles identified, 78 were reviewed full-length and 18 were included. Outcomes of interest were recurrence and complication rates, number of procedures, time interval between procedures, and cost. Only one study compared outcomes of operative in-office to OR treatments. The weighted average complication rate for OR procedures was 0.02 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.00-0.32), n = 8, and for office procedures, 0.17 (95% CI 0.08-0.33), n = 6. The weighted average time interval between OR procedures was 10.59 months (5.83, 15.35) and for office procedures 5.40 months (3.26-7.54), n = 1. The weighted average cost of OR procedures was $10,105.22 ($5,622.51-14,587.83), n = 2 versus $2,081.00 ($1,987.64-$2,174.36), n = 1 for office procedures. Only one study compares office to OR treatment. The overall data indicate no differences aside from cost and imply that office procedures may be more cost-effective than OR procedures. However, the heterogeneous data limits any strong comparison of outcomes between office and OR-based treatment of laryngeal papillomas. More studies to compare the two treatment settings are warranted.

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Administration of 1% topical voriconazole drops was effective and safe in the treatment of refractory otomycosis without tympanic membrane perforation

Shoude Zhang,Mao Jin,Sunhong Hu,Yuejiao Zhang,Guojin Zhou

Publicatie 08-08-2020


Refractory otomycosis is a common condition that is difficult to treat. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of 1% topical voriconazole drops in the treatment of otomycosis. This retrospective analysis was conducted from November 2017 to November 2019. Patients who had refractory otomycosis without tympanic membrane perforation confirmed by microbial culture and fluorescent staining were included in the study. All patients were treated with 1% topical voriconazole drops hourly at daytime for 2 weeks. Evaluation of effectiveness was conducted 1 month after the completion of topical voriconazole treatment. Before and after topical voriconazole treatment, hearing tests were performed in all patients. Fifty-five patients were included in this study. The reasons for refractoriness were resistant recurrence to imidazole drugs (50 cases, 90.9%) and difficulty in cleaning the external auditory canal (5 cases, 9.1%). The most common strain was Administration of 1% topical voriconazole drops was effective and safe in the treatment of refractory otomycosis without tympanic membrane perforation within 2 weeks.

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Idiopathic Subglottic Stenosis during Pregnancy: A Support Group Survey

Hilary McCrary,Vanessa Torrecillas,Matthew Conley,Catherine Anderson,Marshall Smith

Publicatie 08-08-2020


(1) To determine how pregnancy affects idiopathic subglottic stenosis (iSGS) symptoms. (2) To determine treatments utilized (including operating room (OR) and in-office procedures) for iSGS before, during, and after pregnancy. A 24-question survey was distributed to an international iSGS support group to assess the patient experience among individuals who have been pregnant with diagnosis of iSGS. Descriptive statistics and chi A total of 413 iSGS patients participated; 84.7% (n = 350) of patients were diagnosed This survey reveals worsening of symptoms during pregnancy, however, this did not lead to increase in operative or clinic interventions to improve airway symptoms during pregnancy. Future avenues for research include optimizing management of airway symptoms during pregnancy to limit OR-based interventions. Level IV.

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The Postcricoid Cushion: An Unusual and Surgically Treatable Cause of Infant Aspiration

Joel W. Jones,Caitlin E. Fiorillo,Christine Clark,Nancy Bauman

Publicatie 08-08-2020


To highlight the importance of recognizing the postcricoid cushion as a surgically treatable cause of newborn aspiration in select cases unresponsive to conservative measures. A retrospective review was performed on a single case of neonatal aspiration at a tertiary care pediatric hospital. Resolution of aspiration was achieved in an otherwise healthy six-week old term infant following ablation of a postcricoid cushion using microlaryngeal instrumentation and coblation. Prior airway and swallowing evaluations, along with a trial of reflux therapy and pacing of feeds, preceded the surgical excision, successfully avoiding gastrostomy tube placement. Otolaryngology consults for neonatal dysphagia and aspiration are challenging. The postcricoid cushion is considered an anatomic variant that can engorge with crying. When large, it can prevent feeds from entering the esophagus and lead to pooling and aspiration. The postcricoid cushion is evident on flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy, but without a vigilant eye may be easily overlooked. This single case report suggests that surgical ablation may be effective management in select cases after ruling out concomitant aerodigestive pathology and neurodevelopmental causes of aspiration and only after conservative therapy has failed. A video demonstrating the surgical ablation is included.

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Neonatal Lateral Epiglottic Defects

Joseph D. Peterson,Vinay Goyal,Michael D. Puricelli,Aaron Thatcher,Richard J. Smith

Publicatie 08-08-2020


Multiple congenital abnormalities of the epiglottis have been reported and iatrogenic injuries to the larynx and subglottis are well known. We present a new pattern of defect not previously reported in the literature. Epiglottic abnormalities at two institutions are reviewed. Cases of defects involving the lateral aspect of the epiglottis and aryepiglottic fold are identified. A literature review of known epiglottic defects is performed. Two children possessing lateral notch injuries at the aryepiglottic attachment to the epiglottis are described. Both children have a history of multiple laryngeal instrumentation attempts and prolonged intubation. Both have swallowing difficulties and are gastrostomy dependent. Congenital epiglottic defects include aplasia and midline bifidity, however, no lateral congenital epiglottic defects have been reported. Epiglottic defects, while rare, should be part of the differential for children with aspiration and feeding difficulties. A new pattern of defect is described and iatrogenic etiology proposed.

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Transmastoid and Transtemporal Drainage of Petrous Apicitis with Otitis Media

Heba Isaac,Andrew Liu,Seiji B. Shibata,Marlan R. Hansen

Publicatie 08-08-2020


Petrous apicitis (PA) is a serious infection involving the apical portion of the petrous temporal bone. The classic triad of purulent otorrhea, ipsilateral abducens nerve palsy and retroorbital pain is rarely seen due to early detection and widespread use of antibiotics. Medical management is the primary treatment modality with surgery reserved for cases of recalcitrant petrous apex abscess. We presented a case of PA with previously untreated otitis media. After multidisciplinary evaluation, the patient was initially treated with intravenous antibiotics followed by drainage of the abscess using a combined transmastoid and middle cranial fossa (MCF) approach. The patient recovered well with no recurrence of the infection based on imaging and symptoms. While a variety of different surgical approaches can be used in treatment of PA, we recommend the MCF approach in cases where access to the anterior petrous apex may be challenging via transcanal or transmastoid approach.

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A Randomized Controlled Trial of Dexamethasone as a Prophylactic Treatment for Subglottic Stenosis in a Rabbit Model

Paul Wistermayer,Derek Escalante,Wesley McIlwain,Derek J. Rogers

Publicatie 04-08-2020


Iatrogenic injury is a common cause of subglottic stenosis (SGS). We investigated the role of pre-injury dexamethasone as a preventive treatment for iatrogenic subglottic stenosis. 16 New Zealand White rabbits were used in an IACUC approved study. Subjects were divided into two groups: intramuscular dexamethasone (DEX) at a dose of 2 mg/kg 15 minutes prior to an endoscopic injury to create SGS, and the same injury creation with a preoperative intramuscular saline (SAL) injection. Three independent, blinded raters evaluated endoscopic images to obtain cross sectional area (CSA) airway measurements. Rabbit airways were measured just prior to injury and at one week post-injury. All subjects were provided as-needed postoperative steroids and buprenorphine for symptoms of respiratory distress. Data analysis was performed using Student All subjects survived to the one-week post-injury airway evaluation. There was no difference in airway size between groups prior to injury ( This is the first study to examine the role of pre-injury glucocorticoids in preventing iatrogenic subglottic stenosis. In our model, a single dose of intramuscular dexamethasone given prior to a subglottic injury resulted in a statistically significant reduction in airway stenosis. This research suggests that administering systemic dexamethasone should be considered prior to any procedure that may injure the subglottis, including traumatic intubation, to prevent iatrogenic subglottic stenosis.

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Taste Dysfunction after Tonsillectomy: A Meta-analysis

Boo-Young Kim,So Jeong Lee,Ju Hyun Yun,Jung Ho Bae

Publicatie 01-08-2020


We aimed to provide information on the effects of tonsillectomy, in particular, its effects on taste dysfunction; also known as dysgeusia, and provide direction for future research in this area. We independently searched five databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, Embase, the Web of Science, and the Cochrane database) for related studies published as recently as December 2019. From the included studies, we reviewed the findings on tonsillectomy and taste disturbance through the use of a questionnaire, chemogustometry, and electrogustometry. We analyzed other conditions that were measured in these studies that included; postoperative pain intensity and other morbidities (eg, postoperative bleeding, hemostasis, tongue numbness and zinc, copper, and iron hemoglobin levels measured). Postoperative taste disturbance based on questionnaire (VAS) scores at 14 days (SMD = -0.31 [-0.50, -0.12], Tonsillectomy is a commonly performed surgery, and taste disturbance occurs frequently as a post operative effect. Taste dysfunction is important to patients with regard to their quality of life and the overall effects of taste on their day-to-day life. This study can be a useful meta-analysis of dysgeusia in tonsillectomy.

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Bedside Surgical Tracheostomy in the Intensive Care Unit during Covid-19 Pandemic

Filippo Di Lella,Edoardo Picetti,Giovanni Ciavarro,Giovanni Pepe,Laura Malchiodi,Giulia D’Angelo,Silvia Grossi,Sandra Rossi,Maurizio Falcioni

Publicatie 01-08-2020


To describe Otolaryngologists' perspective in managing COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring tracheostomy in the ICUs during the pandemic peak in a dramatic scenario with limited resources. Tertiary referral university hospital, regional hub in northern Italy during SARS CoV 2 pandemic peak (March 9th to April 10th, 2020). Technical description of open bedside tracheostomies performed in ICUs on COVID-19 patients during pandemic peak with particular focus on resource allocation and healthcare professionals coordination. A dedicated "airway team" was created in order to avoid transportation of critically ill patients and reduce facility contamination. During the COVID-19 pandemic, bedside minimally invasive tracheostomy in the ICU was selected by the Authors over conventional surgical technique or percutaneous procedures for both technical and operational reasons. Otolaryngologists' experience derived from direct involvement in 24 tracheostomies is reported. Tracheostomies on COVID-19 patients should be performed in a safe and standardized setting. The limited resources available in the pandemic peak required meticulous organization and optimal allocation of the resources to grant safety of both patients and healthcare workers.

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Adaptations of a Tertiary Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery Department in Singapore during the COVID-19 Outbreak

Anna See,Lih Khuang Go,Constance E. H. Teo,Neville Wei Yang Teo,Song Tar Toh

Publicatie 29-07-2020


The novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak which was first reported in Wuhan, China has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. Otorhinolaryngologists deal intimately with pathologies of the head and neck region and upper respiratory tract and have been reported as a vulnerable group of healthcare workers who may be more susceptible to COVID-19 nosocomial infection. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of the adaptations of Singapore's largest tertiary Otorhinolaryngology department during the COVID-19 outbreak. This was undertaken via an evidence-based approach. The relevant medical literature and evidence underlying our adaptations are highlighted. A four-pronged strategy including (1) personnel segregation, (2) triaging and decantment, (3) use of personal protective equipment and (4) changes in clinical practice was employed. The strategy was bolstered by drawing upon a collective learnt experience from the 2003 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak. A rigorous framework which can preserve operationality while navigating the heightened risks during this outbreak is critical for every Otorhinolaryngology department. As the pandemic continues to evolve and more scientific reports of this disease are made available, approaches will need to be morphed.

