Prasad John Thottam,Taylor Gilliland,Nicholas Ettinger,Rahul Baijal,Deepak Mehta
Publication date 15-02-2019
Justyn Pisa,Colin Andrews,Jordan B. Hochman
Publication date 23-07-2020
Atsushi Abe,Eri Umemura,Hiroki Hayashi,Yu Ito,Moriyasu Adachi
Publication date 06-01-2021
Postoperative airway obstruction following oral cancer surgery is difficult to predict. Scoring systems used to assess the need for tracheotomy use risk factors as criteria. We aimed to examine whether these clinical scoring systems can predict airway obstruction following oral cancer surgery. We assessed 95 patients who underwent oral cancer surgery without tracheotomy under general anesthesia between January 2007 and April 2019. We reviewed multiple factors from the patients' medical records, including age, sex, tumor site, body mass index, tumor stage, type of surgery, airway management method, Cameron and Gupta scores, and postoperative airway complications. Tumors were located in the maxilla ( Screening based on the Gupta score appears to be effective in predicting postoperative airway obstruction. We propose that this screening tool can be used to better plan tracheotomy and other airway management strategies during preoperative patient assessment.Pubmed PDF Web
James Pazak,Neel K. Bhatt,Alyssa Levy,Susann Schick,Karla O’Dell
Publication date 08-01-2021
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of laryngeal pathology found during bedside flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) in a community hospital. A retrospective study among patients who underwent a bedside FEES examination from May 2018 to May 2019. Criteria to perform a bedside FEES exam were patients who were identified through nursing screening swallowing evaluation and failed a bedside clinical evaluation of swallowing by a speech language pathologist. Patient demographics, recent intubation, duration of intubation, dysphonia complaints, laryngeal exam findings, consultation to otolaryngology and intervention were reviewed. Seventy-five patients had an inpatient bedside FEES. All (100%) had subjective complaints of swallowing. 29 (38.66%) had laryngeal pathology identified on FEES examination including unilateral vocal fold immobility (9), fungal infections (6), vocal fold lesion (3), edema (3), erythema (3), vocal process granuloma (2), unilateral TVF Hemorrhage (1), unilateral TVF paresis (1), suspected superior laryngeal nerve palsy (1). Seventeen of the twenty-nine (58.6%) examinations with incidental laryngeal finding received an otolaryngology referral. Twenty-three of the twenty-nine patients with laryngeal findings (79.3%) were intubated during the hospitalization. Bedside FEES is a well-established method to evaluate swallowing function in an inpatient population. Even in a community hospital, routine FEES examinations led to a high rate of detection of clinically significant laryngeal pathology.Pubmed PDF Web
Ian Newberry,Julie Highland,Alvin DeTorres,Richard Gurgel
Publication date 08-01-2021
Comprising 4% of tinnitus, pulsatile tinnitus (PT) can be particularly difficult for affected patients as well as surgeons looking to address their symptoms. Often the cause is not identified but can be secondary to turbulent flow in or near the sigmoid sinus, particularly if there is an identifiable sigmoid sinus dehiscence (SSDe) and/or diverticulum (SSDi). These sigmoid sinus wall anomalies (SSWA) may be treated with transmastoid sigmoid sinus resurfacing; however, this intervention remains relatively novel and its technique, materials used, resolution success, and complications need to be continuously reviewed. A retrospective case series of patients with PT due to SSWA at a tertiary referral center was reviewed. A total of 6 patients (7 ears) treated by transmastoid resurfacing using hydroxyapatite (HA) were retrospectively assessed. Pre-operative demographics and symptoms, pre- and post-operative hearing results, and post-operative outcomes were reviewed. All patients were female with an average BMI of 32.9 (±5.4) and a mean age of 45.5 years (±15.3). Mean follow-up was 648 days. Objective tinnitus was noted in all ears with SSDi (100%); however, no objective tinnitus was noted with purely SSDe. In 100% of ears, PT was diminished with ipsilateral jugular compression and was amplified with contralateral head turn. Pre-operative symptoms of PT resolved in all patients, but delayed recurrence (>1 year) occurred in 1 ear (14%). No patient had pre- or post-operative hearing loss. No major complications were encountered. Transmastoid resurfacing for SSWA with HA bone cement is a safe, reliable intervention in properly identified PT patients.Pubmed PDF Web
Rahul K. Sharma,Sonam Dodhia,Justin S. Golub,Jonathan B. Overdevest,David A. Gudis
Publication date 08-01-2021
Understanding patient-specific risk factors for complications of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) is critical. Previous work has investigated such risk factors, but a population-based analysis has not been performed to date. This study analyzes the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database to identify patient-specific risk factors associated with complications following ESS. A retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent ESS was conducted using the NSQIP database from 2011 to 2017. Patients were identified using CPT-codes for ESS procedures. The primary outcome analyzed was any postoperative complication. Simultaneous procedures with ESS were controlled for with regression analysis. Post-operative complications and 30-day readmission were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression controlling for age, gender, race, comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, renal failure, steroid use, and cancer history), smoking history, and intraoperative factors. A total of 1279 patients who underwent ESS were identified. The average age of patients was 46.1 (SD = 16.8). Most patients (58.2%) had no major comorbidities. 594 (46.4%) patients had a tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy, or uvulopharyngoplasty at the same time as ESS. 101 (7.9%) patients experienced a complication post-operatively. 46 (3.6%) patients experienced a readmission postoperatively. The most common complication was reoperation (N = 40, 3.1%). Regression analysis revealed that gender was the only demographic factor associated with risk of post-operative complications, with women having a significantly lower risk than men (OR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.37-0.99, ESS is typically performed on a relatively young and healthy population. Women have a significantly lower risk of complications after controlling for comorbidities. Further analysis of gender-specific differences in surgical outcomes should be evaluated to understand this phenomenon.Pubmed PDF Web
Ashwin Ganti,Hannah J. Brown,Paolo Gattuso,Ritu Ghai,Peter Papagiannopoulos,Pete S. Batra,Bobby A. Tajudeen
Publication date 08-01-2021
Structured histopathology reporting is increasingly being utilized in rhinology to characterize endotypes in chronic rhinosinusitis and guide management decisions after sinus surgery. The goal of this investigation is to evaluate inter-observer agreement in structured histopathology reporting. Two experienced head and neck pathologists independently compiled structured histopathology reports for tissue samples collected during functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Cohen's standard kappa (κ) coefficients were calculated for each histopathologic variable to assess inter-pathologist agreement. A total of 92 cases were analyzed. Substantial inter-pathologist agreement was reached on tissue eosinophil count (κ = 0.64, High inter-pathologist agreement was demonstrated for several salient histopathologic variables, including tissue eosinophil count and the presence of eosinophil aggregates. However, refining the definitions of certain histopathologic variables may improve the reproducibility of structured histopathology reporting.Pubmed PDF Web
David W. Chou,Giuseppe Staltari,Michael Mullen,Jolie Chang,Megan Durr
Publication date 08-01-2021
To determine changes in the residency experience early in the COVID-19 pandemic and evaluate wellness measures among otolaryngology residents.
A web-based survey was administered to U.
S. otolaryngology residents. Responses to the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Measure (SMBM) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale were recorded along with data on burnout, demographics, wellness, sleep, training, and education. 119 U.
S. otolaryngology residents representing 27 of 42 states with otolaryngology residency programs responded to the survey. 24.4% (95% CI 17.0-31.8%) self-reported some level of burnout, while 10.9% met SMBM criteria for "clinically relevant" burnout. 51.3% experienced more stress, and 58.8% reported more anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic. Compared to males, females had a higher prevalence of burnout (38.9% vs 12.3%, While burnout among otolaryngology residents was low early in the COVID-19 pandemic, likely due to separation from the workplace environment, trainees had higher levels of anxiety and stress. The surgical experience was negatively impacted by the pandemic, but remote didactics and educational opportunities increased. These findings may inform otolaryngology residency programs on the need to promote resident wellness and aid in devising strategies to improve the educational experience during this unique global health crisis as well as in the long term.
Alexandra Welschmeyer,Kathleen Coerdt,Jason Crossley,Sonya Malekzadeh
Publication date 08-01-2021
Subspecialty caseloads logged by otolaryngology residents over the last 15 years is currently unknown. This study examines the trends at the national level.
Otolaryngology case log data was collected from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) from 2005 to 2019.
Data were categorized according to the following surgical subspecialties: pediatrics, rhinology/skull base, head and neck, facial plastics, otology, and laryngology. Linear regression analyses were performed for each procedure within each subspecialty, total subspecialty means, and total caseload means across all years. Overall surgical volume significantly increased between 2005 and 2019 ( While total mean resident case logs have steadily increased between 2005 and 2019, pediatric cases have declined substantially due to fewer tympanostomy tube insertions and adenotonsillectomies. Rhinology/skull base procedures have increased most significantly secondary to an increase in endoscopic sinus surgeries. Despite changes in case volume amongst specialties, the annual increase in resident case load suggests that otolaryngology residents are meeting the demands of their graduate medical training.
Nathalia Velasquez,William Strober,Amber Shaffer,Amanda Stapleton
Publication date 13-01-2021
Frontal sinusitis in the pediatric population is a disease that has not been thoroughly studied or characterized. The goals of this study are to characterize the clinical presentation, radiologic variables, treatment modalities, complications, and prognosis associated with acute and chronic frontal sinus disease in the pediatric population. IRB-approved retrospective cohort study of pediatric patients who were diagnosed with acute (AFS) or chronic frontal sinusitis (CFS) and underwent frontal sinus surgery at a tertiary level Children's Hospital from 2006 to 2016. Patients with AFS were compared to patients with CFS. Statistical analysis completed using chi-square test or Fisher's exact test, statistical significance set at A total of 19 patients with AFS and 15 patients with CFS were analyzed. There was a male predominance in AFS and female predominance in CFS ( There are 2 distinct presentations of frontal sinus disease in the pediatric population. Patients with AFS vary significantly from those with CFS. Males, ages 13 to 18 years old, who cultured positive forPubmed PDF Web
Parsa P. Salehi,Alyssa Heiser,Pauniz Salehi,Sina J. Torabi,Rebecca L. Fine,Benjamin Judson,Babak Azizzadeh,Yan H. Lee
Publication date 13-01-2021
To evaluate the recent Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (OTO-HNS) applicant characteristics, to identify which applicant characteristics are associated with successful match into OTO-HNS, and to compare OTO-HNS applicant trends and characteristics to that of peer surgical specialties (PS).
Data were obtained from official reports by the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP) for OTO-HNS, plastic and reconstructive surgery, orthopedic surgery, neurosurgery, and dermatology from 2006 to 2019. Alpha Omega Alpha (AOA) membership, United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) scores, research productivity, graduation from a top-40 NIH-funded U.
S. medical school, and additional graduate degree were recorded. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated to evaluate the relationship between applicant qualifications and match success. From 2014 to 2018, the OTO-HNS applicant pool shrunk from 443 to 333, representing the largest drop of all PS. Furthermore, OTO-HNS reported the most unfilled positions and highest match rates in 2017 (n = 14; 92.1%) and 2018 (n = 12; 94.6%) among any PS. Despite recent trends, 2019 NRMP data revealed a 38.74% increase in OTO-HNS applicant numbers compared to 2018. AOA membership (OR, 7.3; Despite recent fluctuations in application trends, OTO-HNS continues to successfully match highly qualified applicants, including applicants with AOA membership, high Step 2 scores, and high research productivity. An understanding of the qualifications used to evaluate residency applicants may be helpful to both applicants and residency programs of OTO-HNS.