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Mega Fibula Free Flap for Reconstruction of an Extensive Mandibulofacial Defect

Chen Lin,Akina Tamaki,Enver Ozer

Publicatie 24-07-2020


Extensive mandibulofacial defects can be challenging to reconstruct. We present the case of a complex mandibulofacial defect reconstructed with a mega, chimeric fibula free flap. Ablation of the oral cavity tumor resulted in a large defect involving mandible, floor of mouth, and tongue. Skin of the chin and neck as well as the lower lip were also resected. A fibula free flap was harvested with the skin paddle involving most of the lateral compartment. The fibula free flap was split into proximal (80 cm The traditional fibula free flap skin paddle often does not provide sufficient soft tissue coverage for large mandibulofacial defects. Some surgeons opt to harvest a second free flap. We describe our technique for using the mega fibula free flap - one of the largest reported in the literature - as a single mode of reconstruction.

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Ostmann’s Fat Pad—Does it Really Matter?

Ameen Biadsee,Feda Fanadka,Or Dagan,Kassem Firas,Benny Nageris

Publicatie 23-07-2020


To compare the size of Ostmann's fat pad (OFP) between healthy ears and ears with chronic otitis media with cholestatoma (COMwC) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty-six patients with unilateral COMwC underwent mastoidectomy. Pre-operative MRI records were reviewed retrospectively. The healthy ears served as the control group. OFP is represented by the maximum diameter of the high intensity area medial to the tensor veli palatini muscle (TVP); M1. A reference diameter was defined from the medial border of OFP reaching the medial border of the medial pterygoid muscle; M2. Values of M1, M2 and the ratio of M1:M2 was compared between the healthy and pathological ear in each patient. All 26 patients (16 females,10 males) had unilateral cholestatoma. Mean age was 37.6 years (range 19-83). In the healthy ( The size of Ostmann's fat pad does not affect the development of chronic otitis media with cholestatoma in adults.

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Rationing Rotational Magnet Cochlear Implant Technology in a Single Payer Healthcare System

Justyn Pisa,Colin Andrews,Jordan B. Hochman

Publicatie 23-07-2020


In a publicly funded health care system, fiscally responsible management of any program is required. This is especially pertinent as evolving technology and associated incremental costs, places pressure on device availability within a fixed funding envelope. The application of rotational magnet technology and associated escalating surgical wait times must be justified to patients and the single-payer system. We present a single cochlear implant center's attempt at a rationing schema for magnetic resonance compatible cochlear implantation. Contrasting approaches to rationing care are evaluated and deliberated. Based on a comparison of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) rates within the general population to our cochlear implant (CI) cohort, we attempt the development of a decision-making schema that maximizes the number of patients to receive a CI while rationing the distribution of a rotational magnet technology to similarly situated individuals most likely to benefit. We elect to provide rotational magnet technology to select patient cohorts. This is based on the dominant imaging needs of these populations and the probability of requiring recurrent imaging studies. We consider this an ethical approach grounded in the egalitarian principle of equality of opportunity within cohorts of patients. Given finite resources, increasing per unit cost will unavoidably extend wait times for adult patients. Our approach does not afford similar implant devices for all patients, but rather all similarly situated individuals. Therefore, access to a scare medical resource requires program rigor and a formalized policy around candidacy for emergent technology.

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A Prospective Randomized Trial of N-butyl-cyanoacrylate + Metacryloxysulfolane Adhesive versus Suture Alone for Grafting in Rhinoplasty: 9 year Follow-up

Martino Carmine,Salzano Francesco,Martino Diletta,Ralli Massimo,De Vincentiis Marco,Maranzano Massimo,Greco Antonio,Salzano Giovanni,Di Stadio Arianna

Publicatie 22-07-2020


Use of cyanoacrylate glue in facial plastic surgery is still controversial due to the absence of long-term follow up showing the results. Aim of our study is comparing the long-term outcomes of N-butyl-cyanoacrylate + Metacryloxysulfolane versus traditional sutures in rhinoplasty. Prospective comparative study. One hundred forty-two patients affected by ptotic nasal tip were included and randomized in two groups. In group A, the surgeon fixed the graft by using the glue and suture and in group B by using the traditional suture only. The following data were collected and compared by statistical analysis: nasolabial angle before and after surgery, dimensions of the graft, duration time (in minutes) for graft application during the surgery, number of sutures applied to fix the graft, presence of post-surgery negative outcomes. All patients statistically improved their nasolabial angle after surgery (ANOVA: N-butyl-cyanoacrylate + Metacryloxysulfolane could be a valid tool to reduce the necessary number of sutures and to reduce the time required for graft fixation graft fixation with consistent results in long-term follow-up.

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“Office versus Operating Room – More to Discover”

Seth H. Dailey,Stephen Schoeff

Publicatie 22-07-2020


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Coupling Pressure Sensing with Optical Coherence Tomography to Evaluate the Internal Nasal Valve

Amir A. Hakimi,Giriraj K. Sharma,Tuan Ngo,Andrew E. Heidari,Christopher D. Badger,Prem B. Tripathi,Ellen M. Hong,Zhongping Chen,Brian J. F. Wong

Publicatie 18-07-2020


To evaluate endoscopic long-range optical coherence tomography system combined with a pressure sensor to concurrently measure internal nasal valve cross-sectional area and intraluminal pressure. A pressure sensor was constructed using an Arduino platform and calibrated using a limiter-controlled vacuum system and industrial absolute pressure gauge. Long-range optical coherence tomography imaging and pressure transduction were performed concurrently in the naris of eight healthy adult subjects during normal respiration and forced inspiration. The internal nasal valve was manually segmented using Mimics software and cross-sectional area was measured. Internal nasal valve cross-sectional area measurements were correlated with pressure recordings. Mean cross-sectional area during forced inspiration was 6.49 mm Our results demonstrate a direct correlation between internal nasal valve cross-sectional area and nasal airflow during inspiration cycles. Endoscopic long-range optical coherence tomography coupled with a pressure sensor serves as a useful tool to quantify the dynamic behavior of the internal nasal valve. N/A.

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Anastomosing Hemangioma of the Larynx: A Unicorn among Head and Neck Tumors

Rimlee Dutta,Aanchal Kakkar,Pirabu Sakthivel,Rajeev Kumar

Publicatie 18-07-2020


Anastomosing hemangioma (AH) is a novel tumor of vascular origin. Though well-documented in the kidney and retroperitoneum, only a single case has been documented in the head and neck, and AH in larynx has not been described. A 37-year-old male presented with difficulty in breathing, and hoarseness. Imaging revealed a lesion involving left paraglottic and cricothyroid spaces with destruction of cricoid cartilage, suggestive of a malignant cartilageneous neoplasm. Multiple biopsies were non-diagnostic. Intraoperative frozen section during transcervical resection showed a vascular tumor devoid of nuclear atypia. Histopathological examination revealed a vasoformative tumor comprised of anastomosing capillary-sized vessels lined by flat and hobnail endothelial cells, consistent with AH. The patient was disease-free at 12 months. AH are rare neoplasms that may mimic a malignancy on imaging, especially in sites where they have not been documented. Due to their vascular nature, biopsies are often non-diagnostic, making preoperative diagnosis difficult. Frozen section may assist in decision-making on the extent of resection required.

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Multidisciplinary Tracheostomy Quality Improvement in the COVID-19 Pandemic: Building a Global Learning Community

Chloe Swords,Lina Bergman,Rachel Wilson-Jeffers,Diane Randall,Linda L. Morris,Michael J. Brenner,Asit Arora

Publicatie 18-07-2020


To report experience with a global multidisciplinary tracheostomy e-learning initiative. An international multidisciplinary panel of experts convened to build a virtual learning community for tracheostomy care, comprising a web-based platform, five distance learning (interactive webinar) sessions, and professional discourse over 12 months. Structured pre- and post-webinar surveys were disseminated to global participants including otolaryngologists, intensivists, nurses, allied health professionals, and patients/caregivers. Data were collected on audio-visual fidelity, demographics, and pre- and post-tutorial assessments regarding experience and skill acquisition. Participants reported confidence levels for NICU, pediatric, adult, and family care, as well as technical skills, communication, learning, assessment, and subdomains. Participants from 197 institutions in 22 countries engaged in the virtual education platform, including otolaryngologists, speech pathologists, respiratory therapists, specialist nurses, patients, and caregivers. Significant improvements were reported in communication ( Virtual learning has dominated the education landscape during COVID-19 pandemic, but few data are available on its effectiveness. This study demonstrated feasibility of virtual learning for disseminating best practices in tracheostomy, engaging a diverse, multidisciplinary audience. Learning of complex technical skills proved a hurdle, however, suggesting need for hands-on experience for technical mastery. While interactive videoconferencing via webinar affords an engaging and scalable strategy for sharing knowledge, further investigation is needed on clinical outcomes to define effective strategies for experiential online learning and virtual in-service simulations.

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Prophylactic Flexible Bronchoscopy Immediately following Open Airway Reconstruction in Children

Regan C. Manayan,Erin K. Haser,Ameer T. Shah,Kayva L. Crawford,Mark A. Vecchiotti,Andrew R. Scott

Publicatie 16-07-2020


Prophylactic flexible bronchoscopy immediately following open airway reconstruction allows for directed clearance of the distal airways, potentially reducing the rate of certain postoperative respiratory complications. In this investigation, we sought to determine if prophylactic flexible bronchoscopy at the conclusion of pediatric open airway reconstruction has any benefit over blind flexible suctioning of the trachea. A retrospective, single-center study at an urban tertiary care hospital was completed. From January 2010 to April 2013, patients underwent open airway reconstruction, immediately followed by blind flexible suctioning of the trachea for distal airway clearance. From May 2013 through December 2016, sequential patients underwent prophylactic flexible bronchoscopy immediately following airway reconstruction. A total of 29 patients (age: 3.6 months-6.2 years) met inclusion criteria. Sixteen sequential patients underwent simple blind flexible suctioning and 13 sequential patients underwent directed, prophylactic flexible bronchoscopy. Demographics and comorbidities between the groups were equivalent other than slightly older age in the prophylactic bronchoscopy group. All clinical outcomes analyzed were equivalent other than faster time to room air ( This investigation suggests that the use of prophylactic flexible bronchoscopy immediately following open airway reconstruction may not be superior to blind flexible suctioning of the trachea in limiting postoperative pulmonary complications. Further studies of greater power are needed to better elucidate any small differences that may exist between these two interventions.

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Book Review: Pediatric Audiology Casebook

Mahindra Ramdhanie

Publicatie 16-07-2020


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Outpatient Parotidectomy: A Retrospective Series

Margaret C. Michel,Collin F. Mulcahy,Daniel A. Benito,Sahil Patel,Christopher Badger,Sean Kane,Ning-Wei Li,Joseph F. Goodman,Punam G. Thakkar,Arjun S. Joshi

Publicatie 16-07-2020


Recent literature suggests that outpatient head and neck surgery is safe and may decrease costs. This study assesses whether outpatient parotidectomy differs in complication type and rate from inpatient surgery. Patients who underwent parotidectomy at our institution from 2011 to 2019 were retrospectively reviewed and divided by inpatient or outpatient status. Complications including infection, seroma, salivary fistula, hematoma, and flap necrosis, as well as readmission rates were tabulated. Drain placement, related to tumor size, was also analyzed using a receiver operating curve. 144 patients had available data for analysis. Nine of the 144 patients had complications. Seven of 98 outpatients and two of 46 inpatients had complications. There was no statistically significant difference in complication rate between the two groups ( Outpatient parotidectomy is a safe and viable alternative for carefully selected patients.

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Mobile Applications in Otolaryngology: A Systematic Review of the Literature, Apple App Store and the Google Play Store

Eleonora M. C. Trecca,Antonio Lonigro,Matteo Gelardi,Brandon Kim,Michele Cassano

Publicatie 13-07-2020


Although the last few years have seen an increased number of smartphone applications (apps) disseminated in the field of Otolaryngology (ORL), these apps vary widely in quality. The aim of this paper, therefore, is to systematically review ORL apps directed towards patients in mobile app stores and the current literature. The Google Play Store, Apple App Store and PubMed were searched for ORL apps for patients using various keywords pertaining to different ORL subspecialties. Apps not relevant to the scope of this research and/or duplicates, educational apps, apps promoting a business, apps requiring specific separate hardware, and apps in non-English were excluded. In PubMed, keywords pertaining to the subspecialties were combined with "mobile app" in a search query; literature reviews, editorials, case reports, conference papers, duplicate articles, and articles irrelevant to ORL apps were excluded. The quality of apps with the highest number of reviews was assessed using the "Mobile App Rating Scale" (MARS), while the quality of the articles was rated using "The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology" (STROBE) Statement. After searching the app stores, 1074 apps were included and grouped according to their ORL subspecialties. The overall MARS score of the ten most popular apps in each category was 3.65 out of 5. A total of 636 articles were identified in the literature, and 193 were included. The mean adherence percentage of the articles to the STROBE checklist was of 84.37%. Although the apps currently available need further development, their application in ORL appears promising. Further dialogue between physicians and patients, as well as formal support from professional and scientific associations, should be encouraged.

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Neurosarcoidosis Directly Involving the Cervical Vagus Nerve

Jason R. Crossley,Nathan Aminpour,Jonathan P. Giurintano,Ann K. Jay,Brent T. Harris,Michael Hoa

Publicatie 13-07-2020


To present a novel location in which neurosarcoidomatous inflammation is identified and its accompanying presentation. The authors present a case of bilateral vocal fold paresis associated with non-caseating granulomatous inflammation of the cervical and intra-axial portions of the vagus nerve masquerading as a cranial nerve tumor. Examination revealed bilateral vocal fold paresis and asymmetric palate elevation. MRI demonstrated enhancing bilateral jugular foramen masses, and neck ultrasound demonstrated bilateral thickened appearance of the vagus nerves. Vagus nerve biopsy demonstrated non-caseating granulomas. Neurosarcoidosis may contribute to variable cranial neuropathies. Vocal fold paresis is usually thought to arise from mediastinal compression of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve. Rarely, though, lesions may arise in other parts of the vagus nerve. Failure of response to steroids does not rule out the diagnosis, making tissue diagnosis important in some cases.

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Telemedicine in Otolaryngology: A Systematic Review of Image Quality, Diagnostic Concordance, and Patient and Provider Satisfaction

Anne Y. Ning,Claudia I. Cabrera,Brian D’Anza

Publicatie 13-07-2020


Telemedicine allows for the remote delivery of patient care and has been found to have a wide range of uses in otolaryngology. In order to achieve best practices in telemedicine, a platform must be effective and both patients and providers must be satisfied with the use of technology. As telemedicine becomes more widely used in otolaryngology clinics, particularly in the face of the current COVID-19 pandemic, it is important to assess its applicability in this field. The goal of this study was to evaluate existing literature on telemedicine and assess overall image quality, diagnostic concordance, and patient and provider satisfaction with telemedicine technologies. A systematic review was conducted on PubMed and MEDLINE according to the PRISMA 2009 guidelines for articles from 1982 to 2019 relating to telemedicine in otolaryngology. English language studies with primary or secondary endpoints pertaining to image quality, diagnostic concordance, or patient or provider satisfaction were included. Descriptive studies, editorials, and literature reviews were excluded. A total of 32 studies were included in our review. Studies assessing imaging quality and diagnostic concordance reported adequate results but with some heterogeneity. Patient and provider satisfaction were consistently high. The literature supports telemedicine delivery of otorhinolaryngologic care as having achieved high rates of patient and provider satisfaction with adequate image quality and heterogeneity in diagnostic concordance. Variability in diagnostic accuracy was reported, but appears improved given proper clinical context. More standardized studies are needed specific to telemedicine in the field of otolaryngology.

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Age-related Change of the Dimensions of the Cricoid Cartilage in Adults

Shiqing Liu,Lili Cheng,Wenxu Qi,Xin Zhang,Youjing Dong

Publicatie 10-07-2020


To measure the dimensions of the cricoid cartilage in adults and to investigate the age-related change of the dimensions of the cricoid cartilage. After performing the multiplanar reconstruction and correcting the slant of the cervical computed tomography scans, the transverse and anteroposterior internal diameters of the inlet (TD-in and APD-in) and outlet (TD-out and APD-out) of the cricoid cartilage were measured, respectively. The angle between the arch and lamina of the cricoid cartilage in the middle sagittal plane was measured. The ratios of transverse to anteroposterior diameter for the inlet (Ratio-in) and outlet (Ratio-out) of the cricoid cartilage were calculated, respectively. A total of 1200 adults were included in this study, with 600 males and 600 females. The TD-in is the smallest cricoid diameter and the APD-in is the largest cricoid diameter. The mean cricoid diameters and the cricoid angle in males were larger than those in females. The cricoid inlet is oval shaped and the cricoid cartilage is "funnel-shaped" in the middle sagittal plane. The shape of the outlet of the cricoid cartilage varies greatly among individuals. In males, the APD-in and APD-out were negatively correlated with age while the Ratio-in and Ratio-out was positively correlated with age. In females, the APD-out were negatively correlated with age while the Ratio-out was negatively correlated with age. The dimensions of the cricoid cartilage change as age advances in adult population and the sexual dimorphism of the cricoid outlet occurs after 50 years old.

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Book Review: Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Surgery: A Practical Guide

Viraj M. Patel

Publicatie 10-07-2020


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Factors Associated with Refractory Nasal Congestion Following Adenoidectomy

Aneesh Patel,Christopher D. Brook,Jessica R. Levi

Publicatie 10-07-2020


The objective of this study was to better characterize factors associated with refractory rhinitis in pediatric patients who underwent adenoidectomy compared to those who had symptom resolution. The authors conducted a case series of patients younger than 18 years old who underwent adenoidectomy at Boston Medical Center from October 2012 to December 2018. Patients who underwent tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy or who underwent adenoidectomy for indications other than rhinitis were excluded. Patients who had refractory rhinitis symptoms postoperatively were compared to those who had resolution of their symptoms using Chi-square analysis and One hundred three patients who had refractory symptoms following adenoidectomy were compared to 139 patients who had resolution of symptoms. Patients who had refractory symptoms had significantly higher proportion of use (89.3%, Use and number of preoperative medications, reported history of allergies, and postoperative allergy evaluation were significantly higher in patients with refractory chronic rhinitis following adenoidectomy. This study identified differences in patients who developed refractory symptoms that may help clinical decision making for surgical management.

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Relationship between Insurance Type and Delays in Tympanostomy Tube Placement

Marissa Schwartz,Rhea Shah,Martha Wetzel,Nikhila Raol

Publicatie 07-07-2020


To investigate the role of insurance carriers and changes in insurance on rates of cancelation and rescheduling of tympanostomy tube surgery. Retrospective cohort study between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2018 at a single tertiary care academic pediatric otolaryngology practice of pediatric patients (≤18 years) who underwent tympanostomy tube placement for any indication. Patients had to have insurance providers recorded both at clinic visit and at the time of surgery. Rates of cancelation and postponement of tympanostomy tube placement were assessed. Logistic regression was performed to determine factors associated with cancelation or postponement of surgery. Of the 5080 patients, 2961 patients had Medicaid and 2012 patients had private insurance at the time of surgery. A total of 197 (3.96%) patients switched insurance between clinic appointment and date of surgery. Time to surgery was nearly 2 weeks more for those who had a change in insurance vs. those who did not (33 vs. 20 days, Difference in insurance carrier and loss/change of insurance appear to be associated with delays in tympanostomy tube placement. Standardization of re-enrollment schedules across insurance providers or a single payer model may be useful in addressing these delays in care.

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Book Review: Manual of Pediatric Balance Disorders

Alanna Windsor

Publicatie 04-07-2020


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Outcome of Endoscopic Optic Nerve Decompression for Traumatic Optic Neuropathy

Jingwen Sun,Xiaojing Cai,Wentao Zou,Jiaxiong Zhang

Publicatie 04-07-2020


This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of endoscopic optic nerve decompression (EOND) for adults with traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) and seek factors that might affect surgery outcomes. From January 2016 to June 2019, 16 adults diagnosed with TON, who underwent endoscopic trans-ethmosphenoid optic canal decompression, were reviewed. All the patients were treated with steroids before the surgery. The main outcome measure was an improvement in visual acuity (VA) after treatment. Eight (50.0%) patients had residual vision before the surgery, while eight (50.0%) had no light perception. After surgical decompression, partial recovery of VA was achieved in three (18.75%) patients who were operated within 10 days and had residual vision before the surgery. However, no improvement in VA was observed for the remaining patients (81.25%) who were operated more than 10 days after injuries. EOND is beneficial for TON not responding to steroid therapy and can prevent permanent disability if earlier intervention is done prior to irreversible damage to the nerve. Endoscopic optic nerve surgery can decompress the traumatic and edematous optic nerve with proper exposure of optic canal and orbital apex without any major complications. The operation timing and residual vision are important factors affecting outcomes.

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Comparison of Open and Endoscopic Approaches in the Resection of Esthesioneuroblastoma

Gregory L. Barinsky,Monica C. Azmy,Suat Kilic,Jordon G. Grube,Soly Baredes,Wayne D. Hsueh,Jean Anderson Eloy

Publicatie 04-07-2020


Olfactory neuroblastoma, or esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB), is an uncommon sinonasal malignancy arising from olfactory neuroepithelium that is optimally treated with surgical resection. The objective of this study is to determine preoperative predictors of undergoing open versus endoscopic approach for ENB and to investigate significant postoperative survival outcomes between the two surgical approaches. The National Cancer Database (NCDB) was queried for cases of ENB histology that were treated surgically from 2010 to 2015. Groups were stratified into open or endoscopic approach cohorts. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, treatment modality, and 5-year overall survival were compared between the two groups using Chi-Square analysis and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Cases were classified as Kadish stage A, B, C, or D based on the "Collaborative Stage-Extension" codes in NCDB. Of 533 patients meeting inclusion criteria, 276 (51.8%) patients underwent open, and 257 (48.2%) patients underwent endoscopic surgical approaches. Patients undergoing endoscopic surgery were more likely to be Kadish stages A and B and less likely to be stages C and D ( Although not statistically significant, there is a trend toward increased overall survival with an endoscopic approach in patients undergoing surgery for ENB as compared to an open approach, regardless of Kadish stage. An endoscopic approach is an adequate alternative to an open approach for the surgical treatment of ENB.

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Reporting of Research by Matched Otolaryngology Residency Applicants

Aatin K. Dhanda,Brittany Ward,Christopher J. Warren,Ben Birkenfeld,Kirolos Georges,Varun Taruvai,Boris Paskhover

Publicatie 04-07-2020


Matching to an otolaryngology residency program is a competitive process for medical students, and research performed by students is considered as a factor for granting interviews by program directors. Because abstracts, presentations and publications are all reported in combination by the National Resident Matching Program's "Charting Outcomes in the Match" (ChOM) and may be weighted differently by PDs, we specifically investigated the number of publications by past applicants accepted to top otolaryngology residency programs. The top 25 otolaryngology residency programs were identified using Doximity, sorting by reputation. Current residents were determined from the programs' websites. Using PubMed, each resident's number of publications, authorship status, and journal type were recorded. A total of 24 programs were included in the final analysis and the average number of manuscripts was 2.76 ± 4.01. The mean number of publications in otolaryngology journals was 1.03 ± 1.91. The difference between the investigated average number of publications (2.76) and those published by ChOM (10.4) represent a discrepancy due to the lack of delineation between abstracts, presentations and publications. The reported numbers for research may lead medical students to pursue alternate measures to increase their own research. Some options, such as adding a research year are not universally accessible. A clearer and more detailed approach to reporting research statistics would be beneficial to both applicants and PDs for otolaryngology programs.