Nehal Dhaduk,Ashley Rodgers,Aparna Govindan,Evelyne Kalyoussef
Publication date 13-01-2021
Tonsillectomy is one of the most common otolaryngologic procedures. Hemorrhage after tonsillectomy is one of the most feared complications by surgeons and patients alike. The objective of this study was to analyze the risk factors associated with an increase in post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage in the pediatric population using a large national database. The Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) from 2000 to 2012 was queried for patients between the ages of 1 to 17 years with post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to obtain trends in patient demographics, comorbidities, and hospital information. Overall 45 940 pediatric cases of tonsillectomy were identified of which 5470 (11.9%) resulted in postoperative hemorrhage. Patients with postoperative hemorrhage were significantly older with mean age of 8.62 (±4.75) compared to all patients. Females were found to have higher rates of hemorrhage when compared to males 14.6% versus 11.5% ( Postoperative hemorrhage is a common complication following tonsillectomy with a rate of 11.9% in this study. A higher rate of hemorrhage was seen with increasing age, white race, and males overall, as well as patients with fluid and electrolyte disorders. Urban non-teaching hospitals and the Northeast region also saw increased rates of hemorrhage.Pubmed PDF Web
Stephen R. Chorney,Joanne Stow,Luv R. Javia,Karen B. Zur,Ian N. Jacobs,Steven E. Sobol
Publication date 08-01-2021
Tracheocutaneous fistula (TCF) is a common occurrence after pediatric tracheostomy decannulation. However, the persistence of TCF after staged reconstruction of the pediatric airway is not well-described. The primary objective was to determine the rate of persistent TCF after successful decannulation in children with staged open airway reconstruction. A case series with chart review of children who underwent decannulation after double-stage laryngotracheal reconstruction between 2017 and 2019. A total of 26 children were included. The most common open airway procedure was anterior and posterior costal cartilage grafting (84.6%, 22/26). Median age at decannulation was 3.4 years (IQR: 2.8-4.3) and occurred 7.0 months (IQR: 4.3-10.4) after airway reconstruction. TCF persisted in 84.6% (22/26) of children while 15.4% (4/26) of stomas closed spontaneously. All closures were identified by the one-month follow-up visit. There was no difference in age at tracheostomy ( Persistent TCF occurs in 85% of children who are successfully decannulated after staged open airway reconstruction. Spontaneous closure could be identified by 1 month after decannulation and was more likely when smaller stents and tracheostomy tubes were utilized. Surgeons should counsel families on the frequency of TCF and the potential for additional procedures needed for closure.Pubmed PDF Web
David W. Wassef,Nehal Dhaduk,Savannah C. Roy,Gregory L. Barinsky,Evelyne Kalyoussef
Publication date 16-01-2021
Tympanostomy tubes can prevent sequelae of otitis media that adversely affect long term hearing and language development in children. These negative outcomes compound the existing difficulties faced by children who are already diagnosed with developmental disorders. This study aims to characterize this subset of children with developmental disorders undergoing myringotomy and tympanostomy tube insertion. A retrospective review using the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) was conducted, with codes from In total, 21 945 cases of patients with myringotomy with or without tympanostomy tube insertion were identified, of which 1200 (5.5%) had a diagnosis of a developmental disorder. Children with developmental disorders had a higher mean age (3.3 years vs 2.9 years, The population of children with developmental disorders undergoing myringotomy or tympanostomy tube placement has a different demographic composition than the general population and faces distinct financial and insurance coverage burdens. Further study should be done to assess if these differences impact long term outcomes.Pubmed PDF Web
Shadi Ahmadmehrabi,Deborah X. Xie,Bryan K. Ward,Paul C. Bryson,Patrick Byrne
Publication date 16-01-2021
In addition to clinical and social disruption, the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected many aspects of the otolaryngology residency application process. With delays in the 2021 Electronic Residency Applications Service (ERAS) timeline, students and programs have had more time to interact prior to the formal application process. This communication will report recent trends in social media presence by OHNS residency programs, and discuss mechanisms to compensate for decreased applicant-program interactions using social media ahead of the 2021 Match. In a cross-sectional study of the accredited otolaryngology residency programs in the United States, the number of social media profiles on Twitter, Instagram, and Facebook from 2009 to 2019 were recorded and compared. Most programs (61%) have at least 1 social media profile. Over the past 10 years, the number of programs on social media has increased. During the COVID-19 pandemic, Twitter and Instagram showed higher rates of growth compared to Facebook. With the reduction of in-person opportunities for interactions, both applicants and programs are utilizing social media to showcase their values and their research. Twitter, in particular, also serves as a platform for professional networking. Both Twitter and Instagram are growing in popularity among programs and applicants to enhance networking. Social media is a powerful tool for networking and may help compensate for limitations imposed on the residency match process by the COVID-19 pandemic while maintaining professionalism considerations. The impact of social media on the 2021 otolaryngology residency match is an evolving phenomenon.Pubmed PDF Web
Marco Berlucchi,Michele Tomasoni,Roberta Bosio,Vittorio Rampinelli
Publication date 09-01-2021
Nasal septal abscess is a rare disorder in pediatric patients and is mostly diagnosed as a complication of trauma or secondary to dental or sinonasal infection. A 10-year-old girl presented with acute nasal obstruction, otalgia, and headache. Medical history was negative; physical examination and anterior rhinoscopy did not reveal signs of acute rhinosinusitis or septal abscess. A thorough nasal endoscopy was performed to rule out a posterior nasal infection, revealing a bilateral posterior septal bulging, in the absence of purulent discharge. CT scan and contrast-enhanced MRI were performed, confirming the diagnosis of a spontaneous posterior septal abscess. Trans-nasal endoscopic-assisted drainage was conducted under general anesthesia. Although rare, nasal septal abscess in the pediatric age is typically anterior and secondary to local trauma or infection. Accurate medical history and anterior rhinoscopy are usually sufficient to make the diagnosis. In cases where the clinical presentation is consistent with a nasal septal abscess, with no history of recent local trauma or infection, or signs of anterior septal bulging, nasal endoscopy should be performed to rule out spontaneous posterior septal abscess. Delay in diagnosis and treatment could potentially cause the rapid onset of life-threatening complications, including intracranial abscess, meningitis, and cavernous sinus thrombosis.Pubmed PDF Web
Tiffany P. Hwa,Qasim Husain,Jason A. Brant,Anil K. Lalwani
Publication date 29-01-2021
Jugular bulb abnormalities (JBA) such as high riding jugular bulb and jugular bulb diverticulum can extend or erode into the middle and inner ear. In this report, we report on a series of 6 patients with jugular bulb anomalies involving the internal auditory canal (IAC). A retrospective case series. Six females, ages 6 to 63 presenting with myriad of otologic symptoms including hearing loss, tinnitus, balance disturbance, fullness, and otalgia were discovered to have JB eroding into IAC. Computerized tomography, but not Magnetic Resonance Imaging, was able to identify IAC erosion by a significantly enlarged JB. A significantly enlarged JB eroding into the IAC maybe congenital or acquired. It can present with a variety of common otologic symptoms. Long term follow-up is needed to determine the natural history of JB anomalies involving the IAC and need for intervention.Pubmed PDF Web
Janice L. Farlow,Jiwon V. Park,Robert J. Morrison,Robbi A. Kupfer
Publication date 15-02-2021
To report preliminary outcomes of a case series of in-office intralesional steroid injections for treatment of laryngeal sarcoidosis. After diagnosis of laryngeal sarcoidosis, 3 patients were offered in-office steroid injections for primary or adjunctive treatment. Triamcinolone 40 was injected into supraglottic sarcoidosis lesions in the office using a channel laryngoscope. Response to treatment and need for further injections was determined based on patient symptoms and repeat flexible laryngoscopy. In-office intralesional steroid injections provided rapid symptom relief within days that lasted for months, thus decreasing the frequency of operative interventions. For one of the patients in this series, these injections even eliminated the need for tracheostomy. No complications were observed. In-office intralesional steroid injection is an emerging adjunctive treatment for laryngeal sarcoidosis. Prospective studies are required to determine efficacy and long-term risk profiles in relation to the current standard of operative management and systemic treatments.Pubmed PDF Web
Publication date 04-11-2020
Yi-Hao Lee,Li-Chun Hsieh,Chin-Hui Su,Hsiang-Yu Lin,Shuan-Pei Lin,Kuo-Sheng Lee
Publication date 20-07-2021
Galit Almosnino,Matt J. Sikora,Farrokh R. Farrokhi,Seth R. Schwartz,Daniel M. Zeitler
Publication date 02-07-2021
Review a single institution's vestibular schwannoma (VS) microsurgery experience to determine (1) correlations between demographics, comorbidities, and/or surgical approach on hospital length of stay (LOS) and discharge disposition and (2) trends in surgical approach over time. Retrospective case series from a multidisciplinary skull base program at a tertiary care, academic hospital. All adult (>18 years) patients undergoing primary microsurgery for VS between 2008 and 2018 were included. A total of 147 subjects were identified. Surgical approach was split between middle fossa (MF) (16%), retrosigmoid (RS) (35%), and translabyrinthine (TL) (49%) craniotomies. For the 8% of patients had other than routine (OTR) discharge. Mean LOS was significantly longer for patients undergoing RS than either MF or TL. Brainstem compression by the tumor was associated with longer LOS as were diagnoses of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and peripheral vascular disease (PVD). For all discharges, the 40 to 50- and 50 to 60-year-old subgroups had significantly shorter LOS than the 70-years-and-older patients. For the 92% of patients routinely discharged, there was a significantly shorter LOS in the 40 to 50-year-olds compared to the 70-years-and-older patients. There was a significant shift in surgical approach from RS to TL over the study period. Over 90% of VS microsurgery patients were routinely discharged with a median hospital LOS of 3.2 days, both of which are consistent with published data. There is an inverse relationship between age and LOS with patients older than 70 years having significantly longer LOS. Brainstem compression, COPD, PVD, and the RS approach negatively affect LOS. 4.Pubmed PDF Web
Olli Valtonen,Jaakko Ormiskangas,Teemu Harju,Markus Rautiainen,Ilkka Kivekäs
Publication date 01-07-2021
Acoustic rhinometry is widely used in evaluating patients with nasal congestion, but it only has a partial correlation with patient symptoms. The use and focus of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans are mainly on the paranasal sinuses and less on the nasal cavities. Therefore, information acquired from CBCT scans is not used to its full extent. In our present study, we have studied patients with enlarged inferior turbinates. Our aim was to investigate and compare the use of 3D volumetric measurements and cross-sectional area measurements taken from CBCT scans to results obtained from acoustic rhinometry. In total, 25 patients with enlarged inferior turbinates were studied. CBCT scans were obtained preoperatively and at twelve months postoperatively. 3D volumetric and cross-sectional area measurements were compared to results from acoustic rhinometry, the visual analogue scale (VAS) and Glasgow Health Status Inventory (GHSI) questionnaires. A statistically significant change in 3D volume and cross-sectional area was measured in the anterior part of the inferior turbinate and surrounding air space after inferior turbinate surgery. VAS and GHSI results had mild correlations with the 3D volume and cross-sectional area measurements of the anterior part of the inferior turbinate. Acoustic rhinometry correlated with the air space 3D volume measurements in the anterior part. Fully utilized CBCT scans provide more comprehensive and accurate information. Furthermore, 3D analysis of the inferior turbinates provides valuable information and more precise measurements compared to acoustic rhinometry.Pubmed PDF Web
Paul B. Lee,Houmehr Hojjat,Jordyn Lucas,Michael T. Chung,Aviv Spillinger,Joseph B. Meleca,Peter Svider,Mahdi Shkoukani,Andrew Johnson,Adam Folbe
Publication date 01-07-2021
To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of open versus endoscopic surgical repair of Zenker's diverticulum. In this study, an economic decision tree was utilized to compare the cost-effectiveness of open surgery compared to endoscopic surgery. The primary outcome in this analysis was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) that was calculated based on the economic decision tree. The probability of post-operative esophageal perforation complications, revision rates, and effectiveness of each procedure along with associated costs were extracted to construct the decision tree. Univariate sensitivity analysis was then utilized to determine how changes in esophageal perforation rate affect the cost-effectiveness of each surgical approach. The ICER of open surgery for Zenker's diverticulum was $67 877, above most acceptable willingness to pay (WTP) thresholds. Additionally, if the probability of esophageal perforation with endoscopic surgery is above 5%, then open surgery becomes a more cost-effective option. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo simulations also showed that at the WTP thresholds of $30 000 and $50 000, endoscopic surgery is the most cost-effective method with 83.9% and 67.6% certainty, respectively. Open surgery and endoscopic surgery are 2 treatment strategies for Zenker's diverticulum that each have their own advantages and disadvantages that can complicate the decision-making process. With no previous cost-effectiveness analysis of open versus endoscopic surgery for Zenker's diverticulum, our results support the endoscopic approach at most common WTP thresholds. Particularly with the current focus on rising healthcare costs, our results can serve as an important adjunct to medical decision-making for patients undergoing treatment for Zenker's diverticulum.Pubmed PDF Web
Rysouke Nakamura,Carina Doyle,Renjie Bing,Aaron M. Johnson,Ryan C. Branski
Publication date 01-07-2021
Oversimplified clinical dogma suggests that laryngeal diseases fall into two broad, mutually exclusive diagnostic categories-mucosal injury or neuromuscular/functional disorders. Extensive investigation in the lower airway as well as other organ systems suggest complex interactions between tissue types underlying both tissue health and pathological states. To date, no such relationship has been described in the vocal folds, likely the most bioactive organ in the body. We hypothesize interactions between the vocal fold muscle and mucosa likely contribute to aberrant phonatory physiology and warrant further investigation to ultimately develop novel therapeutic strategies. Primary culture of myoblasts from rat thyroarytenoid muscle and fibroblasts from the vocal fold mucosa were established. Co-culture and conditioned media experiments were performed to established bidirectional interactions between cell types. Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-β was employed to stimulate a fibrotic phenotype in culture. In addition to quantitative PCR, standard migration and proliferation assays were performed as well as immunocytochemistry. Bidirectional cell-cell interactions were observed. Without TGF-β stimulation, myoblast conditioned media inhibited fibroblast migration, but enhanced proliferation. Conversely, fibroblast conditioned media increased both myoblast proliferation and migration. Myoblast conditioned media decreased TGF-β-mediated gene expression and of particular interest, ACTA2 mRNA expression. In both co-culture and in response to fibroblast conditioned media, myosin heavy chain (Myh2) mRNA expression decreased in myoblasts. These data are the first to describe interactions between cell types within the vocal fold. The implications for these interactions in vivo warrant further investigation to develop and refine optimal treatment strategies.Pubmed PDF Web
Kevin Bachrach,David O’Neil Danis,Michael B. Cohen,Jessica R. Levi
Publication date 01-07-2021
Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can have both acute and chronic consequences when untreated. We hypothesize that a link exists between childhood obesity and OSA at nationwide level, with race, gender, and socioeconomic status conferring their own risk for pediatric OSA.
This study examined nationwide discharges in 2016 using the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID). The International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) codes for obesity (E66.0) and OSA (G47.33) were used. Prevalence rates and odds ratios (ORs) were used to quantify associations between the obesity and OSA groups in the general pediatric inpatient population. Multiple binary logistic regression was utilized to compare cohorts of pediatric inpatient admissions.
There were 36 266 285 weighted discharges in the 2016 KID. Among patients included in our dataset, 0.426% (26 684) were diagnosed with obesity and 0.562% (35 242) had OSA. Obesity was independently associated with a significantly increased risk of OSA (OR = 22.89; 95% C.
I. = 21.99-23.84). Within the OSA inpatient population, obesity was associated with non-Hispanic black race, Hispanic ethnicity, and Native American race/ethnicity (OR = 1.45, 1.32, 2.51; 95% C.
I. = 1.33-1.58, 1.21-1.44, 1.73-3.63). Obesity is independently associated with OSA in children after controlling for adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Non-Hispanic black race and Hispanic ethnicity are independent risk factors for OSA and are associated with obesity in the OSA inpatient population, which suggests that obesity may play a role in the increased risk of OSA within these groups.
Neha Wadhavkar,David Y. Goldrich,Sudipta Roychowdhury,Kelvin Kwong
Publication date 01-07-2021
The presence of an aberrant internal carotid artery (ICA) in the middle ear is rare. Patients may be asymptomatic or complain of conductive hearing loss, otalgia, pulsatile tinnitus, or aural fullness. Otoscopic exam findings can include a pulsating erythematous lesion on the tympanic membrane (TM). It may be misdiagnosed as a glomus tumor, hemangioma, or serous otitis media, or go unrecognized until surgical exploration. Early recognition is important as intraoperative discovery carries risk of iatrogenic injury, hemorrhage and subsequent neurologic sequelae. Prevention requires adequate preoperative suspicion and can be confirmed with radiologic examination via computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Management of iatrogenic injury of an aberrant ICA can include packing, vessel embolization and/or surgical ligation. We report the case of an aberrant ICA injury in a pediatric patient undergoing a myringotomy with tube placement, who sustained neurologic deficits that eventually resolved following treatment with packing and coil embolization. An aberrant ICA can cause life-threatening complications without prior diagnosis in a routine myringotomy. Suspicious exam findings should prompt temporal bone CT to rule out aberrant ICA or other vascular pathology of the middle ear prior to surgery. In the case of iatrogenic injury of an aberrant ICA, there is no consensus in existing literature on optimal management. We reviewed 37 studies to compare therapeutic options and subsequent outcomes. Though complications are rare regardless of management, cases in which solely packing was utilized demonstrated an increased incidence of hemiparesis, aphasia, hearing loss, re-bleeding, and delayed pseudoaneurysm, as compared to an approach coupling packing with embolization or ligation, both of which have comparable outcomes.Pubmed PDF Web
Ishwarya S. Mamidi,Alex Gu,Collin F. Mulcahy,Chapman Wei,Philip E. Zapanta
Publication date 01-07-2021
Recently, the decision was made to transition the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 score from a three-digit numerical score to a pass/fail system. Historically, Step 1 scores have been important for otolaryngology resident applicant selection. The purpose of this study was to understand and evaluate otolaryngology residency program directors' (OPDs) opinions on the impact following the change in Step 1 score reporting. A 22-question survey administered through Qualtrics was sent to 113 academic otolaryngology residency program directors in April 2020. Information about demographics, impressions on the new Step 1 score format, anticipated changes in applicant selection, impact on mental health, and importance of various other factors in selecting applicants were queried. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze survey results. A total of 41 out of 113 (36.3%) OPDs completed this survey. A majority of surveyed OPDs (80.5%) do not support the decision to change Step 1 to a pass/fail system. In the absence of a three digit numeric USMLE Step 1 score, OPDs indicated prioritization of away rotations, letters of recommendation (LORs), personal prior knowledge of the applicant, grades in required clerkship, and class ranking or quartile. 53.7% of OPDs anticipate requiring USMLE Step 2 Clinical Knowledge for interview consideration following this change. OPDs believe a pass/fail Step 1 score will decrease the importance of this exam and that this change will lead to the implementation and evaluation of additional metrics such as a required Step 2 CK score.Pubmed PDF Web
Ethan R. Miles,Priya D. Krishna,Jared C. Inman,Steve C. Lee,Paul C. Walker,Alfred A. Simental,Brianna K. Crawley
Publication date 23-06-2021
To examine severity of dysphagia and outcomes following iatrogenic high vagal nerve injury. Retrospective chart review of all patients with iatrogenic high vagal nerve injury that were seen at a tertiary referral center from 2012 to 2020. Of 1304 patients who met criteria for initial screening, 18 met all inclusion criteria. All 18 required intervention to address postoperative dysphagia. Eleven required enteral feeding tubes with 7 eventually able to advance to exclusively per oral diets. Fourteen underwent vocal fold injection and 6 underwent laryngeal framework surgery. Sixteen pursued swallowing therapy with speech language pathology. Patients lost a mean of 8.6 kg of weight in the 6 months following the injury. Swallowing function on the Functional Outcome Swallowing Scale (FOSS) and Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS) was 4.4 and 2.4 respectively immediately following the injury and improved to 1.9 and 5.3 at the last follow-up. No patients had complete return of normal swallowing function at last follow up. Iatrogenic high vagal injury causes significant lasting dysphagia which improves with intervention but does not completely resolve. Interventions such as vocal fold injection, medialization laryngoplasty, cricopharyngeal myotomy, or swallowing therapy may be required to reestablish safe swallowing in these patients.Pubmed PDF Web
Khodayar Goshtasbi,Kotaro Tsutsumi,Catherine Merna,Edward C. Kuan,Yarah M. Haidar,Tjoson Tjoa
Publication date 23-06-2021
To elucidate the associations between geographic locations, rankings, and size/funding of medical schools and residency programs among the current otolaryngology residents. This retrospective cross-sectional study queried otolaryngology residency program websites for relevant publicly accessible information. Location was categorized as Midwest, Northeast, South, and West. Ranking was according to Doximity (residency) and US News and World Report (medical school). Medical school and residency programs were labeled large if they had >704 students or >15 residents, respectively. A total of 1413 residents from 98 (89%) otolaryngology residency programs were included. Residents attending their home medical schools (18%) were equally distributed among regions ( There exist significant associations between otolaryngology residents' medical school location, ranking, size, and funding source and their residency destination. More than half of the current otolaryngology residents attended medical school in the same geographic region, and about one-fifth have attended medical school and residency at the same institution. Future studies are warranted to evaluate how these results change as the match process evolves in the future. N/A.Pubmed PDF Web
Amit Narawane,Christina Rappazzo,Jean Hawney,James Eng,Julina Ongkasuwan
Publication date 21-06-2021
Cerebral palsy (CP) in infants can affect global motor function and lead to swallowing difficulties. This study aims to characterize oral and pharyngeal swallowing dynamics in infancy of patients later diagnosed with CP and to determine if swallow study performance in early infancy is associated with later CP severity and characteristics. This is a retrospective chart review of infants who underwent videofluoroscopic swallow studies (VFSS) between 6/2008 and 10/2018 at a tertiary children's hospital, and were later diagnosed with CP. Demographic data, CP characteristics and metrics, and VFSS findings were collected and analyzed. There were 66 patients included in this study. The average age at the time of VFSS was 4 months (range: 0.3-12 months), 42% of patients were female, and 50% of patients were born premature. In our sample, 86% of patients presented with oral dysphagia, and 76% with pharyngeal dysphagia. Laryngeal penetration in isolation was seen in 39% of patients, and tracheal aspiration was seen in 38% of patients. Of these tracheal aspiration events, 64% were silent. At the time of VFSS, 58% of patients had a nasogastric tube, 12% had a gastrostomy tube, and 3% had a prior hospitalization for pneumonia. Rates of penetration and aspiration in early infancy did not consistently correlate with prematurity, type of CP (spastic, non-spastic, or mixed), degree of paralysis (quadriplegic, hemiplegic, or diplegic), or severity of Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) score. While there was not a consistent correlation of swallowing dynamics in infancy with later gross motor categorizations of CP, the results of this retrospective review highlight the essential role of early clinical and videofluoroscopic swallowing evaluations to identify oral and pharyngeal swallowing dysfunction in this patient population.Pubmed PDF Web
Adrienne Heyduck,Sibylle Brosch,Anja Pickhard,Thomas K. Hoffmann,Rudolf Reiter
Publication date 21-06-2021
The efficiency of We included 159 patients with a leukoplakia of the vocal folds and 50 healthy controls. Clinicopathological data and Absent or greatly reduced mucosal waves were found in all patients with an invasive carcinoma, in 94% with a severe intraepithelial neoplasia (SIN III), in 38% with a moderate squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (SIN II), in 32% with a mild squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (SIN I), and in 23% with a hyperkeratosis without dysplasia. The sensitivity and specificity of is a valid tool to identify early glottic carcinoma and its high risk premalignancy carcinoma in situ (CIS). Even when there is no definitive differentiation between SIN I and II, the invasive character of a CIS and an invasive glottic carcinoma can be identified.Pubmed PDF Web
Kurtis Young,Elliott J. Koshi,Joshua C. Mostales,Bibek Saha,Lawrence P. Burgess
Publication date 19-06-2021
To review the literature on corticosteroid use and provide recommendations on patient counseling and/or consent to promote judicious prescribing and reduce the incidence of corticosteroid-related lawsuits.