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Prospective Evaluation of a Smartphone Otoscope for Home Tympanostomy Tube Surveillance: A Pilot Study

Debra M. Don,Jeffrey A. Koempel,Laurel M. Fisher,Choo Phei Wee,Beth Osterbauer

Publicatie 04-07-2020


Recent technological advances have led to the capability of performing high resolution imaging of the tympanic membrane. Smartphone technologies and applications have provided the opportunity to capture digital images and easily share them. The smartphone otoscope device was developed as a simple system that can convert a smartphone into a digital otoscope. This device has the prospective ability to improve physician-patient communication and assist with the diagnosis and management of ear disease. Our objective was to evaluate the feasibility and physician/parental satisfaction using the Cellscope® smartphone attachment for at home tympanostomy tube monitoring. Children between 6 months and 15 years of age at an urban tertiary children's hospital that were scheduled for bilateral tympanostomy tube insertion or underwent bilateral tympanostomy tube surgery were prospectively enrolled in the study. Comparisons were made between parental home-recorded videos and findings during in-office otoscopy. Two independent otolaryngologists reviewed the videos and concordance between inter-rater agreements was calculated. Acceptability and use questionnaires were administered to physicians and parents. There was good intra-rater agreement between traditional otoscopy and video-otoscopy for tube extruding, tube blocked and tube extruded with at least 80% agreement ( The CellScope® smartphone is feasible for use in tympanostomy tube surveillance. Use of the device may allow otolaryngologists to easily follow a child's tympanostomy tube remotely over time and offer greater parental satisfaction.

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Systematic Review of Negative Pressure Pulmonary Edema in Otolaryngology Procedures

Corina Din-Lovinescu,Usha Trivedi,Kathy Zhang,Gregory L. Barinsky,Jordon G. Grube,Jean Anderson Eloy,Wayne D. Hsueh

Publicatie 04-07-2020


Negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) is a rare perioperative complication with a potentially fatal outcome. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of NPPE in adult otolaryngology procedures with the goal of identifying risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis, management and outcomes. Systematic review performed using PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases. Sixty-nine studies including data from 87 individual patients were included in this review. Fifty-six (68%) patients were male and the average patient age was 37 years old. Type 1 NPPE occurred in 63 (72%) cases, while type 2 NPPE accounted for 20 (23%) cases. The most common procedures leading to NPPE were septoplasty, rhinoplasty or sinus surgery (n = 22, 25%), directly laryngoscopy or bronchoscopy (n = 13, 15%), and tracheostomy or cricothyroidotomy (n = 11, 13%). The most employed treatment options included diuretics (n = 55, 63%) and mechanical ventilation (n = 54, 62%). Seventy-eight (90%) patients made a full recovery with an average time to NPPE resolution of 33 hours and an average length of hospitalization of 5.6 days. Five (6%) patients had a long-term morbidity and four (5%) patients died, with age and ICU stay increasing risk for death and long-term morbidity (OR 1.044 and 7.42, respectively, Septoplasty, rhinoplasty and sinus surgery account for the majority of NPPE cases in adult otolaryngology procedures. Young, healthy patients are the most commonly involved with a slight male predominance. The vast majority of patients recover fully, however there is a significant risk for morbidity and mortality.

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KTP Laser Treatment of Early Glottic Cancer: A Multi-Institutional Retrospective Study

Noah P. Parker,Mark S. Weidenbecher,Aaron D. Friedman,Brian A. Walker,David G. Lott

Publicatie 04-07-2020


The primary objectives were to report oncologic outcomes of transoral laser microsurgery with potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) laser (TLM-KTP) ablation of early glottic cancer (EGC). The secondary objectives were to report vocal outcomes and to analyze factors that might influence outcomes. A multi-institutional, retrospective analysis of consecutive patients treated for T1 or T2 glottic squamous cell carcinoma undergoing TLM-KTP ablation with at least 2 years of follow-up was performed. Patients with prior radiation or surgery for laryngeal disease were excluded. surgical failures requiring radiation or laryngectomy, disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS). Secondary outcome measures included: pre- and postoperative Voice Handicap Index-10 (VHI-10) scores. The effects of smoking status, stage, and anterior commissure involvement on outcomes were analyzed. Overall 88 patients met inclusion criteria (83% male, 79.5% current or former smokers). Mean age was 68 (standard deviation (SD): 12). Mean follow-up was 39.5 months (SD: 15.3). Staging included 50 T1a, 21 T1b, and 20 T2 tumors, including three metachronous second primaries. Radiation and/or laryngectomy avoidance was achieved in 87/88 (98.9%) of patients, inclusive of 24 patients requiring KTP re-treatments. Two patients had biopsy-proven recurrence (2.3%), but only 21 of 24 re-treated patients received a formal biopsy. No patients died from laryngeal cancer. DSS and OS were 100% and 92.3%, respectively. The mean VHI-10 scores were 19.3 preoperatively, 3.8 at 6-months postop, and 3.8 at 2-years postop. Smokers had a longer interval to re-treatment ( A multi-institutional, retrospective case series of TLM-KTP ablation of EGC demonstrated excellent oncologic outcomes when close surveillance and proactive re-treatments were utilized. Disease-specific survival, overall survival, and vocal function were excellent. Additional studies are necessary to further analyze the merits and risks of this treatment approach.

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Cryptococcal Anterior Glottic Web from Disseminated Infection Presenting as Confusion: A Case Report

Erica Haught,Christopher Roberts,Jason McChesney

Publicatie 04-07-2020


To educate healthcare providers on An extensive review of the patient's clinical course was assessed including patient presentation, diagnostic techniques, medical and surgical treatment, and complications. Prolonged Fluconazole therapy and two excisions of the glottic web, the second with keel placement, was an effective treatment course for our patient. Cryptococcal glottic webs are rare, and this case report demonstrates successful treatment in one such case with operative intervention following medical management of disseminated disease.

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Predicting Nasal Soft Tissue Envelope Thickness for Rhinoplasty: A Model Based on Visual Examination of the Nose

Jacob K. Dey,Chelsey A. Recker,Michael D. Olson,Andrew J. Bowen,Grant S. Hamilton

Publicatie 04-07-2020


Predicting nasal soft tissue envelope (STE) thickness is an important component of the preoperative evaluation for rhinoplasty that presently lacks validated tools. Assess for patient facial features and factors that can help predict nasal STE thickness. Retrospective review and prospective assessment conducted at an academic tertiary referral center. This study included 190 adult patients and four expert raters. The patients had high-resolution maxillofacial CT scans and standardized facial photographs on file and did not have a history of nasal fracture, septal perforation, rhinoplasty, or other surgery or medical conditions altering nasal form. Assess each face for features that could help predict nasal STE thickness: sebaceous quality of skin, visibility of nasal tip cartilages, presence of freckles, presence of telangiectasias, Fitzpatrick skin type, patient age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Measure actual nasal STE thickness using high-resolution CT scans. Analyze which facial features and patient factors help predict nasal STE thickness. Pearson correlations were calculated between actual nasal STE thickness and patient facial features and factors. These showed that more sebaceous skin, telangiectasias, higher Fitzpatrick skin type, male sex, and higher BMI were associated with a thicker nasal STE. Increased visibility of nasal tip cartilages, freckles, lower Fitzpatrick skin type, female sex, and lower BMI were associated with a thinner nasal STE. There are patient facial features and factors that can help surgeons predict nasal STE thickness before rhinoplasty. An accurate prediction of nasal STE thickness can improve preoperative planning for rhinoplasty, allowing implementation of pre-, intra-, and post-operative treatments to optimize the nasal STE, which may ultimately improve patient outcomes and satisfaction.

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Cochlear Implantation as a Treatment for Sudden Autoimmune Sensorineural Hearing Loss in a Patient Affected by Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis: A Case Report and A Review of Literature

Tommaso Cacco,Eolo Castello,Frank Rikki Mauritz Canevari,Andrea Laborai,Alessandra Grillone,Diego Zanetti,Giorgio Peretti

Publicatie 02-07-2020


To report presentation, diagnostic process, management and outcome of a case of autoimmune inner ear disease (AIED) related with Churg-Strauss syndrome, also known as eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), treated with cochlear implantation, and review of relevant literature. A retrospective case report of AIED associated with EGPA treated with cochlear implantation was described. A multi-step approach for diagnosis and confirmation of AIED and hearing rehabilitation was conducted, eventually leading to left cochlear implantation. The surgery was without complications and postoperative course was uneventful. Two years after surgery, pure-tone and speech soundfield audiometry with left cochlear implant switched on showed a good improvement in pure-tone threshold and a word recognition score of 50% at 60 dB nHL. Literature review does not report any previous case of AIED EGPA-related. Cochlear implantation in AIED EGPA-related have been shown to be a viable treatment option in a stabilized phase of disease.

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Occult Metastasis in Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Daniel D. Sharbel,Mary Abkemeier,Michael W. Groves,William G. Albergotti,J. Kenneth Byrd,Camilo Reyes-Gelves

Publicatie 01-07-2020


The incidence of occult metastasis (OM) in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is still widely debated. In this systematic review, we aim to determine the rate of OM in laryngeal SCC, its impact on recurrence, and the role of elective neck dissection (END) in the management of the clinically negative neck. A systematic review of the English-language literature in Web of Science, PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Library databases on occult metastasis in laryngeal SCC from 1977 to 2018 was conducted. Studies evaluating occult metastasis (OM) in patients with laryngeal SCC with clinically negative necks undergoing surgery were included. Studies evaluating other head and neck subsites, clinically node positive, and salvage patients were excluded. Twenty-one articles with a total of 5630 patients were included. The overall rate of OM was 20.5% and was 23% and 12.2% in supraglottic and glottic tumors, respectively. The OM rate in T1-T2 tumors was 13% and 25% in T3-T4 tumors. T3-T4 tumors had significantly greater odds of developing OM compared to T1-T2 tumors (Odds Ratio [OR] = 2.61, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.92-3.55, Patients with advanced T-stage laryngeal SCC should undergo elective neck treatment. More aggressive treatment for patients with history of OM should be considered due to the risk of subsequent regional and distant metastasis. II.

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The Medially-Invasive Cholesteatoma: An Aggressive Subtype of a Common Pathology

Geoffrey Casazza,Matthew L. Carlson,Clough Shelton,Richard K. Gurgel

Publicatie 30-06-2020


Describe the outcomes of treatment for patients with cholesteatomas that are medially invasive to the otic capsule, petrous apex, and/or skull base. Retrospective case series. Two tertiary care academic centers. Patients surgically managed for medially-invasive cholesteatoma at two tertiary care institutions from 2001 to 2017. Surgical management of medially-invasive cholesteatomas. The presenting symptoms, imaging, pre- and post-operative clinical course, and complications were reviewed. Seven patients were identified. All patients had pre-operative radiographic evidence of invasive cholesteatoma with erosion into the otic capsule beyond just a lateral semicircular canal fistula. Five patients had a complex otologic history with multiple surgeries for recurrent cholesteatoma including three with prior canal wall down mastoidectomy surgeries. Average age at the time of surgery was 41.3 years (range 20-83). Two patients underwent a hearing preservation approach to the skull base while all others underwent a surgical approach based on the extent of the lesion. Facial nerve function was maintained at the pre-operative level in all but one patient. No patient developed cholesteatoma recurrence. The medially-invasive cholesteatoma demonstrates an aggressive, endophytic growth pattern, invading into the otic capsule or through the perilabyrinthine air cells to the petrous apex. Surgical resection remains the best treatment option for medially-invasive cholesteatoma. When CSF leak is a concern, a subtotal petrosectomy with closure of the ear is often necessary.

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Allergic Fungal Sinusitis Imitating an Aggressive Skull Base Lesion in the Setting of Pembrolizumab Immunotherapy

Natalie A. Krane,Daniel M. Beswick,David Sauer,Kara Detwiller,Maisie Shindo

Publicatie 29-06-2020


We report a case of acutely worsening allergic fungal sinusitis in a patient receiving immunotherapy with pembrolizumab, a programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) inhibitor. A 53-year-old man with a history of metastatic melanoma and recent initiation of pembrolizumab therapy presented with acutely worsening headaches, left abducens nerve palsy, and neuroimaging demonstrating an erosive skull base lesion with bilateral cavernous sinus involvement. Intraoperative findings were consistent with non-invasive allergic fungal sinus disease. Microbiology and histopathologic data ruled out malignancy and demonstrated Aspergillus fumigatus without concern for angioinvasion. After treatment with antifungal therapy, the patient's symptoms and abducens nerve palsy resolved. Symptoms were well-controlled 7 months after his initial presentation. Inflammatory sinusitis in patients receiving anti-PD-1 therapy may be secondary to T-cell infiltration, a similar pathophysiology as immune-related adverse events, and warrants appreciation by otolaryngologists given our increasing exposure to immunotherapy and its head and neck manifestations.

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Effect of Low-Pressure Drainage Suction on Pharyngocutaneous Fistula After Total Laryngectomy

Mojtaba Maleki Delarestaghi,Aslan Ahmadi,Fatemeh Dehghani Firouzabadi,Maryam Roomiani,Mohammad Dehghani Firouzabadi,Zhaleh Faham

Publicatie 29-06-2020


Pharyngocutaneous fistula (PCF) is one of the most severe multifactorial complications following laryngectomy. The current study aimed at determining the effect of a low-pressure vacuum drain on the incidence of PCF after total laryngectomy. The current randomized clinical trial was conducted on 35 patients undergoing total laryngectomy in Hazrat Rasoul Akram and Firoozgar hospitals in Tehran, Iran. The subjects were divided into the vacuum drain (n = 15) and control (without vacuum drain) (n = 20) groups. The incidence of PCF and the recovery time were recorded. The rate of PCF formation from the stoma and wound edges was significantly lower in the low-pressure vacuum drain group than in the control group (6.7% vs 40%) ( The low-pressure vacuum drain method is effective in reducing the incidence of PCF after total laryngectomy.

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Letter to the Editor Regarding “Caudal Septal Division and Interposition Batten Graft: A Novel Technique to Correct Caudal Septal Deviation in Septoplasty”

Amir Arvin Sazgar

Publicatie 27-06-2020


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COVID-19 and Total Laryngectomy—A Report of Two Cases

Alberto Paderno,Milena Fior,Giulia Berretti,Francesca Del Bon,Alberto Schreiber,Alberto Grammatica,Davide Mattavelli,Alberto Deganello

Publicatie 25-06-2020


To date, no cases have been reported on the effects of COVID-19 in laryngectomees. We herein presented two clinical cases of laryngectomized patients affected by COVID-19, detailing their clinical course and complications. In our experience, permanent tracheostomy did not significantly affect the choice of treatment. However, dedicated devices and repeated tracheal toilettes may be needed to deal with oxygen-therapy-related tracheal crusting. In conclusion, laryngectomees should be considered a vulnerable population that may be at risk for worse outcomes of COVID-19 due to anatomical changes in their airways. The role of the ENT specialist is to guide airway management and inform the support-staff regarding specific needs of these patients.

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Composite Cartilage-osseous-mucosal Nasoseptal Flap for Reconstruction after Near Total Rhinectomy

Karthik S. Shastri,Yufan Lin,Jessica Scordino,Carlos D. Pinheiro-Neto

Publicatie 24-06-2020


Reconstruction of full thickness nasal defects usually requires different donor sites for the external skin envelope, structural elements, and internal nasal lining. In this paper we present a novel single site method for dual inner lining and skeleton repair for full thickness nasal defects with a composite nasoseptal flap and extended pedicle dissection. A 72-year-old male presented with a T4b melanoma involving the nasal dorsum and left upper lateral cartilage. Following full thickness resection, reconstruction was performed with a nasoseptal flap (NSF) with attached septal cartilage and vomer in conjunction with a paramedian forehead flap. Extended pedicle dissection into the pterygopalatine fossa allowed the NSF to fully cover the defect. The nasal defect was fully corrected. There was no evidence of flap compromise or nasal valve stenosis at 1 month, 2 month, and 1 year follow-up visits. We present here the first successful application of a composite cartilage-osseous-mucosal NSF for multilayered nasal reconstruction. In appropriate patients, this technique may obviate the need for flaps or grafts from extranasal sources, limiting donor site morbidity.

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Analysis of Characteristics and Survival of Primary Cutaneous Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

Sara Behbahani,David W. Wassef,Roman Povolotskiy,Jessica Pinto,Nia Joseph,Boris Paskhover

Publicatie 22-06-2020


Primary cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma (PCACC) is a rare skin tumor. The head and neck (H&N) is the most common anatomical location. Due to limited published cases, its clinical course and management are not well understood. The National Cancer Database (NCDB) was queried for all cases of H&N PCACC diagnosed from 2004 to 2016. Kaplan-Meier (KM) and Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine clinicopathological and treatment factors associated with survival outcomes. A total of 201 cases were analyzed. The average age of diagnosis was 57.7 years (± SD 15.8). There was a female predilection (57.7%; This study represents the largest cohort of H&N PCACC studied to date and provides important clinicopathologic information for this rare tumor. Additionally, our results emphasize the importance of health insurance as an independent predictor of survival in PCACC.

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First Bite Syndrome Following Rhytidectomy: A Case Report

Anne E. Gunter,Charles M. Llewellyn,Paloma B. Perez,Marc H. Hohman,Scott B. Roofe

Publicatie 22-06-2020


First bite syndrome (FBS) is a known complication of parotid gland resection, parapharyngeal space dissection, and cervical sympathetic chain injury. It can be described as severe cramping or spasms in the parotid region triggered by the first bite of a meal, with the pain lessening during each subsequent bite. Although dissection for a rhytidectomy is in the vicinity of the parotid parenchyma, face-lift is not typically characterized as a procedure that can lead to FBS. A 53-year-old female underwent a deep plane face-lift to address her goals of improving jowls, nasolabial folds, and cervicomental angle. Intraoperatively, the dissection proceeded without any complications. Initially, her postoperative course was uneventful; 3 weeks after surgery, she noticed pain at the start of mastication that would improve throughout the course of a meal. She elected to proceed with observation. At 6 months after surgery, she began to experience improvement in her symptoms, and shortly thereafter had complete resolution. First bite syndrome is a complication associated with deep lobe parotid resection, first described in 1998. The innervation of the parotid gland is complex and includes contributions from the auriculotemporal nerve, the great auricular nerve, and the cervical sympathetic chain. During rhytidectomy, dissection occurs along the parotidomasseteric fascia in order to elevate a flap of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system. Inadvertent injury to the parotid parenchyma can lead to damage to the postganglionic sympathetic fibers innervating the myoepithelial cells. Ultimately, expectant management is the mainstay of treatment and symptoms typically resolve within 6 months to 1 year. First bite syndrome is a complication that can be seen with a variety of facial surgeries. In the case of rhytidectomy, FBS should be considered a potential risk, as dissection into the parenchyma of the parotid gland can result in postoperative autonomic dysfunction.

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Head and Neck Injuries from Rock Climbing: A Query of the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System

David W. Chou,Rijul Kshirsagar,Jonathan Liang

Publicatie 22-06-2020


We describe the incidence and characteristics of patients with head and neck injuries from rock climbing who present to United States emergency departments and evaluate predictors of hospitalization. The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) database was queried for rock climbing injuries to the head, face, mouth, neck, and ear under product code "mountain climbing" from the years 2009 to 2018. Demographics, injury characteristics, and disposition data were reviewed. Data were evaluated using chi-square analysis with Cochran-Mantel-Haenszal odds ratios (ORs). An estimated 5067 patients (from 129 raw NEISS case numbers) suffered head and neck injuries from rock climbing nationally from 2009 to 2018. Concussion/closed head injury was the most common injury (44%), followed by laceration (23%), soft tissue injury (15%), neck strain/sprain (6%), skull fracture (3%), facial fracture (3%), intracranial hemorrhage (3%), cervical spine fracture (2%), unspecified facial trauma (1%), and dental trauma (0.3%). Males more frequently suffered lacerations (OR 1.6), soft tissue injuries (OR 23.3), cervical spine fractures (OR 336.7), intracranial hemorrhage (OR 582.0), and skull fractures (OR 6.2) than females. Compared to shorter falls, falls over 20 ft were more commonly associated with laceration (OR 2.0), soft tissue injury (OR 3.5), facial fracture (OR 7.5), dental trauma (OR 6.6), intracranial hemorrhage (OR 951.8), skull fracture (OR 81.2), and hospitalization (OR 3.8). Injuries associated with hospitalization included facial fracture (OR 23.7), cervical spine fracture (OR 24.6), intracranial hemorrhage (OR 2210.2), and skull fracture (OR 9.8). Concussions and facial lacerations are the most common head and neck injuries from rock climbing. Males more commonly suffer severe injuries. Falls over 20 ft are associated with more severe injuries and an increased likelihood of hospitalization.

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Adult Palatopharyngoplasty: Trends in Morbidity and Mortality from the NSQIP Database

Christopher Gates,Jad Ramadan,Steven Coutras,Michele Carr

Publicatie 22-06-2020


Describe the postop morbidity of adults undergoing palatopharyngoplasty (PPP). Adults who underwent PPP were studied using ACS-NSQIP (American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program) database (2016-2017) via CPT code 42145. Analyzed outcomes included length of stay (LOS), readmission, reoperation, and postop complications. Predictive variables were age, gender, BMI, comorbidities. A total of 1081 patients (73.7% male, mean age 42.0 years, range 18-79 years) were included. 95 (8.8%) were diabetic, 183 (16.9%) were smokers, 30 (2.8%) had preoperative dyspnea. 328 (30.3%) took medicine for hypertension. Concurrent procedures occurred in 646 (59.76%), 357 (33.02%) had nasal procedures, 320 (29.60%) had tonsil procedures, 66 (6.11%) had tongue procedures. Within 30 days postop, there were two (0.19%) mortalities. Complications included six wound infections, two dehiscences, four with pneumonia, two pulmonary embolisms, three myocardial infarctions, one DVT, three sepsis, one UTI, one who required CPR, and two who were ventilated for >48 hours. Five required reintubation. A total of 41 (3.79%) returned to OR for a related reason, at least 27 (65.90%) for bleeding. LOS ranged from 0 to 15 days, median 1 day. Overall 38 (3.52%) were readmitted for a related reason, 12 (31.58%) for bleeding and three (7.89%) for pain. Using a significance level of 0.002 (Bonferroni correction), LOS varied with presence of any concurrent procedure, BMI, and estimated probability of mortality and morbidity indices; readmission and reoperation had no significantly associated variables. PPP is associated with low frequency but significant morbidity and mortality.

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Reducing ER Visits and Readmissions after Head and Neck Surgery Through a Phone-based Quality Improvement Program

Mitali Shah,Jennifer Douglas,Ryan Carey,Manvav Daftari,Teresa Smink,Allison Paisley,Steven Cannady,Jason Newman,Karthik Rajasekaran

Publicatie 22-06-2020


Evaluate the impact of a patient phone calls and virtual wound checks within 72 hours of discharge on reducing emergency room (ER) visits and readmissions. Single arm trial with comparison to historical control data of patients undergoing multi subsite head and neck cancer operations or laryngectomy between July 2017 and June 2018 at a tertiary academic medical center. Patients were contacted within 72 hours of hospital discharge. As a supplement to the call, patients were given the opportunity to video conference with and/or send pictures to the provider with additional questions via a designated wound care phone. Ninety-one patients met inclusion criteria, of whom 83 (91.2%) were contacted. Six patients (7%) were readmitted, of whom three had not been able to be reached. The patients who had been unable to be contacted were readmitted for dysphagia (2), and a urinary tract infection (1). The contacted patients were advised to go the ER during the call for concerns for postoperative bleeding (2) and gastrointestinal bleeding (1). Twenty-five patients (30%) utilized the wound care phone. 18 patients (21.7%) reported that the phone call survey prevented them from going to the ER. When compared to the prior year, there was as statistically significant decrease in ER visits ( Implementation of a phone call in the early postoperative period has the potential to decrease unnecessary ER visits and enhance patient satisfaction. This may decrease strain on the health care system and improve patient care. Level 4.