A conventional literature search of Pub Med on corticosteroid-related medicolegal cases was undertaken. Search terms included "medicolegal," "otolaryngology," and "adrenocorticosteroids." A medical subjects headings search with the keywords "adrenal cortex hormones" and "jurisprudence" was also performed.
Corticosteroids have been reported as the third most frequent medication involved in malpractice claims, oftentimes leading to disproportionately costly payments. The most common specialties found to be involved in corticosteroid related medicolegal cases included dermatology (12%), primary care (10%), and neurologists or neurosurgeons (6%). The most common complications encountered were avascular necrosis (39%), changes in mood (16%), infection (14%), and vision changes (14%). Only a few cases corticosteroid-related litigation regarding otolaryngologists were identified. More frequent causes for otolaryngology claims were intraoperative complications, deficits in diagnoses, and failures or delays in treatment.
Three medicolegal pitfalls regarding corticosteroid use were identified from this review included: (1) insufficient advising, (2) lack of or incomplete informed consent, and (3) the significance of the patient-physician relationship. Despite the scarcity of corticosteroid-related medicolegal literature pertaining to otolaryngologists, corticosteroids are one of the most widely prescribed medications in the field of otolaryngology and have been shown to have a high rate of medical malpractice claims in medicine. Counseling and consenting the patient, as well as developing a strong physician-patient relationship, are integral processes in addressing any adverse effects occurring during therapy, and may also help to decrease the incidence and success of litigation against otolaryngologists.
Robert J. Macielak,Andrew J. Goates,John I. Lane,Matthew L. Carlson
Publication date 18-06-2021
The differential of an external auditory canal mass is broad. One rare potential cause is a pneumatocele of the tympanic membrane, which has only been described 1 other time in the literature. This report serves to describe the second case of this pathology, including its unique presentation, and benign clinical course. Case report. A case is discussed in which a pneumatocele of the tympanic membrane was incidentally identified during evaluation of contralateral otologic pathology. The etiology was suspected to be habitual auto-insufflation. After cessation of this practice, the pneumatocele was noted to resolve without further intervention. A tympanic membrane pneumatocele represents a rare cause of an external auditory canal mass. The diagnosis can be made clinically via history, palpation, and otoscopy during auto-insufflation, potentially avoiding further diagnostic testing. Depending on the etiology, resolution can occur after lifestyle modification; however, further interventions may definitively treat the condition if so required.Pubmed PDF Web
Kimberly Luu,Michael A. Belsky,Harish Dharmarajan,Thomas Kaffenberger,Jennifer L. McCoy,Kristin Cangilla,Allison B. J. Tobey,Jeffrey P. Simons,Raymond Maguire,Reema Padia
Publication date 18-06-2021
Post-tracheotomy swallowing function has not been well described in the pediatric population. This study aims to (1) determine differences in swallowing functioning pre- and post-tracheotomy and (2) examine the association between postoperative dysphagia and indication for tracheotomy, age at the time of tracheotomy, and time between tracheotomy and modified barium swallow (MBS). A retrospective chart review was performed on 752 patients who underwent a tracheotomy from 2003 to 2018 and had adequate documentation for review. Patients were included if they received a post-operative MBS. Descriptive statistics, logistic regression, and Fisher's exact test were used to analyze the data. The cohort included 233 patients. The mean age at the time of tracheotomy was 25 months (±50.5). The indications for the tracheotomy were upper airway obstruction (110/233, 47.2%), chronic respiratory failure (104/233, 44.6%), and neurologic disease (19/233, 8.2%). The mean time from tracheotomy to post-operative MBS was 224 days (±297.7). Of the patients who had documented pre- and post-tracheotomy diets, nearly half of patients had improvement in their swallowing function after tracheotomy placement (82/195; 42.1%). Post-tracheotomy MBS recommended thickened liquids in 30.9% of the patients (72/233) and 42.5% (99/233) were recommended thin liquids. The remainder (62/233, 26.6%) remained nothing by mouth (NPO). Patients with neurological disease as the indication for the tracheotomy were more likely to remain NPO ( A tracheotomy can functionally and anatomically affect swallowing in pediatric patients. The majority of our studied cohort was able to resume some form of an oral diet postoperatively based on MBS. This study highlights the need for objective measurements of swallowing in the postoperative tracheotomy patient to allow for safe and timely commencement of an oral diet. Level 3.Pubmed PDF Web
Neil K. Mehta,Justin Siegel,Brandon Cowan,Jared Johnson,Houmehr Hojjat,Michael T. Chung,Michael A. Carron
Publication date 18-06-2021
American football is a popular high-impact sport, leading to 2.7 million injuries in the United States annually. Recent evidence in football-related neurological damage has spurred national interest in player-safety. Football players injure their head and neck in up to 26% of total injuries. Variation in injury patterns between age groups and correlated hospitalizations for football-related head and neck injury has yet to be characterized. Our aim is to evaluate injury patterns among American-football related head and neck trauma. A retrospective cohort study of patients with football-related head and neck injury in the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). Nearly 100 000 ED visits for football-related head and neck injuries occur annually. Males comprised 95% of patients, with a median age of 13. The head comprised 70% of injuries followed by the face (13%). The most common diagnoses were concussions (39%), internal organ injury (26%), and lacerations (11%). Pediatric patients were more likely to sustain concussions while adults experienced more lacerations ( Pediatric males are most likely to present for emergency care from football-related injury to the head and neck. Evaluating physicians can anticipate concussions, internal organ injury, and lacerations among presenting patients. Concussions, facial fractures, and nerve damage are injuries most likely to lead to hospitalization.Pubmed PDF Web
Yavuz Atar,Semih Karaketir,Imran Aydogdu,Hüseyin Sari,Hasan Sami Bircan,Yavuz Uyar,Enis Ekincioglu,Seyma Görcin Karaketir,Enes Atac,Güler Berkiten
Publication date 18-06-2021
We aim to demonstrate the effect of an isotonic seawater spray containing chamomile liquid extract on symptoms and nasal mucociliary clearance in patients with allergic rhinitis by comparing it with other isotonic seawater nasal washing solutions. The study included 123 patients. Based on Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma guidelines, mometasone furoate intranasal spray treatment was started for all patients in the group diagnosed with allergic rhinitis. In addition to this treatment, isotonic seawater spray with chamomile liquid extract was added to Group A, isotonic seawater spray to Group B, and isotonic seawater nasal irrigation to Group C. The fourth group (Group D) was given only nasal steroid spray without nasal washing treatment. Before and after treatment in all patients, the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-22 was performed, and nasal mucociliary clearance times were measured by the saccharin test. The differences in duration of nasal mucociliary clearance and Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-22 values were taken before and after treatment. In Group A, B, C, and D the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-22 differences were statistically significant ( Isotonic seawater spray containing chamomile liquid extract is seen as a good alternative treatment option for allergic rhinitis patients.Pubmed PDF Web
Zaid Al-Qurayshi,Andrew Liu,Jarrett E. Walsh
Publication date 17-06-2021
Non-squamous cell carcinoma sinonasal malignancies (NSCCSM) are relatively rare. Neoadjuvant radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy (NTx) have been proposed to improve outcomes compared to surgery alone. In this study, we aim to examine the prevalence of NTx utilization and associated outcomes.
A retrospective study utilizing the National Cancer Database, 2004 to 2015. The study population included adult patients diagnosed with primary NSCCSM.
A total of 574 patients were included. The mean age of the study population was 61.7 ± 16.5 years. The median follow-up time was 40.4 months (interquartile range: 15.3-81.3 months).
The histopathological diagnoses identified included: (i) 37.0% adenocarcinoma, (ii) 22.8% adenoid cystic carcinoma, (iii) 20.0% mucosal melanoma, (iv) 11.9% esthesioneuroblastoma, and (v) 8.2% sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC). NTx was utilized in 70 (12.20%) of the study population. Patients who received NTx were more likely to have SNUC or esthesioneuroblastoma ( This study provides an epidemiological perspective regarding NSCCSM and related practice patterns and survival outcomes. Neoadjuvant radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy is likely to decrease the risk of positive margin which ultimately could improve survival in this population.
Sebastiaan Meijers,Rutger Meijers,Erwin van der Veen,Maaike van den Aardweg,Hanneke Bruijnzeel
Publication date 17-06-2021
During the last 2 decades, new treatment methods have been developed for the surgical removal of second branchial cysts which result in less visible scars. The aim of this systematic review is to assess which surgical technique for second branchial arch cyst removal results in the lowest complication and recurrence rates with the highest scar satisfaction. Two authors systematically reviewed the literature in the Cochrane, Pub Med, and EMBASE databases (search date: 1975 to December 2nd, 2020) to identify studies comparing surgical outcomes of second branchial arch cyst removal. Authors appraised selected studies on directness of evidence and risk of bias. Results are reported according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Out of the 2442 retrieved articles, 4 articles were included in the current review including a total of 140 operated cysts. Only 2 studies included pre-operatively infected cysts. Follow up ranged from 3 to 24 months. Complication rates ranged from 0 to 27.3% (conventional: [0-10.4%]; endoscopic/retro-auricular: [0-27.3%]). None of the patients presented with postoperative recurrence. Significantly higher scar satisfaction was found in adult patients who underwent endoscopic or retro-auricular hairline incision cyst removal. No recurrence of disease occurred during (at least) 3 months of follow up using either conventional surgery or endoscopic/retro-auricular techniques. Although more (temporary) complications occur using endoscopic and retro-auricular techniques, patients report a significantly higher scar satisfaction 3 to 6 months after surgery in comparison to the conventional technique. Future studies are needed to support these findings.Pubmed PDF Web
Christopher T. Breen,Janet Chao,Saral Mehra,Nikita Kohli
Publication date 17-06-2021
To describe disease characteristics and treatment and to analyze survival and mortality for extranodal mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) of the head and neck. Patients with extranodal MCL-excluding primary sites in the salivary glands, eye, and adnexa-were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 Registries (2000-2015). Overall survival (OS) and cumulative incidence of MCL and non-MCL mortality were calculated. Factors associated with MCL and non-MCL mortality were analyzed with cause-specific hazard models. Five hundred nine patients met criteria for descriptive analysis and 294 patients met criteria for survival analysis, with a median follow-up of 58 months. The most common sites for MCL were the oropharynx (66.0%), nasopharynx (19.1%), and oral cavity (8.4%). The most common treatment received was chemotherapy alone (48.9%), followed by chemoradiation therapy (16.9%), and radiation therapy alone (10.4%). The proportion of cases diagnosed as early-stage disease ranged from 31% of sinonasal MCLs to 83% of laryngeal MCLs. At 5 years, OS was 63% (95% CI: 57%-69%). There was no significant difference in OS ( The oropharynx is the most common subsite of head and neck MCLs, followed by the nasopharynx. Primary head and neck MCLs appear to present at an earlier stage than MCLs of other regions. In particular, laryngeal and hypopharyngeal MCLs may present as stage I or II disease.Pubmed PDF Web
Eric J. Formeister,Ricky Chae,Emily Wong,Whitney Chiao,Lauren Pasquesi,Jeffrey D. Sharon
Publication date 14-06-2021
To elucidate differences in demographic and clinical characteristics between patients with episodic and chronic dizziness. A cross-sectional, observational study of 217 adults referred for dizziness at 1 tertiary center was undertaken. Subjects were split into a chronic dizziness group (>15 dizzy days per month) and an episodic dizziness group (<15 dizzy days per month). 217 adults (average age, 53.7 years; 56.7% female) participated. One-third (n = 74) met criteria for chronic dizziness. Dizziness handicap inventory (DHI) scores were significantly higher in those with chronic dizziness compared to those with episodic dizziness (53.9 vs 40.7; Those who suffer from chronic dizziness have significantly higher DHI and high comorbid rates of depression and anxiety than those with episodic dizziness. Our findings show that factors other than diagnosis alone are important in the chronification of dizziness, an observation that could help improve on multimodal treatment options for this group of patients.Pubmed PDF Web
Jason Talmadge,Zi Yang Jiang,Denna A. Zebda,William C. Yao,Amber U. Luong,Martin J. Citardi
Publication date 14-06-2021
Reliable use of surgical navigation depends upon the registration process. The gold standard is paired-point registration with bone-anchored fiducials, but contour-map registration is more practical. Surgeons may employ variable contour maps and less experienced team members often perform this critical step. The impact of these practices on target registration error (TRE) is not well-studied. A dry lab set-up consisting of a navigation system (Fusion ENT, Medtronic, Jacksonville, FL) and a sinus phantom with 2 mm radiopaque spheres in the sphenoid and ethmoid regions was developed. A CT (0.625 mm slice thickness) was obtained. Registration was performed with a contour-based protocol. Accuracy was determined using the software's distance measurement tool. Registration was performed with narrow-field (NF; forehead points medial to the mid-pupillary line) and wide field (WF; entire forehead) contour maps. An experienced rhinologist and a resident surgeon performed each registration in triplicate and TRE at the sphenoid and ethmoid markers was measured in triplicate. WF mapping had a lower TRE than NF (1.09 mm [95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.96-1.22] vs 1.68 mm [95% CI 1.50-1.86]). The experienced surgeon had a lower TRE compared to the resident (1.21 mm [95% CI 1.08-1.34] vs 1.54 mm [95% CI 1.35-1.74]). In this navigation model, wide field mapping offers better accuracy than narrow-field mapping, and an experienced surgeon seemed to achieve better accuracy than a resident surgeon. These observations have potential implications for the use of this technology in the operating room.Pubmed PDF Web
Sara E. Henkemans,Adriana L. Smit,Robert J. Stokroos,Hans G.X.M. Thomeer
Publication date 12-06-2021
In this study, we aim to analyze audiometric outcomes of middle ear surgery in patients with congenital middle ear anomalies. In this single center retrospective cohort study, audiological outcomes were extracted from patient files. Patients with a congenital middle ear anomaly treated surgically in a tertiary referral center between June 2015 and December 2020 were included. Pre- and postoperative short- and long-term audiometric data (at ≥3 and ≥10 months respectively) were compared to analyze hearing outcomes. Eighteen ears (15 patients) were treated surgically with an exploratory tympanotomy. At short term follow up statistically significant improvements in air conduction thresholds and air-bone gaps were found. Hearing improved in 94.4% (17/18) of operated ears. Successful outcome, defined as an air-bone gap closure to within 20 dB after surgery, was reached in 44.4% (8/18). Serviceable hearing (air conduction ≤30 dB) was reached in 55.6% (10/18). Negative outcome (any significant deterioration in hearing) occurred in 1 patient: in this ear otitis media occurred during the postoperative course. At long term follow up, available for 50% of the cohort, hearing remained stable in 5 ears, improved in 1 ear and deteriorated in 3, all of which underwent revision surgery. Sensorineural hearing loss due to surgery, or other complications, were not encountered. middle ear surgery was found to be an effective treatment option to improve hearing in this cohort of patients with congenital middle ear anomalies. Surgical goals of obtained gain in air conduction thresholds and serviceable hearing levels were met by most patients without the occurrence of any iatrogenic sensorineural hearing loss.Pubmed PDF Web