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Transoral Endoscopic Vestibular Thyroglossal Duct Cyst Excision

Marisa A. Ryan,Jonathon O. Russell,Desi P. Schoo,Patrick A. Upchurch,Jonathan M. Walsh

Publicatie 20-06-2020


Thyroglossal duct cysts (TGDCs) are relatively common congenital midline neck masses that are treated with surgical excision. Traditionally these are removed along with any associated tract and the central portion of the hyoid bone through an anterior neck incision. Some patients with TGDCs want to avoid an external neck scar. We describe the details of a transoral endoscopic vestibular excision of a TGDC and the associated hyoid bone in an adolescent patient. This novel approach was successful and there were no complications. We propose that cervical TGDCs can be safely and completely removed with this approach in appropriately selected patients while avoiding a neck scar.

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Ipsilateral Cochlear Implantation in the Presence of Observed and Irradiated Vestibular Schwannomas

Matthew J. Urban,Dennis M. Moore,Keri Kwarta,John Leonetti,Rebecca Rajasekhar,Michael B. Gluth,R. Mark Wiet

Publicatie 18-06-2020


Historically, eventual loss of cochlear nerve function has limited patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) to auditory brainstem implants (ABI), which in general are less effective than modern cochlear implants (CI). Our objective is to evaluate hearing outcomes following ipsilateral cochlear implantation in patients with NF2 and irradiated vestibular schwannomas (VS), and sporadic VS that have been irradiated or observed. Multi-center retrospective analysis of ipsilateral cochlear implantation in the presence of observed and irradiated VS. MESH search in NCBI PubMed database between 1992 and 2019 for reported cases of cochlear implantation with unresected vestibular schwannoma. Seven patients underwent ipsilateral cochlear implantation in the presence of observed or irradiated vestibular schwannomas. Four patients had sporadic tumors with severe-profound contralateral hearing loss caused by presbycusis/hereditary sensorineural hearing loss, and three patients with NF2 lost contralateral hearing after prior surgical resection. Prior to implantation, one VS was observed without growth for a period of 7 years and the others were treated with radiotherapy. Mean post-operative sentence score was 63.9% (range 48-91) at an average of 28 (range 2-84) months follow up. All patients in this cohort obtained open set speech perception. While analysis of the literature is limited by heterogenous data reporting, 85% of implants with observed schwannomas achieved some open set perception, and 67% of patients previously radiated schwannomas. Furthermore, blending literature outcomes for post implantation sentence testing in quiet without lip-reading show 59.0 ± 35% for patients with CI and observed tumors and 55.7 ± 35% for patients with radiated tumors, with both groups ranging 0 to 100%. This retrospective series and literature review highlight that hearing outcomes with CI for VS patients are superior to those achieved with ABI. However, important considerations including imaging, delayed hearing loss, and observation time cannot be ignored in this population.

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The Effect of Ibuprofen Dosing Interval on Post-Tonsillectomy Outcomes in Children: A Quality Improvement Study

Grayson Mast,Krysta Henderson,Michele M. Carr

Publicatie 17-06-2020


In this Quality Improvement (QI project) it was hypothesized that an increase in dosing intervals for postoperative analgesia when alternating Ibuprofen and Acetaminophen would reduce post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage (PTH) rates for those undergoing tonsillectomies with or without adenoidectomy, while maintaining the standard of postoperative analgesia and reducing visits to the Emergency Room (ER) for reasons other than PTH. Data was collected from 353 children. Utilizing run chart analysis, it was determined that patients experiencing the 4-hour dosing interval had lower rates of PTH, fewer ER visits, and no increase in postoperative phone calls from caregivers. Patients were treated with standing Acetaminophen 15 mg/kg q6h and Ibuprofen 10 mg/kg q6h for postoperative analgesia from July of 2017 until January of 2018. Starting January of 2018 through November of 2018, the dosage interval was lengthened 1 hour. Data relating to PTH, ER visits for reasons other than bleeding, and phone calls from caregivers was collected. Run charts were used to assess outcomes regarding PTH, postoperative visits to the ER for reasons other than PTH, and phone calls from caregivers. Our results suggest that a standing protocol of alternating Acetaminophen and Ibuprofen given every 4 hours improves the post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage rate without increasing ER visits or calls about pain. This data shows promise in reducing PTH and ER visits with a longer dose interval when alternating Acetaminophen and Ibuprofen for postoperative analgesia in tonsillectomy patients. A randomized clinical trial should be carried out to further validate these claims.

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Oral Cavity Cancer Outcomes in Remote, Betel Nut-Endemic Pacific Islands

Ajay M. Narayanan,Andrey F. Finegersh,Mary P. Chang,Ryan K. Orosco,William J. Moss

Publicatie 17-06-2020


Oral cavity carcinomas individually are the fifth-leading cause of overall cancer mortality in the Northern Mariana Islands, which is likely a representative statistic for many other betel-nut-endemic Pacific islands. Factors associated with survival have been minimally evaluated in this region. The purpose of this study is to further characterize oral cavity carcinoma outcomes and associated prognostic factors in the United States commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI). A single-institution retrospective review was undertaken for 81 patients diagnosed with head and neck cancers at the CNMI's only regional hospital complex from 2005 to 2019. A subset of patients diagnosed with oral cavity carcinoma was further evaluated for survival outcomes. Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed to evaluate for variables associated with survival. A majority of patients had cancer of the oral cavity (64/81, 79%). Fifty-five of these patients had sufficient data for review. The average age at the time of diagnosis was 48 and over half were diagnosed with stage IV disease (29/55, 53%). Five-year overall survival (OS) was 49.5% (95% CI, 33.3-63.7%). Factors associated with worse OS were lymph node metastases at presentation ( The head and neck cancer burden in the CNMI is dominated by betel nut related oral cavity disease that is characterized by delayed presentations in younger patients and decreased OS. Future studies are indicated to improve health literacy as well as to investigate the potential for screening programs.

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Expiratory Muscle Strength Training in patients After Total Laryngectomy; A Feasibility Pilot Study

Klaske E. van Sluis,Anne F. Kornman,Wim G. Groen,Prof. Michiel W.M. van den Brekel,Lisette van der Molen,Bari Hoffman-Ruddy,Martijn M. Stuiver

Publicatie 12-06-2020


Expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) is a threshold based device-driven treatment for improving expiratory pressure. EMST proved to be effective in different patient groups to improve cough function. To date, EMST has not been tested in the total laryngectomy population (TL). This prospective, randomized case-series study examined feasibility, safety, and compliance of EMST in a group of TL participants and its effects on pulmonary function, physical exertion, fatigue, and vocal functioning. Ten TL participants were included in the study to perform a 4 till 8 weeks of EMST. Objective and subjective outcome measures included manometry, spirometry, cardio pulmonary exercise testing (CPET), voice recordings, and patient reported outcome measures. Group means were reported and estimates of the effect are shown with a 95% confidence interval, using single sample t-tests. Nine participants completed the full study protocol. Compliance to the training program was high. All were able to perform the training, although it requires adjustments of the device and skills of the participants. Maximum expiratory pressure (MEP) and vocal functioning in loudness improved over time. After EMST no changes were seen in other objective and subjective outcomes. EMST appears to be feasible and safe after total laryngectomy. MEP improved over time but no improvement in the clinically relevant outcome measures were seen in this sample of relatively fit participants. Further investigation of the training in a larger group of participants who report specifically pulmonary complaints is recommended to investigate if the increase in MEP results in clinical benefits. 4.

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Outcomes of Paradoxical Vocal Cord Motion Diagnosed in Childhood

Betel Yibrehu,Bianca Georgakopoulos,Pamela A. Mudd,Md Sohel Rana,Nancy M. Bauman

Publicatie 12-06-2020


To explore long-term patient reported outcome (PRO) measures of pediatric paradoxical vocal cord motion (PVCM) including ease of diagnosis, management, symptom duration and effect on quality of life. All children >8 years of age diagnosed with PVCM at a tertiary pediatric hospital between 2006 and 2017 were invited to complete a survey addressing study objectives. 21/47 eligible participants could be contacted and 18/21 (86%) participated. 78% were female with a mean age at diagnosis of 11.6 and 15.0 years at survey completion. Common PVCM symptoms reported were dyspnea (89%), globus sensation (56%), and stridor (50%). The median time to diagnosis was 3 months (IQR 2-5 months). Nearly all reported being misdiagnosed with another condition, usually asthma, until being correctly diagnosed usually by an otolaryngologist. Participants reported undergoing 3.7 diagnostic studies (range 0-8); pulmonary function testing was most common. Of numerous treatments acknowledged, breathing exercises were common (89%) but only reported helpful by 56%. Use of biofeedback was recalled in 1/3 of subjects but reported helpful in only 14% of them. Anti-reflux, allergy, anticholinergics, inhalers and steroids were each used in >50%, but rarely reported effective. PVCM was reportedly a significant stressor when initially diagnosed but despite 2/3 of participants still reporting ongoing PVCM symptoms, the perceived stress significantly decreased over time (Z = 3.26, This first PVCM PRO study endorses that diagnosis is often delayed and prescribed treatments often viewed as ineffective. While biofeedback and breathing exercises may be critical for short-term control of PVCM episodes, lifestyle changes and stress reduction are likely necessary for long-term management. Increased awareness and improvements in management are needed for this condition.

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Does Nasal Surgery Affect Voice Outcomes? A Systematic Review with Meta-Analyses

Christopher C Xiao,Friederike S. Luetzenberg,Nancy Jiang,Jonathan Liang

Publicatie 11-06-2020


Changes in airflow dynamics after nasal surgery may have implications on voice quality. Multiple studies have evaluated the impact of nasal surgery on voice using heterogeneous outcome measures. We aim to systematically review the impact of nasal surgery on voice quality. Our study design was a systematic review with meta-analyses. A literature search of PubMed, Ovid, Cochrane from 1997 to 2017 was performed. Inclusion criteria included English language studies containing original data on nasal surgery and voice. Two investigators independently reviewed all manuscripts and performed a comprehensive quality assessment. Meta-analysis was completed on quantitative voice measurements. Of 463 identified, 19 studies with 692 patients fulfilled eligibility. Nasal surgeries performed included endoscopic sinus surgery (11/20), septoplasty (11/20), rhinoplasty (2/20), and turbinate reduction (2/20). Voice outcomes measured included nasalance (8/20), fundamental frequency (11/20), jitter (10/20), shimmer (10/20), harmonic to noise ratio (HRN) (8/20), formants (5/20), and voice handicap index (VHI) (4/20). Voice examinations were assessed preoperatively and 1 to 30 months postoperatively. Meta-analysis revealed statistically significant changes in nasalance, ( There may be a short-term increase in nasalance that resolves at longer follow-up, but there seem to be no other objective changes in voice. There may be subjective changes after surgery, but require further study to evaluate.