Tirth R. Patel,Jaijeet Toor,Bobby A. Tajudeen,Mihir Bhayani,Samer Al-Khudari
Publication date 11-06-2021
Salvage laryngeal surgery is the preferred treatment after failure of non-surgical treatment of larynx cancer. This study aims to identify the impact of ND in salvage surgery on survival and factors predictive of nodal metastasis. The National Cancer Database was used to identify patients who received salvage laryngeal surgery. Demographics, disease characteristics, and survival were compared between the subgroups of patients stratified according to performance of ND and presence of nodal metastasis. Sixty-two percent of patients underwent ND. A total of 26% of patients undergoing ND had nodal metastasis. Younger age and lesser time since radiation were associated with nodal metastasis. While undergoing ND did not significantly affect survival, those with nodal metastasis had poorer survival ( Although ND did not show a survival benefit, younger patients and those who have had a shorter time elapsed between the start of radiation and salvage surgery may benefit from the prognostic data provided by ND. Nonetheless, the risks and benefits of elective ND in salvage larynx cancer treatment should be evaluated on an individual case basis as the data do not support a broadly applicable recommendation.Pubmed PDF Web
Kylen Van Osch,Kerry Hunter,M. Elise Graham
Publication date 10-06-2021
There are numerous well-described benefits to breastfeeding to both infant and mother. Even in healthy children with an uncomplicated perinatal course, there may be significant struggles maintaining a breastfeeding relationship. Infants with a complicated clinical course have been shown to benefit even more from the provision of breastmilk, however they are seldom encouraged to feed directly at the breast. There are no reports of successful direct breastfeeding in an infant with a tracheostomy. We present the case of a breastfeeding dyad including a trach-dependent infant with congenital idiopathic bilateral vocal fold immobility who successfully initiated and maintained an inclusive breastfeeding relationship. This case illustrates that successful direct breastfeeding can be achieved in an infant with a tracheostomy. If a patient is felt to be capable of oral feeding via bottle, there is no reason that there should not be a trial of direct feeding at the breast, for the benefit of both members of the breastfeeding dyad.Pubmed PDF Web
Peng You,Yi-Chun Carol Liu,Rodrigo C. Silva
Publication date 10-06-2021
Microtia reconstruction is technically challenging due to the intricate contours of the ear. It is common practice to use a two-dimensional tracing of the patient's normal ear as a template for the reconstruction of the affected side. Recent advances in three-dimensional (3D) surface scanning and printing have expanded the ability to create surgical models preoperatively. This study aims to describe a simple and affordable process to fabricate patient-specific 3D ear models for use in the operating room. Applied basic research on a novel 3D optical scanning and fabrication pathway for microtia reconstruction. Tertiary care university hospital. Optical surface scanning of the patient's normal ear was completed using a smartphone with facial recognition capability. The Heges application used the phone's camera to capture the 3D image. The 3D model was digitally isolated and mirrored using the Meshmixer software and printed with a 3D printer (Monoprice The 3D model of the ear served as a helpful intraoperative reference and an adjunct to the traditional 2D template. Collectively, time for imaging acquisition, editing, and fabrication was approximately 3.5 hours. The upfront cost was around $210, and the recurring cost was approximately $0.35 per ear model. A novel, low-cost approach to fabricate customized 3D models of the ear is introduced. It is feasible to create individualized 3D models using currently available consumer technology. The low barrier to entry raises the possibility for clinicians to incorporate 3D printing into various clinical applications.Pubmed PDF Web
Publication date 09-06-2021
Ronald Sahyouni,Khodayar Goshtasbi,Alessandro Presacco,Jack Birkenbeuel,Dillon Cheung,Arash Abiri,Michael H. Berger,Hamid R. Djalilian,Harrison W. Lin
Publication date 07-06-2021
Facial paralysis is a debilitating condition with substantial functional and psychological consequences. This feline-model study evaluates whether facial muscles can be selectively activated in acute and chronic implantation of 16-channel multichannel cuff electrodes (MCE). Two cats underwent acute terminal MCE implantation experiments, 2 underwent chronic MCE implantation in uninjured facial nerves (FN) and tested for 6 months, and 2 underwent chronic MCE implantation experiments after FN transection injury and tested for 3 months. The MCE were wrapped around the main trunk of the skeletonized FN, and data collection consisted of EMG thresholds, amplitudes, and selectivity of muscle activation. In acute experimentation, activation of specific channels (ie, channels 1-3 and 6-8) resulted in selective activation of Our proof-of-concept results show the ability of an MCE, supplemented with field steering, to provide a degree of selective facial muscle stimulation in a feline model, even following nerve regeneration after FN injury. N/A.Pubmed PDF Web
Kenneth Yan,Aaron D. Friedman
Publication date 05-06-2021
The incidence of post-operative glottic cyst (POGC) formation in patients treated with transoral laser microsurgery with potassium-titanyl-phosphate laser (TLM-KTP) photoablation of early glottic carcinoma (EGC) has not previously been described.
A retrospective chart review was performed to identify all patients with early glottic cancer who underwent with single-modality TLM-KTP at our institution. Each patient received regular follow up with videostroboscopy for tumor surveillance. New glottic cysts seen on surveillance examinations were noted and their management was documented.
A total of 33 patients met inclusion criteria. Eight patients (24%) developed POGC's within the original geographic perimeter of the cancerous vocal fold(s): 6 in the infraglottic region and 2 near the vocal process, at an average of 8 months after their initial cancer surgery. Of these 8 POGC's, 7 were at the periphery of the original tumor distribution and 1 was in the center of it. No POGC's were associated with any change in voice. Four of the 8 POGC's were phonosurgically excised, all without evidence of malignancy on pathology.
The remaining 4 were monitored: 2 were stable for an average of 49 months of follow up; the remaining 2 resolved spontaneously by 7 and 31 months after first identification. POGC's are a frequent sequela of TLM-KTP for EGC. While these results suggest that they are unlikely to represent submucosal recurrences, surgeons should have a low threshold to biopsy if there is clinical concern for such and should counsel patients pre-operatively about the potential for their formation.
Whitney Chiao,Roseanne Krauter,Laura Kirk,Kristen Steenerson,Lauren Pasquesi,Jeffrey Sharon
Publication date 04-06-2021
To evaluate patients' attitudes regarding their dizziness, provider capabilities, and receptiveness toward treatment. Cross-sectional study. Tertiary care vestibular clinic. Ages 18 years or older, fluent in English, and who presented with a chief complaint of dizziness or vertigo. N/A. Non-validated questionnaire surveying patients' beliefs regarding the cause of their dizziness, likelihood of successful treatment, and openness to various treatment modalities. Patients were asked to complete an online non-validated survey regarding their dizziness prior to being evaluated in neurotology clinic. About 67 surveys were completed between January 2017 and September 2018. A majority of patients attributed their dizziness to their ears (n = 47, 70%), followed by the brain (n = 29, 43%). Most subjects chose "neither agree nor disagree" about whether their provider could identify the cause of their dizziness (27%). Most subjects also chose "neither agree nor disagree" that their dizziness would resolve with treatment (31%). These attitudes were not influenced by demographics, dizziness severity, anxiety, depression, or quality of life on multivariate ordinal regression modeling. Patients who experience dizziness have neutral attitudes with regards to believing that their provider will be able to identify the cause of their dizziness and whether their dizziness will resolve with treatment. These neutral attitudes are experienced by a plurality of patients and do not differ by demographic information, dizziness handicap, quality of life, depression, or anxiety.Pubmed PDF Web
Leonard Haller,Khush Mehul Kharidia,Caitlin Bertelsen,Jeffrey Wang,Karla O’Dell
Publication date 02-06-2021
We sought to identify risk factors associated with long-term dysphagia, characterize changes in dysphagia over time, and evaluate the incidence of otolaryngology referrals for patients with long-term dysphagia following anterior cervical discectomy with fusion (ACDF). About 56 patients who underwent ACDF between May 2017 to February 2019 were included in the study. All patients were assessed for dysphagia using the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) survey preoperatively and late postoperatively (≥1 year). Additionally, 28 patients were assessed for dysphagia early postoperatively (2 weeks-3 months). Demographic data, medical comorbidities, intraoperative details, and post-operative otolaryngology referral rates were collected from electronic medical records. Of the 56 patients enrolled, 21 patients (38%) had EAT-10 scores of 3 or more at long-term follow-up. None of the demographics, comorbidities, or surgical factors assessed were associated with long-term dysphagia. Patients who reported no long-term dysphagia had a mean EAT-10 score of 6.9 early postoperatively, while patients with long-term symptoms had a mean score of 18.1 ( Dysphagia is a notable side effect of ACDF surgery, but there are no significant demographics, comorbidities, or surgical risk factors that predict long-term dysphagia. Early postoperative characterization of dysphagia using the EAT-10 questionnaire can help predict long-term symptoms. There is inadequate screening and otolaryngology follow-up for patients with post-ACDF dysphagia.Pubmed PDF Web
Sadaf Mohtashami,Keith Richardson,Veronique-Isabelle Forest,Alex Mlynarek,Richard J. Payne,Michael Tamilia,Marc P. Pusztaszeri,Michael P. Hier,Nader Sadeghi,Marco A. Mascarella
Publication date 01-06-2021
Examine the association of Graves' disease with the development of postoperative neck hematoma. A cohort of patients participating in the Thyroid Procedure-Targeted Database of the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program from January 1, 2016 to December 31, 2018. A North American surgical cohort study. 17 906 patients who underwent thyroidectomy were included. Propensity score matching was performed to adjust for differences in baseline covariates. Multivariate logistic regression was used to ascertain the association between thyroidectomy for Graves' disease and risk of postoperative adverse events within 30 days of surgery. The primary outcome was postoperative hematoma. Secondary outcomes were postoperative hypocalcemia and recurrent laryngeal nerve injury. One-to-three propensity score matching yielded 1207 patients with mean age (SD) of 42.6 (14.9) years and 1017 (84.3%) female in the group with Graves' disease and 3621 patients with mean age (SD) of 46.7 (15.0%) years and 2998 (82.8%) female in the group with indications other than Graves' disease for thyroidectomy. The cumulative 30-day incidence of postoperative hematoma was 3.1% (38/1207) in the Graves' disease group and 1.9% (70/3621) in other patients. The matched cohort showed that Graves' disease was associated with higher odds of postoperative hematoma (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.10-2.46) and hypocalcemia (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.66-2.50) compared with other indications for thyroid surgery. There was no difference in recurrent laryngeal nerve injury among the 2 groups. Patients with Graves' disease undergoing thyroidectomy are more likely to suffer from postoperative hematoma and hypocalcemia compared to patients undergoing surgery for other indications.Pubmed PDF Web
Karan Gandhi,Benjamin D. van der Woerd,M. Elise Graham,Michelle Barton,Julie E. Strychowsky
Publication date 01-06-2021
Infection caused by Presented are 2 pediatric cases of secondary actinomycosis in the context of congenital lesions: 1 patient with a previously excised preauricular sinus and another with a persistent sublingual mass. A comprehensive literature search was conducted for reported cases of pediatric actinomycosis in the cervicofacial region. Both cases presented were successfully treated with a combination of complete surgical excision of the lesions and prolonged antibiotic therapy. Thirty-four pediatric cases of cervicofacial actinomycosis are reviewed, 2 presented herein, and 32 from the published literature. There was equal gender distribution and the median age was 7.5 years. The most common site for infection was the submandibular area. Four (12%) of cases arose in pre-existing congenital lesions. Most patients were treated with penicillin-based antibiotics for a median duration of 6 months following surgical excision or debridement. Actinomycosis is a rare infection of the cervicofacial region; secondary infections arising from congenital lesions of the head and neck are even more rare. A previously excised pre-auricular sinus and a sublingual dermoid cyst are not previously reported sites of infection. Actinomycosis should be suspected in chronically draining sinuses of the head and neck region and confirmed through anaerobic culture. Osteomyelitis is a potential complication and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is warranted. Long-term antibiotic therapy with a penicillin-based antibiotic and surgical excision should be considered.Pubmed PDF Web
Joshua D. Waltonen,Sydney G. Thomas,Gregory B. Russell,Christopher A. Sullivan
Publication date 31-05-2021
To analyze the oncologic outcomes and risk factors for recurrence in patients who underwent surgery for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), and in whom adjuvant therapy was not recommended or was declined. Retrospective cohort study of patients with OPSCC who were treated with transoral surgery only at a tertiary care academic medical center from April 2010 to March 2019. Seventy-four patients met inclusion criteria. In 16, adjuvant therapy was recommended but declined. There were 8 recurrences, of which 6 had been given recommendations for adjuvant therapy. Of the 8 recurrences, 2 died, 2 are alive with disease, and 4 were successfully salvaged. Five patients died of unrelated causes. Lymphovascular invasion (LVI, Patients who undergo surgery for HPV-positive OPSCC with negative margins, no PNI, no LVI, and ≤1 positive lymph node without ENE have low risk for recurrence. These patients can likely be safely treated with surgery alone. Patients with these risk factors who decline adjuvant therapy are at risk for recurrence, and should be monitored.Pubmed PDF Web
Kathryn Marcus,Daniel J. Lee,Jeffrey S. Wilson,Richard J. H. Smith,Michael Puricelli
Publication date 31-05-2021
To present an uncommon but serious, recently identified complication of checkpoint inhibitor therapy in a patient treated with pembrolizumab infusion for disseminated recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP). Case report. A 43-year-old woman with underlying asthma developed acute hypoxic respiratory failure within 24 hours of her third infusion of pembrolizumab for treatment of intractable, disseminated recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Pulmonary function testing revealed a severe intra-thoracic obstructive ventilatory defect. Discontinuation of pembrolizumab, ventilatory support, and treatment with systemic and inhaled corticosteroids resulted in resolution of respiratory failure; however, her underlying asthma remains poorly controlled. To our knowledge, this case is the first report of pembrolizumab-induced obstructive respiratory failure in a patient being treated for RRP.Pubmed PDF Web
Nathan Kemper,Scott B. Shapiro,Allie Mains,Noga Lipschitz,Joseph Breen,John Michael Hazenfield,Mario Zuccarello,Jonathan Forbes,Ravi N. Samy
Publication date 29-05-2021
Examine the effects of a multi-disciplinary skull base conference (MDSBC) on the management of patients seen for skull base pathology in a neurotology clinic. Retrospective case review of patients who were seen in a neurotology clinic at a tertiary academic medical center for pathology of the lateral skull base and were discussed at an MDSBC between July 2019 and February 2020. Patient characteristics, nature of the skull base pathology, and pre- and post-MDSBC plan of care was categorized. A total of 82 patients with pathology of the lateral skull base were discussed at a MDSBC during an 8-month study period. About 54 (65.9%) had a mass in the internal auditory canal and/or cerebellopontine angle while 28 (34.1%) had other pathology of the lateral skull base. Forty-nine (59.8%) were new patients and 33 (40.2%) were established. The management plan changed in 11 (13.4%, 7.4-22.6 95% CI) patients as a result of the skull base conference discussion. The planned management changed from some form of treatment to observation in 4 patients, and changed from observation to some form of treatment in 4 patients. For 3 patients who underwent surgery, the planned approach was altered. For a significant proportion of patients with pathology of the lateral skull base, the management plan changed as a result of discussion at an MDSBC. Although participants of a MDSBC would agree of its importance, it is unclear how an MDSBC affects patient outcomes.Pubmed PDF Web
Gani Atilla Şengör,Ahmet Mert Bilgili
Publication date 29-05-2021
The sialendoscopy era in the treatment of salivary gland stones has reduced the use of classical surgical methods. However, the miniature ducts and tools may cause difficulties in removing large sialoliths. Therefore, invasive combined oral surgeries or gland resection may be considered. We searched for the most suitable method in order to stay in line with the minimally invasive approach that preserves the ductus anatomy, and that can reduce the surgical fears of patients. The study included 84 cases (23 parotid and 61 submandibular) in whom stones were fragmented by pneumatic lithotripsy and removed between January 2015 and January 2020. The parotid cases comprised 7 females and 16 males, and the submandibular cases comprised 25 females and 36 males. Intraductal lithotripsy was performed using pneumatic lithotripter. This study has fourth level of evidence. Based on total number of cases (n = 84), success rate was 67/84 (79.7%) immediately after sialendoscopy, and overall success rate was 77/84 (91.6%). Based on number of stones treated (n = 111), our immediate success rate was 94/111 (84.6%), and overall success rate was 104/111 (93.7%). The success criteria were complete removal of the stone and fragments in a single sialendoscopy procedure and resolution of symptoms. We successfully treated salivary gland stones, including L3b stones, in our patient cohort with sialendoscopy combined with pneumatic lithotripsy. The lithotripsy method that we have adapted seems to be more useful and cost-effective compared to its alternatives. We were also able to preserve the ductus anatomy and relieve patients' concerns.Pubmed PDF Web
Jacob C. Lucas,Omar A. Karadaghy,Brian Andrews,Elizabeth Friedman,Kiran Kakarala,Wojciech Przylecki,Jill Arganbright
Publication date 28-05-2021
Alveolar soft part sarcoma is a rare subset of soft tissue sarcomas, typically presenting in subjects 15 to 35 years of age. Usual presentation sites are the trunk, extremities, and the head and neck. Subjects younger than 5 years are rarely affected. In this retrospective case report, we present a 16-month old male with a rapidly growing soft tissue mass of the anterior and posterior tongue, found to be alveolar soft part sarcoma. The subject was treated with primary surgical resection and the resulting defect was reconstructed with a radial forearm free flap. To our knowledge, this is the youngest subject to have been diagnosed with alveolar soft part sarcoma. Surgical extirpation and microvascular reconstruction were successful, and the patient remains disease free 4 years post-operatively.Pubmed PDF Web
Lucas Leonhard,Kathryn Brewer,Joseph Roche
Publication date 27-05-2021
To describe a case of idiopathic bilateral cochlear nerve atrophy acquired in adulthood. A 75-year-old male with acquired bilateral cochlear nerve atrophy. Unilateral cochlear implantation. Description of a patient with acquired bilateral cochlear nerve atrophy diagnosed at the age of 75. The patient had normal hearing and no communication deficits until the age of 66. At this point, the patient demonstrated a slight asymmetric hearing loss, which progressed to severe sensorineural hearing loss. Due to the resulting communication deficit, cochlear device implantation candidacy was pursued. Pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed severe atrophy versus absence of the cochlear nerves bilaterally. After careful counseling regarding the expected communication outcomes given the MRI findings, the patient underwent left-sided cochlear implantation. The patient gained sound awareness, but no additional communication benefit compared to pre-operative baseline abilities. Cochlear nerve deficiency is a known finding in certain cases of congenital and acquired hearing loss, but no cases of idiopathic adult-onset bilateral nerve atrophy have been reported. Without MR imaging, the clinically significant finding would not have been identified. Thus, MRI is advantageous when compared with other imaging modalities in patients with progressive sensorineural hearing loss and enables improved patient counseling regarding expected auditory and communication outcomes.Pubmed PDF Web
Chelsea Cleveland,Maxwell Newby,Shari Steinman,Tyler Wanstreet,Sarah Callaham,Reena Razdan,Steven Coutras,Rusha Patel,Michele M. Carr
Publication date 27-05-2021
To determine if anxiety, stress, depression, worry, and intolerance of uncertainty were related to pre-operative decisional conflict (DC), shared decision making (SDM), or demographic variables in adult otolaryngology surgical patients. Consecutive adult patients meeting criteria for otolaryngological surgery were recruited and completed DC and SDM scales, Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS-12), and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). The cohort included 118 patients, 61 (51.7%) males and 57 (48.3%) females. Surgery was planned for a benign process in 90 (76.3%) and 46 (39.3%) had previous otolaryngologic surgery. SDM and DC scores did not significantly differ across gender, age, education level, previous otolaryngologic surgery or whether or not surgery was for malignancy. Patients with no malignancy had significantly higher DASS-21 Stress scores (mean 12.94 vs 8.15, Preoperative decisional conflict is associated with increased depression and intolerance of uncertainty in adults undergoing otolaryngologic surgery. Screening for and management of depression, anxiety, and related concerns may improve surgical outcomes in this group.Pubmed PDF Web
Adrianna C. Shembel,Yik Siu,Tenzin Lhakhang,Leonard Ash,Drew Jones,Aaron M. Johnson
Publication date 27-05-2021
(1) Determine the feasibility of obtaining a global, unbiased metabolomic profile on laryngeal muscle in a rat model; (2) evaluate the impact of biological aging on the laryngeal metabolome; and (3) characterize biochemical expression differences between aged and non-aged laryngeal and hindlimb muscle. Thyroarytenoid laryngeal muscle and plantaris hindlimb muscle were harvested from 5 young adult (9 months old) and 5 older adult (32 months old) F344BN rats. Tissue was processed and analyzed using LC-MS methods. Detected metabolites were compared to widely used metabolite databases and KEGG pathway enrichment was performed on significant metabolites. The greatest differences in metabolite expression were between laryngeal and limb muscle with 126 different metabolites found between laryngeal and limb within the young group and 149 different metabolites within the old group. Significant hits between muscle groups highlighted amino acid differences between these tissues. There were more robust differences with age in limb muscle compared to laryngeal muscle. Amino acid metabolism is a key difference between muscles of the limbs and larynx. Due to the number of differentially expressed metabolites between the 2 muscle groups, caution should be exercised when applying skeletal limb muscle physiology and biology concepts to the vocal muscles in both aged and non-aged musculoskeletal systems. Mechanisms underlying less robust effects of age on laryngeal muscle compared to limb muscle require elucidation.Pubmed PDF Web
Matheus Pedrosa Tavares,Fayez Bahmad
Publication date 26-05-2021
Tinnitus can be a chronic symptom that brings disability and distress. Some studies suggested that gabapentin might be effective on tinnitus relief. The objective of the study is to perform a systematic review in order to evaluate the efficacy of oral gabapentin in patients with tinnitus.
A literature search was conducted in English and following the recommendations from PRISMA.
The terms used were: ("tinnitus" OR "subjective tinnitus") AND ("gabapentin"). The study selection was performed following the eligibility criteria in accordance to the PICOS (population, intervention, comparison, outcome, study design) strategy-patients with tinnitus; oral gabapentin; placebo; reduction of tinnitus severity questionnaires scores; prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial, respectively. The selected studies were included in qualitative synthesis. The studies were analyzed according to Joanna Briggs Institute's critical appraisal checklist for randomized controlled trials. One hundred twenty-one studies were found in 9 databases and 8 studies were found in gray literature. After study selection, 6 articles were read in full. Then, 2 studies were excluded and 4 were included in qualitative synthesis. All 4 articles were analyzed according to critical evaluation checklist. There is insufficient evidence to recommend the use of gabapentin for patients with tinnitus.
Nicholas A. Dewyer,Sullivan Smith,Barbara Herrmann,Katherine L. Reinshagen,Daniel J. Lee
Publication date 26-05-2021
To characterize the prevalence, imaging characteristics, and cochlear implant candidacy of pediatric patients with single-sided deafness (SSD). An audiometric database of patients evaluated at a large tertiary academic medical center was retrospectively queried to identify pediatric patients (<18 years old) with SSD, defined as severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss in one ear and normal hearing in the other. Medical records of identified patients were reviewed to characterize the prevalence, etiology, and cochlear implant candidacy of pediatric patients with SSD. We reviewed audiometric data obtained from 1993 to 2018 for 52,878 children at our institution. 191 (0.36%) had the diagnosis of SSD. Cochlear nerve deficiency (either hypoplasia or aplasia) diagnosed on MRI and/or CT was the most common etiology of SSD and was present in 22 of 88 (25%) pediatric SSD patients with available imaging data. 70 of 106 (66%) pediatric SSD patients with available imaging had anatomy amenable to cochlear implantation. Pediatric SSD is a rare condition and the most common etiology based on radiology is cochlear nerve deficiency. High resolution imaging of the temporal bone is essential to determine cochlear nerve morphology prior to consideration of cochlear implantation.Pubmed PDF Web
Jung Woo Lee,Deoksu Kim,Seokhwan Lee,Sung-Won Choi,Soo-Keun Kong,Lee Hwangbo,Jae Il Lee,Se-Joon Oh
Publication date 25-05-2021
To assess the clinical value of periventricular white matter hyperintensity (PWMH) found on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). In this prospective study, 115 patients who were diagnosed with SSNHL aged between 55 and 75 years were analyzed. All subjects underwent brain MRI and were divided into a PWMH and control groups, depending on the presence of PWMH on MRI. PWMH was subdivided into 3 groups according to severity. Pure-tone average results and hearing gain were compared between the 2 groups before treatment and 2 months after treatment. Hearing improvement was assessed using Sigel's criteria. A total of 106 patients (43 in the PWMH group and 63 in the control group) finally completed the 2-month follow-up. Average hearing gain in the PWMH group was significantly higher than in the control group (34.8 ± 20.3 and 25.9 ± 20.3, respectively, The presence of PWMH score 1 on brain MRI in patients with SSNHL was associated with better treatment response and was a good prognostic factor in a multivariate analysis while the hearing recovery in more severe PWMH (scores 2, 3) was not different from the control group.Pubmed PDF Web
Yufeng Li,Guo Ran,Kaizheng Chen,Xia Shen
Publication date 25-05-2021
To assess preoperative psychological burden in patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS). A total of 100 patients undergoing VS resection between September 2019 and June 2020 completed preoperative psychological screening. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was applied the day before surgery, and a score >14 was considered clinically important. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyzes were used to identify risk factors associated with increased preoperative psychological stress. Of the 100 patients who underwent VS resection, 44% were male, with a mean age of 45.9 years. Twenty-two (22%) had HADS scores >14. For the univariate analysis, risk factors associated with elevated psychological burden included time since diagnosis, number of symptoms, headache, vertigo, and nausea and/or vomiting. In the regression analysis, the number of symptoms and greater time from diagnosis to treatment correlated with higher preoperative psychological stress. Nearly 1 in 4 patients with VS experienced clinically significant emotional burden preoperatively. Number of symptoms and greater time from diagnosis to treatment contributed to this psychological burden.Pubmed PDF Web
Kendall K. Tasche,Ashley M. Dorneden,William M. Swift,Nathan H. Boyd,David C. Shonka,Nitin A. Pagedar
Publication date 25-05-2021
To review the experience of 3 hospitals with airway management during surgery for substernal goiter and identify preoperative factors that predict the need for advanced airway management techniques. A retrospective chart review between 2009 and 2017 of patients with substernal goiter treated surgically at 1 of 3 hospitals was performed. Of the 179 patients included in the study, 114 (63.7%) were female, the mean age was 55.1 years (range 20-87). Direct laryngoscopy or videolaryngoscopy was successful in 162 patients (90.5%), with fiberoptic intubation used for the remaining 17 patients. Thirty-one patients (17.4%) required >1 intubation attempt; these patients had larger thyroids (201.3 g, 95% CI 155.3-247.2 g) than those intubated with 1 attempt (144.7 g, 95% CI 127.4-161.9 g, The majority of patients undergoing surgery for substernal goiter can be intubated routinely without the need for fiberoptic intubation. Thyroid-specific factors such as lowest thyroid extent and mass effect of the gland on the trachea do not appear to be associated with difficult intubation, whereas classic patient factors associated with difficulty intubation are. VI.Pubmed PDF Web
Christopher Pool,Neerav Goyal,Jessyka G. Lighthall
Publication date 25-05-2021
Sinocutaneous fistulae (SCF) are abnormal communications between the paranasal sinuses and the overlying skin. They may be difficult to manage due to facial geometry, scar contraction, and poor tissue vascularity. We describe a novel use of the buccal flap and review the literature to examine management options for this disease process. A Pub Med/MEDLINE literature search was performed for studies published between January 1, 1950 and April 29, 2020 that describe management strategies for SCF. The clinical record, imaging, and operative reports were reviewed of the case in which the buccal fat flap was used in reconstruction. A total of 359 articles were retrieved. After removing duplicate articles, non-English studies, animal studies, duplicate articles and studies that mentioned SCF without specific mention of management strategies, 51 articles were reviewed. Management paradigms throughout the articles include (1) removal of infection, (2) ensuring patency of sinus outflow tracts, (3) tensionless multilayered closure using well vascularized tissue, and (4) prevention or minimization of future risk factors for fistula formation. This article informs surgeons on reconstructive options for sinocutaneous fistulae including a novel description of the buccal fat flap.Pubmed PDF Web
Grace C. Khong,Jaya Bhat,Ravi S. Sharma,Samuel C. Leong
Publication date 22-05-2021
To assess droplet splatter around the surgical field and surgeon during simulated Coblation tonsil surgery to better inform on mitigation strategies and evaluate choice of personal protective equipment.
This was an observational study performed using a life-size head model to simulate tonsil surgery and fluorescein-soaked strawberries to mimic tonsils. The Coblation wand was activated over the strawberries for 5 minutes. This was repeated 5 times with 2 surgeons (totalling 10 data sets).
The presence of droplet around the surgical field and anatomical subsites on the surgeon was assessed in binary fashion: present or not present. The results were collated as frequency of droplet detection and illustrated as a heatmap; 0 = white, 1-2 = yellow, 3-4 = orange, and 5 = red. Fluorescein droplets were detected in all 4 quadrants of the surgical field. The frequency of splatter was greatest in the upper (nearest to surgeon) and lower quadrants. There were detectable splatter droplets on the surgeon; most frequently occurring on the hands followed by the forearm. Droplets were also detected on the visor, neck, and chest albeit less frequently. However, none were detected on the upper arms. Droplet splatter can be detected in the immediate surgical field as well as on the surgeon. Although wearing a face visor does not prevent splatter on the surgical mask or around the eyes, it should be considered when undertaking tonsil surgery as well as a properly fitted goggle. 5.