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Utility of Second-Look Endoscopy with Debridement After Pediatric Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

Zachary M. Helmen,Ryan E. Little,Thomas Robey

Publicatie 10-06-2020


To determine the utility of Second-look endoscopy with debridement (SLED) after functional endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) in pediatric cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. To compare outcomes in pediatric CF patients undergoing sinus surgery for chronic sinusitis with or without SLED. To describe findings present at the time of SLED. Retrospective chart review of 61 ESS procedures performed at a tertiary care pediatric center from 2013 to 2016. Data collected included demographics, SLED findings, and 6-month pre-/postoperative disease specific outcomes including incidence of sinonasal and pulmonary exacerbations and revisions. Sixty-one cases were reviewed. SLED was performed in 38 cases on average 22.4 days postoperatively. Average preoperative Lund-Mackay score was 14.9 and 14.8 among patients undergoing ESS with and without SLED, respectively. Pre-/postoperative intranasal steroid use and extent of surgery performed was similar among all patients. At the time of SLED, rates of synechiae, polyps and maxillary antrostomy obstruction were 26.3%, 23.7%, and 7.9%, respectively. The incidence and number of days to onset of postoperative sinonasal exacerbations requiring antibiotic therapy within 6 months of ESS were 1.0 (SD 1.0) and 85 days (SD 45.7); and 1.3 (SD 1.0) and 80.4 days (SD 40.5) for patients undergoing ESS with and without SLED, respectively ( The utility of SLED among pediatric CF patients remains unclear. While debridement did not have a significant impact on sinonasal exacerbations or revision rates, pulmonary exacerbations for patients undergoing SLED were delayed. Further studies are needed to clarify the impact of SLED.

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Response to the Letter to the Editor by Zhengcai Lou, MD Regarding “Outcomes of Adopting Endoscopic Tympanoplasty in an Academic Teaching Hospital”

Bin Li,Stephen Asche,Robert Yang,Bevan Yueh,Manuela Fina

Publicatie 10-06-2020


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Use of a Cervicofacial Flap in Closing Large Defects Following Wide Local Excision of Complicated Preauricular Lesions

Kenneth Akakpo,Kaylee Luck,Robert H. Chun

Publicatie 10-06-2020


To describe innovative surgical technique for closure of large defect following complicated preauricular cyst excision secondary to prior failed excision attempts, infections, and drainage procedures. Preauricular cysts must be widely excised including any fistulous tracts in order to reduce recurrence rates; however, the resultant large local excision poses cosmetic challenges. Retrospective chart review of 3 patient cases who underwent excision of recurrent preauricular lesions involving cervical parotid flap closure. All three cases demonstrate complicated preauricular congenital cysts which were infected and had prior drainage, excision attempts, or sclerotherapy. A cervicoparotid flap was used to close all defects cosmetically with no facial nerve weakness and without distortion to the oral commissure or lateral canthus. There is a high recurrence rate seen with wide local congenital cyst excisions that have been previously excised, infected, and drained; as well as, cosmetically unfavorable outcomes utilizing traditional repair. Utilizing our closure technique which involves reconstructive local regional flap with cervicoparotid approach our 3 patients have had no reoccurance of cyst or infection. Our approach also maximizes cosmetic outcomes, with reduced scar visibility. Pre and postoperative photos will be shown.

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Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Sisters with LMNA Associated Familial Partial Lipodystrophy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

Stephanie J. Youssef,Robert J. Macielak,Lisa A. Schimmenti,Kyriakos Chatzopoulos,Daniel L. Price

Publicatie 10-06-2020


LMNA-associated familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD) is a rare autosomal dominant A-type laminopathy characterized by variable loss and redistribution of subcutaneous adipose tissue, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. Though A-type lamins play a key role in nuclear membrane structure and regulation of cell proliferation, an association between cancer and LMNA-associated FPLD has not been reported. This report outlines the case of two biological sisters with LMNA-associated FPLD who developed hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in the absence of any other risk factors for head and neck cancer. These observations prompt further investigation into the potential role of A-type lamins in the development and progression of head and neck cancers.

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Cardiothoracic Patients with Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis: Pneumonia Rates Following Injection Laryngoplasty

Jason H. Barnes,Diana M. Orbelo,Michael F. Armstrong,Semirra L. Bayan,Christine M. Lohse,Dale C. Ekbom

Publicatie 08-06-2020


Recurrent laryngeal nerve injury is a potential complication of cardiothoracic surgery and cause of unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP). Injection laryngoplasty (IL) is an intervention offered to patients with UVFP to alleviate symptoms including dysphagia, dysphonia and weak cough. There is no definitive evidence that IL prevents pneumonia. In this study, we compare rates of pneumonia in patients with UVFP secondary to cardiothoracic surgery who did or did not undergo IL. A retrospective chart review identified patients diagnosed with UVFP by an otolaryngologist using flexible laryngoscopy following cardiothoracic surgery from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2017. Each subject was grouped by IL status and assessed for subsequent pneumonia within 6 months of their diagnosis of UVFP. The association of IL with pneumonia was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Of 92 patients who met inclusion criteria, 35 (38%) underwent IL and 57 (62%) did not. Twenty patients developed pneumonia, four who had undergone IL and 16 who had not; 12 patients developed aspiration pneumonia including two having undergone IL and 10 who had not. Those who had IL were less likely to develop total pneumonia compared to those who had not (HR = 0.33, Injection laryngoplasty may reduce the risk of pneumonia in patients with UVFP secondary to cardiothoracic surgery; however, further research is needed to quantify the potential protective nature of IL in this patient population. 3 (A retrospective cohort study).

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Reflux Sign Assessment; Statistical Issue on Reliability to Avoid Misinterpretation

Siamak Sabour

Publicatie 06-06-2020


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Nasal Bone Fractures: Differences Amongst Sub-Specialty Consultants

Jason E. Cohn,Sammy Othman,Michael Toscano,Tom Shokri,Jason D. Bloom,Seth Zwillenberg

Publicatie 06-06-2020


Nasal fractures constitute the largest proportion of facial trauma each year, however, there is no consensus management. In this study, we investingated the role of the consultant and the functional and aesthetic outcomes of procedures performed to address nasal bone fractures. A retrospective chart review of patients who sustained nasal bone fractures was conducted from 8/1/14 through 1/23/18. Categorical variables were analyzed using chi-squared testing and Fisher's exact test, where appropriate, while continuous variables were compared using Mann-Whitney U testing. During the study period, 136 patients met inclusion criteria for full analysis. The mean age of this cohort was 47.6 ± 20.2 years with the majority identifying as African-American (53.7%) and male (67.2%). Otolaryngologists were significantly more likely to assess pre-operative nasal obstruction (100%) compared to plastic surgeons (24.1%) ( Consultants across subspecialties differ in the management of nasal bone trauma. A more standardized approach is warranted by all individuals involved in the care of maxillofacial trauma patients.

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Fluoroscopic Swallowing Abnormalities in Dysphagic Patients Following Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery

Shumon Ian Dhar,Adam M. Wegner,Pope Rodnoi,John C. Wuellner,Omid Benjamin Mehdizadeh,Shih C. Shen,Yuval Nachalon,Nogah Nativ-Zeltzer,Peter C. Belafsky,Eric O. Klineberg

Publicatie 05-06-2020


To evaluate the precise objective fluoroscopic abnormalities in persons with dysphagia following anterior cervical spine surgery (ACSS). 129 patients with dysphagia after ACSS were age and sex matched to 129 healthy controls. All individuals underwent videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS). VFSS parameters abstracted included upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening, penetration aspiration scale (PAS), and pharyngeal constriction ratio (PCR). Other data collected included patient-reported outcome measures of voice and swallowing, number of levels fused, type of plate, vocal fold immobility, time from surgery to VFSS, and revision surgery status. The mean age of the entire cohort was 63 (SD ± 11) years. The mean number of levels fused was 2.2 (±0.9). 11.6% (15/129) were revision surgeries. The mean time from ACSS to VFSS was 58.3 months (±63.2). The majority of patients (72.9%) had anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). For persons with dysphagia after ACSS, 7.8% (10/129) had endoscopic evidence of vocal fold immobility. The mean UES opening was 0.84 (±0.23) cm for patients after ACSS and 0.86 (±0.22) cm for controls ( Chronic swallowing dysfunction after ACSS appears to be secondary to pharyngeal weakness and not diminished UES opening, the presence of aspiration, vocal fold immobility, or ACSS instrumentation factors.

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Impact of Acamprosate on Chronic Tinnitus: A Randomized-Controlled Trial

Mohammad Farhadi,Mohammad Mahdi Salem,Alimohamad Asghari,Ahmad Daneshi,Marjan Mirsalehi,Saeid Mahmoudian

Publicatie 05-06-2020


Tinnitus is a common and distressing otologic symptom, with various probable pathophysiologic mechanisms, such as an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms. Acamprosate, generally used to treat alcoholism, is a glutaminergic antagonist and GABA agonist suggested for treating tinnitus. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acamprosate in the treatment of tinnitus. The current randomized-controlled trial study included 20 subjects with chronic tinnitus. After performing psycho-acoustic, psychometric and electrophysiological evaluations, all studied tinnitus subjects were randomly divided into two groups of acamprosate and placebo. The first group received oral acamprosate (two tablets of 333 mg/d, three times a day), whereas the second group was given placebo treatment (two tablets, three times a day). After the first 30 days, all evaluations were repeated for the studied groups just in the same manner before the study. Subsequently, the final results of each evaluation were compared together with the baseline values. Nine studied subjects randomly received acamprosate, whereas eleven others received a placebo. There was no significant improvement in the psycho-acoustic tests, except a decrease was observed in the pitch match of tinnitus ( The study results indicated a subjective relief of tinnitus as well as some degree of the electrophysiological improvement at the level of the cochlear and the distal portion of the auditory nerve among the subjects who received the acamprosate. IRCT2013121115751N1.

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Long-term Outcomes of Clip Coupler Implantation in Patients with Unilateral Congenital Aural Atresia

Chunli Zhao,Jinsong Yang,Yujie Liu,Mengdie Gao,Peiwei Chen,Shouqin Zhao

Publicatie 05-06-2020


To evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of the Clip coupler attached to the stapes head in patients with unilateral congenital aural atresia (CAA). This single-center retrospective study included 16 Mandarin-speaking patients who had unilateral microtia accompanied by CAA. All patients were divided into two groups: the short-term follow-up group (n = 9) and the long-term follow-up group (n = 7). The floating mass transducer of the Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) was positioned in the stapes head by the Clip coupler. The safety of the VSB was investigated by comparing preoperative and postoperative bone-conduction (BC) thresholds as well as by complications. The effectiveness was evaluated by functional gain (FG), word recognition score (WRS), speech reception threshold (SRT) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Pre- and post-operative BC thresholds were no different in all patients. And no complications developed. VSB-aided thresholds in the free-field had improved significantly in both short- and long-term follow-up groups. The improvements of WRS were observed in two groups. The monosyllabic VSB-aided WRS in the long-term follow-up group was significantly higher than that in the short-term follow-up group. When speech was from the impaired ear and noise presented to the side of normal ear (S Our results show that the FMT connected to the stapes head is a secure and useful device for patients with unilateral CHL/MHL, not only in terms of improved hearing thresholds, but also improved speech intelligibility in quiet and noisy environments.

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In Reference to Reflux Sign Assessment: Statistical Issue on Reliability to Avoid Misinterpretation

Jerome R. Lechien,Sven Saussez,Kathy Huet,Bernard Harmegnies

Publicatie 05-06-2020


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Do Medical Students Receive Adequate Otolaryngology Training? A Canadian Perspective

Brandon R. Rosvall,Zachary Singer,Kevin Fung,Christopher J. Chin

Publicatie 04-06-2020


Otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OHNS) training has been found to be underrepresented in medical school curricula. The study aimed to assess (i) students' clinical OHNS exposure, (ii) their confidence managing OHNS conditions, and (iii) the correlation between OHNS exposure and confidence managing OHNS conditions. Fourth-year medical students at two Canadian Universities completed a survey assessing baseline characteristics, OHNS training, and confidence managing OHNS conditions. Of 87 returned surveys, 46 students had no clinical OHNS exposure, while 29 felt there was adequate OHNS exposure. The majority of students lacked confidence recognizing conditions requiring emergent referral. Students with greater OHNS training had greater confidence managing OHNS conditions ( The majority of medical students have minimal OHNS exposure. Students with greater OHNS exposure have greater confidence managing OHNS conditions. A review of Canadian medical school curricula is warranted to ensure adequate OHNS exposure.