Maxwell Scher,Claudia I. Cabrera,Yida Cai,Akina Tamaki,Shawn Li,Nicole Fowler,Rod Rezaee,Pierre Lavertu,Theodoros Teknos,Jason Thuener
Publication date 13-05-2021
The objective of this study is to investigate the safety, efficacy, and potential cost-savings of the outpatient parotidectomy procedure. This is a retrospective chart review of all patients who underwent a parotidectomy at a large academic center from 2015 through 2019 including demographic data, postoperative complications, drain placement, readmission, and financial cost. A comparison was performed between patients who underwent an outpatient vs inpatient parotidectomy. A total of 335 patients underwent parotidectomy (136 outpatient; 199 inpatient). Comparison of patient demographics, common comorbidities, tumor size, tumor type, postoperative complications, and readmission rate was similar between the inpatient and outpatient cohorts. The overall mean cost difference between inpatient parotidectomy and outpatient parotidectomy for all years was $1528.58 (95%CI: $1139-$1916). The outpatient parotidectomy procedure has a comparable safety profile to the inpatient procedure while providing a significant cost-savings benefit.Pubmed PDF Web
Matthew J. Urban,Jamie Masliah,Cameron Heyd,Tirth R. Patel,Thomas Nielsen
Publication date 13-05-2021
To evaluate the success of sole medical therapy (MT) versus surgical therapy (ST) in patients with both clinically and radiographically confirmed peritonsillar abscess (PTA). To also determine treatment safety based on abscess size, and identify predictors of treatment failure. This was a retrospective cohort of 3 hospitals in a single academic health system. A total of 214 immunocompetent patients diagnosed with uncomplicated PTA underwent a contrasted CT scan of the neck. About 87 patients were treated with sole MT (intravenous antibiotics and steroids), and 127 patients were treated with ST (MT plus drainage). Treatment failure occurred in 8.0% of the MT group and 7.9% of the ST group ( Frequency of treatment failure was not significantly different among patients receiving MT and ST. Abscesses ≥2 cm in size were more likely to fail in both groups and ST was not statistically superior. Sole MT for uncomplicated PTA may help reduce unnecessary procedures and healthcare costs.Pubmed PDF Web
Jennifer L. McCoy,Ronak Dixit,R. Jun Lin,Michael A. Belsky,Amber D. Shaffer,David Chi,Noel Jabbour
Publication date 12-05-2021
Extensive literature exists documenting disparities in access to healthcare for patients with lower socioeconomic status (SES). The objective of this study was to examine access disparities and differences in surgical wait times in children with the most common pediatric otolaryngologic surgery, tympanostomy tubes (TT). A retrospective cohort study was performed at a tertiary children's hospital. Children ages <18 years who received a first set of tympanostomy tubes during 2015 were studied. Patient demographics and markers of SES including zip code, health insurance type, and appointment no-shows were recorded. Clinical measures included risk factors, symptoms, and age at presentation and first TT. A total of 969 patients were included. Average age at surgery was 2.11 years. Almost 90% were white and 67.5% had private insurance. Patients with public insurance, ≥1 no-show appointment, and who lived in zip codes with the median income below the United States median had a longer period from otologic consult and preoperative clinic to TT, but no differences were seen in race. Those with public insurance had their surgery at an older age than those with private insurance ( Lower SES is associated with chronic otitis media with effusion and a longer wait time from otologic consult and preoperative clinic to TT placement. By being transparent in socioeconomic disparities, we can begin to expose systemic problems and move forward with interventions. 4.Pubmed PDF Web
Janice L. Farlow,Jenna Devare,Susan E. Ellsperman,Catherine T. Haring,Molly E. Heft Neal,Terrence Pleasant,Katie K. Spielbauer,Michael J. Sylvester,Yanjun Xie,Emily J. Marchiano
Publication date 12-05-2021
To create a longitudinal near-peer mentorship program for medical students applying to otolaryngology. A program for longitudinal near-peer mentorship was designed based on a needs analysis of senior medical students. Program objectives were to (1) provide didactic education on common otolaryngology consults, (2) facilitate resident-student networking, and (3) enable applicants to meet other students. Senior otolaryngology residents were matched with medical students from across the United States applying to otolaryngology for a series of online small group meetings. Sessions included resident-designed didactics covering high-yield clinical scenarios and a mentorship component focused on transition to residency topics. Program evaluation included anonymized pre- and post-tests for each didactic session and an anonymous post-program participant survey. There were 40 student participants from across the United States, with an average attendance of 73% of sessions per participant. Performance on didactic testing improved for 2 of the 3 sessions. Participants stated they would be very likely to recommend each session to another student in the future (4.96/5.00, obs = 155). Participants stated the most valuable part of the program was interacting with residents (82% of responses), transition to residency advice (28%), and learning about otolaryngology consults (28%). Suggestions for improvement included expanding content, increasing the number of sessions, and involving additional faculty and residents. A longitudinal virtual experience can be valuable for near-peer mentorship for medical students applying to otolaryngology.Pubmed PDF Web
Amarbir S. Gill,Joshua Hwang,Angela M. Beliveau,Jeremiah A. Alt,Edward Bradley Strong,Machelle D. Wilson,Toby O. Steele
Publication date 12-05-2021
Patient satisfaction has a significant bearing on medical therapy compliance and patient outcomes. The purpose of this study was to (1) describe patient satisfaction, as characterized by the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire-18 (PSQ-18), in the care of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and (2) analyze the impact of comorbidities on satisfaction using the functional comorbidity index (FCI). Patient demographics, disease severity measures, and PSQ-18 scores for patients with CRS presenting to a tertiary rhinology clinic between November 2019 and April 2020 were collected and analyzed. FCI was calculated retrospectively using the electronic medical record; individual comorbidities were tabulated. Spearman's correlations followed by multivariate regression was used to assess the relationship between medical comorbidities and PSQ-18. Sixty-nine patients met criteria for analysis. There were no significant differences in age, gender, and Sinonasal Outcomes Test-22 scores between CRS patients with (CRSwNP) and without (CRSsNP) nasal polyps. There was no significant difference in the mean FCI for patients with CRSwNP versus CRSsNP (5.1 and 4.3, respectively) ( Patient satisfaction in the care of CRS is generally high with a diagnosis of comorbid hearing impairment demonstrating a negative association with satisfaction in this cohort.Pubmed PDF Web
Jennifer N. Shehan,David O’Neil Danis,Ashank Bains,Andrew R. Scott,Jessica R. Levi
Publication date 12-05-2021
Microtia-anotia (MA) describes a range of external ear anomalies which is commonly associated with various syndromes and malformations of the head and neck. Previous studies have suggested a strong association between MA and male sex, maternal diabetes, and Hispanic race/ethnicity. This study seeks to evaluate the associations between MA and preterm newborns in the United States.
Population-based inpatient registry analysis was conducted. Kids' Inpatient Database (2016) was used to identify weighted in-hospital births with diagnosis of prematurity or MA. Demographic information was obtained, and odds ratios (ORs) were used to determine associations between prematurity and MA.
Among patients included in our dataset, 8.655% (326 285) were preterm and 0.016% (523) had MA. 0.003% (109) of patients were preterm and had MA. Preterm infants had 2.19 times the odds (95% C.
I. = 1.78-2.69) of having MA when compared to the full-term population. The binary logistic regression model accounting for possible confounding variables produced an aOR of 1.48 (95% C.
I. = 1.17-1.87) for the association between prematurity and MA. Infants who are born preterm are more likely to have MA than full term infants. The current results will allow for improved risk stratification, maternal counseling, and interventions in the case of prematurity.
Stephen F. Bansberg,Cullen M. Taylor,Gregory S. Neel
Publication date 11-05-2021
Procedures which utilize bilateral mucosal flaps with an interposition graft are frequently used when attempting closure of a septal perforation. Concurrent surgical management of the nasal valve or an aesthetic deformity may be indicated. The objective of this study is to report our experience using auricular perichondrium for the interposition graft when auricular cartilage is harvested for structural or aesthetic graft material. A retrospective medical record review was performed for septal perforation repairs performed at Mayo Clinic in Arizona from January 2010 through January 2020. Patients identified for this study underwent a procedure utilizing bilateral nasal mucosal flaps with an auricular perichondrium interposition graft. Forty-four patients (31 females) with a mean age of 53.3 years met study criteria. The most common presenting symptoms were nasal obstruction, crusting, and epistaxis. Prior septal surgery was the most common perforation etiology (45.5%). Mean perforation length was 11.8 (range, 3-26) mm and height, 9.1 (range, 2-16) mm. Auricular cartilage was harvested for nasal valve surgery in 43 patients. Complete perforation closure was noted in 95.3% (41/43) of patients with a minimum post-operative follow-up of 3 (mean, 20.4) months. Four patients underwent revision surgery for persistent postoperative nasal obstruction. The ear can provide both cartilage and perichondrium for use in septal perforation surgery. Our study demonstrates the successful use of auricular perichondrium as the interposition graft for a perforation closure procedure utilizing bilateral nasal mucosal flaps.Pubmed PDF Web
Kenny D. Rodriguez,Kami Wolfe Schneider,Alexandra Suttman,Timothy Garrington,Tennyson Jellins,Kaitlyn Tholen,Christian R. Francom,Brian W. Herrmann
Publication date 11-05-2021
Cancer predisposition syndromes are germline pathogenic variants in genes that greatly raise the risk of developing neoplastic diseases. One of the most well-known is Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), which is due to pathogenic variants in the To examine head and neck manifestations of LFS in children treated at a tertiary children's hospital over a 20-year period. A retrospective review of LFS children with neoplastic disease presenting in traditional Otolaryngologic head and neck subsites from 2000 to 2019, with patient charts reviewed for relevant clinical, imaging, and operative data. Of the 40 LFS patients initially identified, 27 neoplastic tumors were identified in 20 children within this cohort (20 primary, 7 second primary). Head and neck subsites aside from the brain or orbit were involved in 22% (6/27) of these tumors, representing 20% (4/20) of primary tumors and 29% (2/7) of second primary tumors. Both second primaries within the head and neck were within the radiation fields of the first primary tumor. The mean ages at primary and second primary diagnosis were 4.6 years (SD 3.5) and 12 years (SD 1.4), respectively. The male/female ratio was 1:6 among all patients with head and neck tumors. All 6 head and neck tumors were sarcomas. Rhabdomyosarcoma ( This study identifies a high potential for head and neck involvement in children with LFS, which has not been previously described in the literature. Otolaryngological care should be included in a multidisciplinary care team surveilling these patients.Pubmed PDF Web
Alexander Chern,Rahul K. Sharma,Sarah E. Maurrasse,Madeleine A. Drusin,Adam J. Ciarleglio,Justin S. Golub
Publication date 07-05-2021
To compare the educational value of endoscopic ear surgery versus microscopic ear surgery among medical students. Medical students anonymously completed a cross-sectional survey immediately after observing endoscopic or microscopic ear surgery. A Likert scale (1 = worst, 5 = best) was used to analyze variables across 3 domains including: (1) area of interest visibility, (2) optical quality, (3) education and understanding. The Mann-Whitney Forty-four surveys were analyzed (20 endoscopic and 24 microscopic ear surgeries). Across domains, the endoscope was superior to the microscope (adjusted Among medical students, endoscopic ear surgery was superior to microscopic ear surgery for several visual quality indicators and perceived educational benefit. These findings have implications for medical student education and surgical training.Pubmed PDF Web
Gurston Gordon Nyquist,Prachi N. Patel,Swar Vimawala,Chandala Chitguppi,Tawfiq Khoury,Joseph M. Curry,Adam Luginbuhl,Mindy R. Rabinowitz,Marc R. Rosen
Publication date 06-05-2021
The mainstay of treatment in sinonasal malignancy (SNM) is surgery, and when combined with chemoradiation therapy, often leads to the best overall prognosis. Nasal endoscopy is essential for post-treatment surveillance along with physical exam and radiologic evaluation. The ability to directly visualize the sinus cavities after surgery may also improve early detection of tumor recurrence and is another reason to potentially advocate for surgery in these patients. A retrospective chart review of medical records of patients with pathologically proven SNM was conducted from 2005 to 2019. The nasal cavity and maxillary sinus were the most common primary tumor sub-sites. The most common pathology was squamous cell carcinoma (42%). The median time to recurrence was 9.8 months. Recurrence was initially detected endoscopically in 34.3% patients, by imaging in 62.7% patients, and by physical exam in 3.0% patients. 67 (29%) total recurrences were detected on follow-up, of which 46 (68.7%) were local. Twenty-three of the local recurrences were identified via nasal endoscopy. Thirteen recurrences were identified via endoscopic surveillance within the surgically patent paranasal sinuses while 13 were identified within the nasal cavity; 5 patients had multiple sites of recurrence. Local recurrence of SNM is the most common site for recurrent disease and nasal endoscopy identified half of these cases. 50% of these recurrences were within the paranasal sinuses and would not have been easily identified if the sinuses were not open for inspection. Thus, open sinus cavities aid in the detection of tumor recurrence and is another advantage of surgery in the management of SNM.Pubmed PDF Web
Mathieu Bergeron,John Paul Giliberto,Meredith E. Tabangin,Alessandro de Alarcon
Publication date 05-05-2021
Post airway reconstruction dysphonia (PARD) is common and has a significant effect on the quality of life of patients. Vocal fold injection augmentation (VFIA) is one treatment that can be used to improve glottic insufficiency in some patients. The goal of this study was to characterize the use and outcomes of VFIA for PARD. Retrospective chart review from January 2007 to July 2018 at a tertiary pediatric care center. Consecutive patients with PARD who underwent VFIA, who had a preoperative voice evaluation and a follow-up evaluation within 3 months after VFIA (fat, carboxymethylcellulose gel, hyaluronic acid). Thirty-four patients (20 female) underwent VFIA. The mean age at the time of the injection was 13.6 years (SD 6.1). Twenty patients (58.8%) had a history of prematurity and a mean of 1.8 open airway surgeries. After injection, 29/34 patients (85.3%) noted a subjective voice improvement. The baseline Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE-V) overall severity score decreased by a mean of 5.7 (SD = 19.6) points, Patients with PARD represent a complex subset of patients. VFIA is a straightforward intervention that may improve voice perception. Many patients reported subjective improvement despite minimal objective measurement. Further work is warranted to elucidate the role of injection in management of PARD.Pubmed PDF Web
Hannah J. Brown,Ashwin Ganti,Paolo Gattuso,Peter Papagiannopoulos,Bobby A. Tajudeen
Publication date 03-05-2021
Sinusitis complicated by intracranial or orbital extension can be life-threatening and require emergent intervention. Histologic features of complicated sinusitis have yet to be determined and may have significant implications for understanding pathophysiology. A structured histopathology report was utilized to analyze sinus tissue extracted during functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). A total of 13 histopathology variables were compared between patients with complicated sinusitis (CS), CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP), and CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). About 24 CS, 149 uncomplicated CRSsNP, and 191 uncomplicated CRSwNP patients were analyzed. Nasal tissue from CS and CRSwNP patients demonstrated similar levels of overall inflammation (66.7% vs. 69.6% with moderate/severe inflammation, Significant histopathological differences were evident in patients with CS, CRSsNP, and CRSwNP. CS patients did not perfectly fit either a CRSsNP or CRSwNP profile, underscoring the importance of delineating the histopathological features of CS. This study offers insight into the histologic aspects of CS, providing initial evidence that it is an aggressive neutrophilic inflammatory process.Pubmed PDF Web
Ryan A. McMillan,Andrew J. Bowen,Michael L. Wells,Dale C. Ekbom
Publication date 30-04-2021
Transoral endoscopic laser-assisted diverticulotomy (TELD) with diverticulectomy and diverticuloplasty (TELD + DD) for the management of Zenker's diverticulum (ZD) has been utilized by our institution since 2016 in attempts to reduce residual pouch size. This technique involves complete endoscopic pouch excision with partial advancement of mucosal flaps. Our study compares the subjective outcomes, objective outcomes, and complication rates between TELD and TELD + DD. A retrospective cohort study was performed on patients who underwent TELD or TELD + DD by a single surgeon at a tertiary academic center (2013-2019). Videofluoroscopic swallow studies (VFSS) with esophagram, Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10), Reflux Symptom Index (RSI), and Functional Outcome Swallowing Scale (FOSS) were collected at preoperative and 3 month follow-up visits. A single blinded reviewer recorded height, width, and depth of pre and postoperative pouches with volumetric analysis performed assuming an ellipsoid shape. Comorbidities, complications, postoperative course, and recurrence were recorded. Of the 75 patients that met criteria, 27 underwent TELD + DD and 48 underwent TELD. Eighteen TELD + DD and 37 TELD had both pre and post-operative VFSS. TELD + DD and TELD had a 96 ± 7% and 87 ± 16% reduction in pouch volume, respectively ( Use of TELD + DD is associated with a statistically significantly decreased residual pouch size with no significant difference in short-term subjective outcomes. Complication rates and short-term recurrence rates are comparable. Long-term recurrence rates will require further studies to characterize. Level 3.Pubmed PDF Web
Patrick Kiessling,Semirra Bayan,Christine Lohse,Diana Orbelo
Publication date 23-04-2021
To investigate potential associations between the Predictive Gagging Survey (PGS) with patient experience of gag and discomfort as well as provider perception of patient gag and level of laryngeal visualization during flexible laryngoscopy with stroboscopy (FL-S). A total of 53 adult patients undergoing FL-S were recruited for this prospective non-controlled study. PGS was completed before FL-S. Patients rated perceived level of gag and discomfort on a 10-point severity scale after FL-S. Additionally, providers completed a Gagging Severity Index (GSI) reflecting their impression of patient gag and level of laryngeal visualization following FL-S. Spearman rank correlation coefficients were used to assess associations. There was a positive association with PGS score and patient perception of gagging (0.34; While not predictive of GSI or level of laryngeal visualization, the PGS was found to be a useful tool in predicting patient experience of gagging and discomfort during FL-S, further reinforcing the subjective experience of this procedure. Use of the PGS may be helpful in identifying specific candidates who may struggle with subjective discomfort or gagging during FL-S for future studies considering interventions to manage and meaningfully decrease discomfort. Having such an instrument is important given the low number of individuals who struggle with discomfort during the exam.Pubmed PDF Web
Sam D. Schild,Richard M. Rosenfeld
Publication date 23-04-2021
Our objectives were to assess attitudes regarding office-based insertion of tympanostomy tubes without general anesthesia, to identify barriers that would discourage in-office procedures, and to highlight opportunities that would potentially facilitate this approach in the future. Cross-sectional survey administered to members of the American Society of Pediatric Otolaryngology (ASPO) from March to April 2020 using the Research Electronic Data Capture (Redcap), internet-based data capture platform. The brief, 10-item survey required 3 minutes to complete and used a 5-point Likert scale for primary questions. Respondents included 172 fellowship trained, pediatric otolaryngologists with 14 median years of clinical practice and 25 median tympanostomy tube insertions per month (75% >40 per month). Although tubes, in any setting, were most often inserted in children under age 2 years (95% "often" or "very often") and in those aged 3 to 5 years (93%), the likelihoods of doing this in-office for these age groups were only 8% and 6% respectively. For children aged 6 to 12 years, likelihood of in-office insertion was only 15%. Frequent barriers noted were safety concerns, emotional trauma, physical pain, and inability to suction. Opportunities to facilitate this approach include improved topical anesthesia, availability of conscious sedation, conclusive research on adverse effects of general anesthesia, and availability of an automated tube insertion device. Office-based insertion of tympanostomy tubes in children without general anesthesia is performed by a small minority of respondents, but there are discernible barriers and opportunities to promote future uptake. Our results should facilitate ongoing discussion and innovation to better accommodate the preferences of families whose children are candidates for tympanostomy tubes.Pubmed PDF Web
Vinay Kumar Vijayendra,Vijayendra Honnurappa,Nilesh Mahajan,Miriam Redleaf
Publication date 23-04-2021
Iatrogenic removal of intra-temporal disease processes, such as cholesteatoma and keratosis obturans, can be challenging when the facial nerve (FN) is involved. Despite this concern about possible FN injury during these procedures, our clinical observation has been that the diseased growth can be cleaned quite easily from the vertical FN epineurium. Therefore, we designed a cadaveric protocol to measure thickness of the FN sheath (epineurium) in horizontal, second genu and vertical FN segments and to correlate these measurements with surgical management of FN disorders. Fifty non-fixated (wet) cadaveric temporal bones were dissected over 1 year's time. The intra-temporal FN sheath epineurium was harvested from the mid-horizontal, second genu, and mid-vertical segments. Using a digital micrometric technique, the thickness of each sample was measured. Data analysis was performed using student's two-tailed, dependent Epineurial nerve sheath thickness was the least in the horizontal segment (mean 0.9 mm, range 0.040-0.140 mm), greater at the second genu (mean 0.19 mm, range 0.010-0.280 mm), and greatest in the vertical segment (mean 0.29 mm, range 0.170-0.570 mm). These differences were statistically significant. In cases of cholesteatoma and keratosis obturans involving the vertical FN, the disease process can be separated from the FN sheath because of the sheath thickness in this region. Disease in the horizontal segment involves a thinner sheath and separating the disease process from the nerve is more difficult in this area.Pubmed PDF Web
Heather M. Minchew,Omar A. Karadaghy,Paul J. Camarata,Roukoz B. Chamoun,Donald David Beahm,Wojciech H. Przylecki,Brian T. Andrews
Publication date 21-04-2021
Complications associated with intracranial vault compromise can be neurologically and systemically devastating. Primary and secondary repair of these deficits require an air and watertight barrier between the intracranial and extracranial environments. This study evaluated the outcomes and utility of using intracranial free tissue transfer as both primary and salvage surgical repair of reconstruction.
A retrospective review was performed of all subjects who underwent intracranial free tissue transfer as primary or salvage repair.
A total of 13 intracranial free tissue transfers were performed on 11 subjects: osteocutaneous radial forearm free flaps (n = 6), partial myofascial rectus abdominis flaps (n = 5), temporoparietal fascia flap (n = 1), and serratus anterior myofascial flap (n = 1). Primary reconstruction was performed on 4 subjects with the remaining being salvage repair. Indications for surgery included neoplasm (n = 6 of 11), ballistic trauma (n = 3 of 11), motor vehicle accident (n = 1 of 11), and infection (n = 1 of 11). Three subjects required additional surgical repair for CSF leak and pneumocephalus, with 2 subjects requiring an additional free tissue transfer at a different site. In our experience, free tissue transfer is an effective primary and salvage surgical technique in the reconstruction of complex intracranial problems.
Sanjana Balachandra,Imam M. Xierali,Marc A. Nivet,Jacob B. Hunter
Publication date 21-04-2021
To describe trends in cochlear implantation (CI) disparities in Texas using an all-payer database from 2010 to 2017. Texas Outpatient Surgical and Radiological Procedure Data, a public use data file, was accessed to analyze outpatient CI cases for Texas. Variables analyzed include patient age, sex, race/ethnicity, and insurance status. Population data from the American Community Survey generated CI utilization rates by patient demographic characteristics. There were 6158 CI cases identified during the study period. The number of CI per year nearly doubled from 497 in 2010 to 961 in 2017. The majority of CI recipients were white (59.5%), male (51.9%), and privately insured (47.9%). All sub-populations statewide had more CI in 2017 compared to 2010, with the overall CI per 100 000 population increasing from 1.98 to 3.50 per 100 000 population. Patients over 75 demonstrated the greatest increase in the CI rate per 100 000 population, increasing from 4.60 in 2010 to 14.30 in 2017. Regarding race/ethnicity, all sub-populations noted an increase in the CI per 100 000 population, with white patients demonstrating the highest rate in 2017, at 4.36 CI per 100 000 population. Asian patients had a 502% increase in the CI rate (from 0.42 to 2.53), compared with 87.9%, 84.4%, and 69.2% increases for white, Black, and Hispanic populations, respectively. CI became more widespread between 2010 and 2017, benefiting certain populations more than others. Black and Hispanic populations had lower CI per 100 000 population than their white peers, while patients >65 years of age accounted for the greatest increase in CI.Pubmed PDF Web
Jae-Sung Nam,Sang Hyeon Ahn,Jong-Gyun Ha,Jeong-Jin Park,Hae Eun Noh,Joo-Heon Yoon,Chang-Hoon Kim,Hyung-Ju Cho
Publication date 19-04-2021
Several allergy tests are used for the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis; however, few studies have reported a direct comparison of the skin prick test (SPT), multiple allergen simultaneous test (MAST), and ImmunoCAP according to specific allergens. This study aimed to evaluate the correlations between each test and allergic rhinitis symptoms and to evaluate the correlations of the MAST and ImmunoCAP with the SPT for representative indoor allergens in Korea. Electronic medical charts were retrospectively reviewed, and 698 patients with allergic rhinitis who had performed SPT, MAST, and ImmunoCAP were enrolled. Correlations between each allergy test for 4 representative indoor allergens and the symptoms of allergic rhinitis were analyzed. Agreements of the MAST and ImmunoCAP with the SPT were compared according to each allergen. The SPT showed higher correlations with allergic rhinitis symptoms for 4 indoor allergens ( Overall, the SPT showed a higher correlation with allergic rhinitis symptoms than the MAST or ImmunoCAP for 4 indoor allergens. ImmunoCAP showed similar reactivity to MAST; however, it showed better positivity with dog allergen in patients who were reactive to the allergen in the SPT. Care should be taken while evaluating dog allergen sensitization using the MAST.Pubmed PDF Web
Sara Behbahani,Gregory L. Barinsky,David Wassef,Boris Paskhover,Rachel Kaye
Publication date 19-04-2021
Primary tracheal malignancies are relatively rare cancers, representing 0.1% to 0.4% of all malignancies. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is the second most common histology of primary tracheal malignancy, after squamous cell carcinoma. This study aims to analyze demographic characteristics and potential influencing factors on survival of tracheal ACC (TACC). This was a retrospective cohort study utilizing the National Cancer Database (NCDB). The NCDB was queried for all cases of TACC diagnosed from 2004 to 2016 (n = 394). Kaplan-Meier (KM) and Cox proportional-hazards models were used to determine clinicopathological and treatment factors associated with survival outcomes. Median age of diagnosis was 56 (IQR: 44.75-66.00). Females were affected slightly more than males (53.8% vs 46.2%). The most prevalent tumor diameter range was 20 to 39 mm (34.8%) followed by greater than 40 mm in diameter (17.8%). Median overall survival (OS) was 9.72 years with a 5- and 10-year OS of 70% and 47.5%, respectively. Localized disease was not associated with a survival benefit over invasive disease ( Our data suggests that surgical resection, possibly in conjunction with radiation therapy, is associated with improved survival, and tumor larger than 40 mm are associated with worse survival.Pubmed PDF Web
Rijul S. Kshirsagar,Chris Xiao,David W. Chou,Srikanth Krishnan,Ashton B. Christian,Kevin P. Labadie,Merrick A. Brodsky,Jonathan Liang
Publication date 12-04-2021
The popularity of mountain biking (MTB) in the United States has risen in recent years. We sought to identify the prevalence and distribution of MTB associated head and neck injuries presenting to emergency departments across the U.
S. and identify risk factors for hospital admission in this patient population. The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) was queried for MTB related injuries of the head and neck from 2009 to 2018, with analysis for incidence, age, gender, anatomic site, and diagnoses. A total of 486 cases were identified, corresponding to an estimated 18 952 head and neck MTB related ED visits. Patients were predominantly male (80.7%) and white (69.8%) with a median age of 35 years (interquartile range, 21-46 years). A majority (88.4%) of patients were released from the ED, but a significant proportion of patients were admitted (9.2%) or transferred (1.2%). The most common facial fractures were facial/not specified (35%), nasal bone (29%), mandible (15%), orbit (12%), and zygomaxillary complex (9%). The greatest predictors of hospital admission/transfer were injury to the mouth or neck and avulsion-type injury ( MTB results in a significant number of traumatic head and neck injuries nationwide. Patients are primarily adult, white males. The majority of injuries result in discharge from the ED, however a small amount of these patients experience significant morbidity necessitating hospital admission. Understanding the distribution of MTB head and neck injuries may aid in the clinical evaluation of these patients. 4.
Max Feng,Veronica F. Lao,Garret Choby,Patrick B. Bolton,Michael J. Marino,Toby N. Weingarten,Ian M. Humphreys,Sabrina K. Dhillon,Byeong Y. Choi,Roman A. Fernandez,Najma S. Mehter,Philip G. Chen
Publication date 12-04-2021
Topical vasoconstrictors and intravenous tranexamic acid (IV TXA) are safe and efficacious to decrease bleeding and improve the surgical field during endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). The purpose of this study was to investigate practice patterns, awareness of clinical evidence, and comfort levels among anesthesia providers regarding these hemostatic agents for ESS. A total of 767 attending anesthesiologists, residents, and certified registered nurse anesthetists (CRNAs) at 5 United States academic centers were invited to participate in a survey regarding their experience with IV TXA and 3 topical vasoconstrictor medications (oxymetazoline, epinephrine, and cocaine) during ESS. 330 (47%) anesthesia providers responded to the electronic survey. 113 (97%) residents, 92 (83%) CRNAs, and 52 (68%) attendings managed 5 or fewer ESS cases per month. Two-thirds of providers had not reviewed efficacy or safety literature for these hemostatic agents. Oxymetazoline was perceived safest, followed by epinephrine, IV TXA, and cocaine. Respondents considered potential side effects over surgical field visibility when selecting agents. The majority of providers had no formal training on these agents for ESS, but indicated interest in educational opportunities. Many anesthesia providers are unfamiliar with safety and efficacy literature regarding agents used to improve hemostasis for ESS, highlighting a need for development of relevant educational resources. Rhinologic surgeons have an opportunity to communicate with anesthesia colleagues on the use of hemostatic agents to improve the surgical field during ESS.Pubmed PDF Web
Grégoire D’Andréa,Benjamin Vairel,Clair Vandersteen,Emilien Chabrillac,Sébastien Vergez,Guillaume De Bonnecaze
Publication date 10-04-2021
To highlight the specific outcomes of the current surgical procedures for lingual thyroid excision, for benign and malignant lesions.
We carried out a systematic review of surgical treatments of lingual thyroid, according to the PRISMA method. We conducted our literature search in Pub Med and Ovid. Data was collected concerning patient demographics, tumor characteristics, types of surgery performed, and specific intra- and postoperative outcomes of each procedure.
Surgical procedures were classified in 4 categories: transcervical approaches, "invasive" transoral approaches (transmandibular and/or tongue splitting), "non-invasive" transoral approaches, and transoral robotic surgery. We detailed the transoral robotic surgical technique through a case report, along with a surgical video. Of 373 peer-reviewed articles found, 40 provided adequate information on surgical management and outcomes for patients with lingual thyroid. "Non-invasive" transoral approaches and transoral robotic surgeries required significantly fewer tracheostomies than "invasive" transoral and transcervical approaches ( Transoral robotic surgery appears to be a feasible, effective, and fast solution for lingual thyroid excision, with excellent short- and long-term surgical outcomes.