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Facial Muscle Activity Patterns in Clarinet Players: A Key to Understanding Facial Muscle Physiology and Dysfunction in Musicians

Leonardo Franz,Luciana Travan,Miriam Isola,Gino Marioni,Renzo Pozzo

Publicatie 03-06-2020


Facial muscle activity is crucial to controlling musical performance in wind instrument playing. Facial muscle dysfunctions are common in wind instrument players, dramatically affecting their professional musical activity and potentially leading to disabling symptoms. The aim of this pilot study on a cohort of healthy clarinetists was to use surface electromyography to identify the facial muscle activity patterns involved in stabilizing the mouthpiece, controlling emission and articulation during musical tasks in physiological conditions, also comparing muscle activity between less and more experienced clarinetists (students vs postgraduates/professionals). Surface electromyographic measures of the sternocleidomastoid, masseter, mentalis, mylohyoid and buccinator muscles were obtained from eight healthy clarinet players (four students and four postgraduates/professionals) performing two standardized musical tasks. Overall, mean IEMG activity was significantly lower for the sternocleidomastoid than for the other muscles ( These preliminary data reflect a significantly higher overall facial muscle activity in the less-experienced group, potentially resulting in an overload, whereas the more expert players had more optimized muscle activity patterns.

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The Changing Paradigm of Head and Neck Paragangliomas: What Every Otolaryngologist Needs to Know

Nathan D. Cass,Melissa A. Schopper,Jonathan A. Lubin,Lauren Fishbein,Samuel P. Gubbels

Publicatie 03-06-2020


Recommendations regarding head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGL) have undergone a fundamental reorientation in the last decade as a result of increased understanding of the genetic and pathophysiologic basis of these disorders. We aim to provide an overview of HNPGL and recent discoveries regarding their molecular genetics, along with updated recommendations on workup, treatment, and surveillance, and their implications for otolaryngologists treating patients with these disorders. susceptibility gene mutations, encoding subunits of the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), give rise to the Hereditary Pheochromocytoma/Paraganglioma Syndromes. Otolaryngologists are likely to encounter patients with HNPGL. Keeping abreast of the latest recommendations, especially regarding genetic testing, workup for additional tumors, multi-disciplinary approach to care, and need for lifelong surveillance, will help otolaryngologists appropriately care for these patients.

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Pediatric Quality-of-Life Scores Following a Multidisciplinary Aerodigestive Team Approach to Manage Chronic Cough

Betel A. Yibrehu,Gina M. Krakovsky,Md Sohel Rana,Dinesh K. Pillai,Sona Sehgal,Maura E. Collins,Meagan L. Gatti,Nancy M. Bauman

Publicatie 03-06-2020


Chronic recalcitrant cough is present in 2/3 of pediatric patients evaluated in our tertiary-care multidisciplinary aerodigestive clinic (ADC). This study aimed to determine the impact of chronic cough and efficacy of ADC treatment using the validated Pediatric-Cough Quality-of-Life-27 tool (PC-QOL-27). The PC-QOL-27 survey was administered to ADC patients with chronic cough at initial clinic visit and 6 to 12 weeks after cough management. Pre and post survey scores, demographic data, treatment and evaluation season were collected over 16 months. Twenty parents completed pre and post PC-QOL-27 surveys (mean 12.1 weeks later). Patient median age was 6.04 years (IQR: 2.2-10.44 years). A total of 65% were males and 65% were African American. Management was tailored based on clinical assessment and diagnostic studies, including direct laryngoscopy/bronchoscopy (4), pulmonary function tests (PFT's 9), esophagogastroduodenoscopy (9), and flexible bronchoscopy/lavage (9). Following ADC management, changes in physical, social and psychological domain scores of the PC-QOL-27 each met the threshold for minimal clinical important difference (MCID) indicating a clinically meaningful improvement. Improvements were most notable in the physical domain where post survey scores significantly improved from pre-survey scores ( The physical impact of chronic cough in pediatric patients who failed prior management by a single specialist was lessened by an ADC team approach to management.

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Applicant-to-Residency Program Communication: Does It Matter?

Roberto N. Solis,Pompeyo R. Quesada,Cheng Ma,Lindsay M. Olinde,Rodney C. Diaz

Publicatie 02-06-2020


To elucidate the frequency and types of pre- and post-interview communication that applicants engage with programs, to garner the perceptions of both applicants and program directors (PDs), and determine if communication influences outcomes. Electronic surveys were distributed to otolaryngology residency applicants, and to PDs of ACGME-accredited otolaryngology programs after the 2018 to 2019 application cycle. 93 of 324 applicants (28.7%) and 33 of 106 PDs (31.3%) responded. In the pre-interview period, 58.1% of applicants sent emails of interest, and 41.9% had a mentor initiate communication. In the post-interview period, the majority of applicants (82.8%) sent notes of intent to their number one choice, and 32.3% had a faculty mentor communicate this on their behalf. The majority of PDs (84.8%) were undecided or did not believe that emails of interest influence decisions to offer an interview, whereas 81.8% believed that communication initiated by an applicant's mentor has an impact on interview offers. No PD agreed that declarations of intent from applicants have an impact on their rank lists, while only 33.3% of PDs believed that a mentor communicating this for an applicant has some impact. Our statistical findings are in agreement with these perceptions as neither applicant-initiated pre-interview ( Pre- and post-interview communication practices vary widely among otolaryngology applicants. Applicant-initiated communication has no impact on outcomes, while mentor-initiated communication is perceived to have more benefit, despite not impacting interview or match outcomes in this study.

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Laryngeal Electromyography-Guided Hyaluronic Acid Vocal Fold Injections for Glottic Insufficiency

Alice Q. Liu,Joel Singer,Terry Lee,Amanda Hu

Publicatie 02-06-2020


To assess voice outcomes using the novel technique of in-office laryngeal electromyography-guided vocal fold injections (LEVFI) with hyaluronic acid to treat glottal insufficiency. Secondary objectives included determining the complication/completion rates and if any factors were associated with improved voice outcomes. Retrospective review of patients who received their first LEVFI from August 2017 to December 2018. Three- and six-month voice outcomes were assessed. Outcomes included voice handicap index-10 (VHI-10), maximum phonation time (MPT), perceptual analysis of voice (GRBAS), fundamental frequency, and stroboscopy. Of the 121 eligible patients (55.4% male, age 63.7 years), 94 (77.7%) had complete 3-month data and 59 (48.8%) had complete 6-month data. VHI-10 was significantly improved from 25.7 ± 7.5 to 20.9 ± 10.9 at 3 months ( In-office LEVFI is an effective, novel technique to treat glottic insufficiency with improved voice outcomes, high completion rate, and no significant complications.

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Factors Affecting Post-Anesthesia Care Unit Length of Stay in Pediatric Patients after an Adenotonsillectomy

Dhivyaa Anandan,Shilin Zhao,Amy S. Whigham

Publicatie 02-06-2020


(1) To identify clinical factors and perioperative practices that correlate with longer length of stay (LOS) in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) after adenotonsillectomy (T&A) in pediatric populations. (2) To understand the relationship between family presence and PACU LOS for pediatric patients after T&A. Pediatric patients (ages 3-17) who underwent T&A between February 2016 and December 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Factors assessed for impact on PACU LOS included BMI, preoperative medications, intraoperative medications/narcotics, postoperative medications/narcotics, method of postoperative medication administration, and family presence in the PACU. Kruskal-Wallis and Spearman tests were used to assess correlations. Statistical significance was set Our cohort included 500 patients. Patients were in the PACU for an average of 135.4 minutes (±65.8). Subset analyses of the type of medications administered intra-operatively and in the PACU show that the intraoperative administration of sedatives is associated with increased LOS ( Our results suggest that postoperative medication administration and time until family arrival in the PACU are associated with significant differences in LOS. We also find that intraoperative administration of acetaminophen is correlated with reduced need for postoperative medication administration. Standardizing postoperative practices to minimize PACU LOS could result in a more efficient recovery for pediatric patients undergoing T&A.

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Sinonasal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Presentation and Outcome: A National Perspective

Zaid Al-Qurayshi,Ryan Smith,Jarrett E. Walsh

Publicatie 01-06-2020


examine presentation and outcomes of sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). A retrospective study utilizing the National Cancer Database, 2004 to 2015. The study population included adult patients diagnosed with primary sinonasal SCC. A total of 537 patients were included. The mean age of the study population was 62.6 ± 12.7 years. The median follow-up time was 35.6 months (interquartile range: 8.6-55.9). The histological variants identified are: (i) 66.7% keratinizing SCC, (ii) 21.6% non-keratinizing SCC, (iii) 8.0% papillary SCC, and (iv) 3.7% spindle cell carcinoma. Stage at presentation was: (i) 33.3% T1-2, N0, (ii) 31.8% T3-4a, N0, (iii) 13.8% T1-4a, N+, (iv) 17.0% T4b,N0-3, (v) 4.1% M1. Human papilloma virus (HPV) status was available for 96 patients and tested positive in 24 (25.0%) patients. By histological variants, 5-year survival was lowest for spindle cell carcinoma (40.0%), and highest for papillary SCC (70.1%). HPV negative tumors had a 5-year survival of 26.4%, while HPV positive tumors had a 5-year survival of 57.1% ( Sinonasal SCC could present at advanced stages in two-thirds of the population and exhibit a variety of histological subtypes. Like other sites of head and neck, HPV positive tumors are associated with a favorable prognosis. Endoscopic approach is comparable to open approach in terms of post-surgical margins.

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Comparison of Materials Used for 3D-Printing Temporal Bone Models to Simulate Surgical Dissection

Alexandra McMillan,Armine Kocharyan,Simone E. Dekker,Elias George Kikano,Anisha Garg,Victoria W. Huang,Nicholas Moon,Malcolm Cooke,Sarah E. Mowry

Publicatie 04-05-2020


To identify 3D-printed temporal bone (TB) models that most accurately recreate cortical mastoidectomy for use as a training tool by comparison of different materials and fabrication methods. There are several different printers and materials available to create 3D-printed TB models for surgical planning and trainee education. Current reports using Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) plastic generated via fused deposition modeling (FDM) have validated the capacity for 3D-printed models to serve as accurate surgical simulators. Here, a head-to-head comparison of models produced using different materials and fabrication processes was performed to identify superior models for application in skull base surgical training. High-resolution CT scans of normal TBs were used to create stereolithography files with image conversion for application in 3D-printing. The 3D-printed models were constructed using five different materials and four printers, including ABS printed on a MakerBot 2x printer, photopolymerizable polymer (Photo) using the Objet 350 Connex3 Printer, polycarbonate (PC) using the FDM-Fortus 400 mc printer, and two types of photocrosslinkable acrylic resin, white and blue (FLW and FLB, respectively), using the Formlabs Form 2 stereolithography printer. Printed TBs were drilled to assess the haptic experience and recreation of TB anatomy with comparison to the current paradigm of ABS. Surgical drilling demonstrated that FLW models created by FDM as well as PC and Photo models generated using photopolymerization more closely recreated cortical mastoidectomy compared to ABS models. ABS generated odor and did not represent the anatomy accurately. Blue resin performed poorly in simulation, likely due to its dark color and translucent appearance. PC, Photo, and FLW models best replicated surgical drilling and anatomy as compared to ABS and FLB models. These prototypes are reliable simulators for surgical training.

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Outcomes Using a Postoperative Protocol in Pediatric Single-Stage Laryngotracheal Reconstruction

Prasad John Thottam,Taylor Gilliland,Nicholas Ettinger,Rahul Baijal,Deepak Mehta

Publicatie 15-02-2019


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