Monica H. Xing,Raymond L. Chai
Publication date 10-04-2021
The varied treatment options available to patients with HPV-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) can cause significant patient confusion. In particular, transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has become widely used for treatment of HPV-positive OPSCC. As patients commonly refer to the internet for additional information, we aim to evaluate the quality of online patient educational materials for TORS in comparison to other otolaryngology surgical procedures. The terms "transoral robotic surgery," "glossectomy," "thyroidectomy," and "neck dissection" were searched on Google. Flesch reading ease, Flesh-Kincaid Grade Level, MD review rates, and PEMAT understandability and actionability were assessed for each search term. Google trends was used to determine search interest for each term between May 2015 and May 2020. Of the 30 TORS websites that met inclusion criteria, the average FRE and FKGL scores were 40.74 and 11.60 (that of an average high school senior). The FRE and FKGL scores for TORS were all statistically significantly lower than those of all comparator search terms ( In comparison to other common otolaryngology procedures, TORS websites are the least patient friendly. As TORS becomes a more widely used procedure, it is critical that TORS websites become higher quality resources that patients can reliably reference.Pubmed PDF Web
Alexander J. Straughan,Luke J. Pasick,Vrinda Gupta,Daniel A. Benito,Joseph F. Goodman,Philip E. Zapanta
Publication date 09-04-2021
Fireworks are used commonly for celebrations in the United States, but can lead to severe injury to the head and neck. We aim to assess the incidence, types, and mechanisms of head and neck injuries associated with fireworks use from 2010 to 2019. A retrospective cross-sectional study, using data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, of individuals presenting to United States Emergency Departments with head and neck injuries caused by fireworks and flares from 2010 to 2019. Incidence, types, and mechanisms of injury related to fireworks use in the US population were assessed. A total of 541 patients (349 [64.5%] male, and 294 [54%] under 18 years of age) presented to emergency departments with fireworks-related head and neck injuries; the estimated national total was 20 584 patients (13 279 male, 9170 white, and 11 186 under 18 years of age). The most common injury diagnoses were burns (44.7% of injuries), laceration/avulsion/penetrating trauma (21.1%), and otologic injury (15.2%), which included hearing loss, otalgia, tinnitus, unspecified acoustic trauma, and tympanic membrane perforation. The remaining 19% of injuries were a mix, including contusion, abrasion, hematoma, fracture, and closed head injury. Associations between fireworks type and injury diagnosis (chi-square Fireworks-related head and neck injuries are more likely to occur in young, white, and male individuals. Burns are the most common injury, while otologic injury is a significant contributor. Annual rates of fireworks-related head and neck injuries have not changed or improved significantly in the United States in the past decade, suggesting efforts to identify and prevent these injuries are insufficient.Pubmed PDF Web
Heidi Jones,Elizabeth Ross,Jemy Jose
Publication date 09-04-2021
UK population ageing and associated cancer risk predicts an increase in the prevalence of laryngeal cancer in elderly patients. Whilst trans-oral laser microsurgery (TLM) has been demonstrated to achieve excellent control of early disease with few complications, data specifically related to its safety and efficacy in older patients is lacking. We report the largest series to date. To assess the safety and efficacy of TLM in elderly patients with glottic pre-malignancy and early malignancy. A retrospective review and statistical analysis of the clinical records of patients aged 70 or over undergoing TLM for early and premalignant glottic disease. The records of 106 patients over the age of 70 were identified. Thirteen records were excluded, 4 due to failure to meet the inclusion criteria (stage I/II disease, primary site of lesion in the glottis) and 9 due to incomplete follow up data capture. Most surgeries (>70%) were performed as a day case or overnight admission, with only 2 admissions >2 days. One patient required hospital readmission with dysphagia, resulting in an altered diet. No patients required tracheostomy or tube feeding. No treatment related deaths or intensive care admissions were observed. Ten patients had recurrent disease within 5 years; 1 received radiotherapy, 1 underwent salvage laryngectomy, the remainder had further TLM without complication. Five-year disease specific survival rates were >90%. Our results demonstrate that TLM is safe and effective for elderly patients, with outcomes comparable to those reported in large, non-age selected cohorts. Although our patients underwent more conservative cordectomy types (I-III) than those with similar disease stages reported elsewhere, our recurrence rates were not higher. This supports the oncological effectiveness of surgery whilst reducing the risk of associated functional compromise.Pubmed PDF Web
Carissa Wentland,Joseph Cousins,Jason May,Arnaldo Rivera
Publication date 09-04-2021
Report a series of cases in which patients have concomitant superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) and a dehiscent tegmen tympani with Dural contact to the malleus head (DCMH). An analysis of radiologic and audiologic data in 4 patients who presented with SSCD and DCMH at a tertiary care institution. A pertinent literature review was performed. Four patients (5 ears) had SSCD and DCMH. In 3 patients with unilateral DCMH, the mean maximum air-bone gap was 15 dB in the ear with DCMH compared to 50 dB in the ear without DCMH. Of the 5 ears with DCMH, the mean air conduction threshold at 250 Hz was 17 dB compared to 42 dB in the 3 ears without DCMH. We report the findings of DCMH in a series of 4 patients with bilateral SSCD. This limited series suggests that ears with SSCD and DCMH have less of an air-bone gap than would be expected, as 1 would expect an additive effect of DCMH and SSCD on the air-bone gap.Pubmed PDF Web
Jenna H. Barengo,Andrew J. Redmann,Patrick Kennedy,Michael J. Rutter,Matthew M. Smith
Publication date 09-04-2021
Examine the presentation and clinical course of patients with bacterial tracheitis (BT). Identify if socioeconomic differences exist among children who present with BT. This was a retrospective case series from a tertiary care pediatric medical center. The study group included patients less than 18 years old who were diagnosed with BT from January 2011 to March 2019. Patients with a tracheostomy and those who developed BT after prolonged hospitalization were excluded. Patient demographics were compared with the demographics of the counties surrounding the hospital. 33 patients with BT met inclusion criteria. The most common presenting symptoms were difficulty breathing, stridor, and sore throat (81.8% each), followed by cough (78.8%). Median length of stay was 3 days [interquartile range (IQR):2-4]. 19 patients (57.5%) were admitted to the intensive care unit. Intubation was required for 13 patients (39.4%), for a median length of 2 days [IQR:2-2]. Methicillin sensitive staphylococcus aureus was the most common bacterial etiology (33%). Mean presenting age was 8.58 years [95% confidence interval:7.3-9.9] and 14 patients were female (42.4%). 31 patients were white (93.9%), 1 was black (3%), and 1 was Hispanic (3%). BT patients were more likely to have private insurance compared to comparison (81.8% vs 63.4%, Children who presented with BT were more likely to be privately insured than a comparison population.Pubmed PDF Web
Benjamin D. Lovin,Eric N. Appelbaum,Latifah Makoshi,William E. Whitehead,Alex D. Sweeney
Publication date 09-04-2021
To report a recalcitrant spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula arising from multiple, anatomically-linked lateral skull base defects, and to review the available literature to determine optimal techniques for operative repair of congenital CSF fistulae. A patient with recurrent episodes of otologic meningitis was found to have a patent tympanomeningeal fissure, also known as a Hyrtl's fissure, and internal auditory canal (IAC) diverticulum that communicated with the jugular bulb. A systematic review of the literature characterized all reports of spontaneous congenital perilabyrinthine CSF leaks, and all cases of Hyrtl's fissures. An 11-year-old female was referred for recurrent meningitis. Imaging demonstrated a fistulous connection between the middle ear and IAC diverticulum via the jugular foramen. Specifically, a Hyrtl's fissure was identified, as well as demineralized bone around the jugular bulb. Obliteration of the fissure was initially performed, and a fistula reformed 4 months later. Multifocal CSF egress in the hypotympanum was identified on re-exploration, and middle ear obliteration with external auditory canal (EAC) overclosure was performed. A systematic review of the literature demonstrated 19 cases of spontaneous congenital perilabyrinthine CSF leaks. In total, 6 cases had multiple sources of CSF leak and 2 had history suggestive of intracranial hypertension. All of these noted cases demonstrated leak recurrence. Middle ear obliteration with EAC overclosure was successful in 4 recalcitrant cases. Repair of spontaneous congenital perilabyrinthine CSF leaks in cases demonstrating multiple sources of egress or signs of intracranial hypertension should be approached with caution. Middle ear obliteration with EAC overclosure may provide the most definitive management option for these patients, particularly if initial attempt at primary repair is unsuccessful.Pubmed PDF Web
Sharan J. Shah,Vivian S. Hawn,Nina Zhu,Christina H. Fang,Qi Gao,Nadeem A. Akbar,Waleed M. Abuzeid
Publication date 09-04-2021
There is a paucity of data on postoperative infections after endoscopic sinus surgery and associated risk factors. Our objective was to evaluate a cohort of patients undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) for chronic rhinosinusitis to determine which perioperative factors may be associated with infection in the 30-day postoperative period. A retrospective cohort study of adults who underwent ESS at a tertiary academic medical center from 2015 to 2018 was performed. The primary outcome was incidence of postoperative infection, defined by identification of sinus purulence on nasal endoscopy necessitating antibiotics within 30 days of surgery. Independent variables collated included the result of postoperative cultures and use of perioperative antibiotics, oral corticosteroids, packing, and steroid-eluting stents. Statistical analysis involved bivariate analysis to identify variables that correlated with postoperative infection and subsequent multivariate logistic regression to identify independent risk factors. Three hundred seventy-eight unique ESS cases performed in 356 patients were reviewed. The mean age was 46 years (range, 18-87). The most common indication for surgery was chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyposis. The postoperative infection rate was 10.1%. The most commonly cultured pathogen was The incidence of postoperative infection following ESS was 10.1%. The use of postoperative systemic corticosteroids independently increased the risk of infection by 3.47-fold.Pubmed PDF Web
Brent E. Richardson
Publication date 09-04-2021
To determine if brincidofovir, an oral analog of cidofovir that achieves high tissue levels of the active metabolite with low systemic toxicity, has an observable effect on HPV-related disease of the larynx. Two patients with laryngeal recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (one each of genotypes 6 and 11) and 1 with recurring aryepiglottic fold Brincidofovir reduced papilloma burden in 1 patient and markedly attenuated the rate and magnitude of recurrence in both. After surgical intervention, Patient 1 remains disease-free at 10 years (7 years from last intervention) and Patient 2 has no symptoms at 8 years. Patient 3 with recurring Brincidofovir appears to attenuate HPV disease of the larynx in this small pilot study, though further investigation is required because of the highly variable nature of the disease and potential confounding factors.Pubmed PDF Web
Philip R. Brauer,Brian B. Burkey,Chandana A. Reddy,Eric D. Lamarre
Publication date 09-04-2021
To assess risk factors and non-thyroid specific postoperative complications for thyroid lobectomy compared to total thyroidectomy. A retrospective, cross-sectional study of adults undergoing a lobectomy or total thyroidectomy using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database between 2005 and 2017. Patients not treated by otolaryngologists or general surgeons and with unknown demographic variables were excluded. A total of 106 915 patients were analyzed, 64 763 total thyroidectomies and 42 152 lobectomies. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that total thyroidectomy patients were half as likely to return to the operating room (OR = 0.491 (95%CI 0.445-0.542), Our multi-institutional study indicates specific risk factors for returning to the operating room that may warrant closer follow up after surgery for total thyroidectomy or thyroid lobectomy. We also identified the most common post-operative complications. During pre-operative planning, these findings should be considered by thyroid surgeons to help mitigate risk to patients.Pubmed PDF Web
Yaser Said Çetin,Mehmet Zeki Erdem
Publication date 07-04-2021
We explored the auditory and anatomical success of grafting when the cartilage perichondrium (CP) was prepared using two different methods. Patients with subtotal or total perforation underwent tympanoplasty with a CP graft. A A total of 195 patients were included in the study. The total CP graft integration rate was 96% for both groups. Significant changes were detected in all hearing criteria evaluated 12 months after surgery compared to the preoperative period ( Cartilage slice support offers an extremely reliable method for reconstruction of tympanic membrane in cases of high-risk perforation. Partial failures are rare, but when they occur, they most often involved anterior graft medialization. When a piece of cartilage is removed at the malleus interface there may be a higher rate of partial failure.Pubmed PDF Web
Shorook Na’ara,Michael Aronov,Ziv Gil,Arie Gordin
Publication date 07-04-2021
To assess whether a surgeon's level of training is associated with outcomes in pediatric tonsillectomy. A retrospective cohort study of the outcomes of pediatric tonsillectomies performed between 2006 and 2016 by senior surgeons versus resident surgeons under the supervision of senior surgeons. An otolaryngology department in a tertiary academic hospital. Children younger than 18 years who underwent bilateral tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy. Intraoperative bleeding, initiation of oral intake, and intraoperative and postoperative complications. Of 785 children, 397 (50.5%) were operated on by a resident surgeon and 388 (49.5%) by a senior surgeon. Patient demographics and surgical techniques were similar between the groups. The mean surgical time was 33.2 minutes in the residents' group and 27.1 minutes in the seniors' group ( Children undergoing tonsillectomy showed similar short-term outcomes, whether the operations were performed by a senior surgeon or a resident surgeon supervised by an attending surgeon. This study demonstrates the safety of pediatric tonsillectomy performed by resident surgeons supervised by attending physicians.Pubmed PDF Web
Krystyne Basa,Nicolette Jabbour,Matthew Rohlfing,Sarah Schmoker,Claire M. Lawlor,Jessica Levi,Lindsay Sobin,Jeremiah C. Tracy,Lauren F. Tracy
Publication date 03-04-2021
This study compares hospital-generated online ratings to patient-generated online ratings in academic otolaryngology and evaluates physician factors influencing these results. Websites of academic otolaryngologists were assessed for inclusion of hospital-generated Press Ganey surveys. Corresponding scores on Healthgrades and Vitals.com were identified via internet search. Hospital ratings were compared with patient-generated ratings, including score, demographics, and number of ratings. All data was collected between July 15th 2019 and August 22nd 2019. 742 academic otolaryngologists with hospital-generated ratings were identified. Mean hospital-generated rating was significantly higher ((4.70, 95% CI 4.69-4.72) than patient-generated rating (Vitals:4.26, 95% CI 4.18-4.34, and Healthgrades:4.02, 95% CI 3.87-4.18; Hospital-generated ratings yield higher mean scores than patient-generated platforms. Between sources, Healthgrades.com scores were lower than those of Vitals.com. Professors with >30 years of practice generated more reviews in patient-generated ratings, and these physicians were generally rated lower. Access to patient-generated ratings is universal and physicians should be aware of variability between online rating platforms as scores may affect referrals and practice patterns.Pubmed PDF Web
Özge Akdoğan,Smirnov Exilus,Bryan K. Ward,Justin C. McArthur,Charles C. Della Santina,John P. Carey
Publication date 03-04-2021
To report a case of profound bilateral sensorineural hearing and vestibular loss from relapsing polychondritis and hearing outcomes after cochlear implantation. Case report and literature review. A 43 year-old woman developed sudden loss of hearing and balance that progressed over several weeks to bilateral, profound hearing and vestibular loss. Steroid treatments were ineffective. She underwent vestibular physical therapy and left cochlear implantation. About 10 months after her initial presentation, she developed erythema, warmth, swelling, and pain of the left auricle sparing the lobule, flattening of the bridge of her nose, and right ankle swelling, warmth, and skin erythema. A biopsy of the left auricle revealed histopathologic findings consistent with relapsing polychondritis. She was treated with high dose prednisolone. The ear inflammation resolved, however, despite excellent auditory response to pure tone thresholds, the patient reported no improvement in speech perception after cochlear implantation. Relapsing polychondritis can present with rapidly progressive, profound loss of hearing and vestibular function. Hearing outcomes after cochlear implantation can include poor speech discrimination despite good pure tone detection thresholds.Pubmed PDF Web
Gretchen M. Oakley,Kristine A. Smith,Shaelene Ashby,Richard R. Orlandi,Jeremiah A. Alt
Publication date 03-04-2021
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is known to have a significant impact on economic productivity. Sleep dysfunction is associated with staggering productivity losses and is highly prevalent in patients with CRS. The effect of sleep dysfunction on productivity in CRS has not been elucidated. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between sleep dysfunction and lost productivity in patients with CRS. Eighty-two adult patients with CRS were prospectively enrolled into a cross-sectional cohort study. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea were excluded. Sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Presenteeism (reduced work efficiency), absenteeism (missed work days), and lost work, household, and overall productivity were analyzed. The primary aim was assessing the correlation between PSQI and productivity. Regression analyses were performed to account for disease severity, pain, and depression. Sleep dysfunction is significantly correlated with overall lost productivity (R Sleep dysfunction has a significant association with lost productivity in patients with CRS, particularly with worsening PSQI scores. More clearly defining those components of CRS that most impact a patient's daily function will allow clinicians to more optimally manage and counsel patients with CRS.Pubmed PDF Web
Salma Ahsanuddin,Roman Povolotskiy,Rahma Tayyab,Wissam Nasser,Gregory L. Barinsky,Jordon G. Grube,Boris Paskhover
Publication date 03-04-2021
Intranasal sprays (INSs) are commonly used medications for the treatment of many rhinologic conditions. Despite their popularity, an analysis of a nationwide reporting database and comparison to the available literature has never been performed. The Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database was accessed to obtain adverse event (AE) records from 2014 to 2019 for varying INSs, including: 10 corticosteroids, 1 alpha adrenergic, and 3 antihistamines. The Proportional Reporting Ratios (PRR) and Reporting Odds Ratios (ROR) were calculated for dyspnea, anosmia, ageusia/dysgeusia, epistaxis, and headache. A PRR ≥ 2 or ROR ≥ 1 was considered significant. Corticosteroids had 98 864 total reported AEs to the database, followed by antihistamines (7011) and alpha adrenergics (2071). In total, dyspnea was reported 5843 times, followed by headache (4230), epistaxis (1205), ageusia/dysgeusia (920), and anosmia (312). Overall, PRR and ROR values for dyspnea ranged from 0.51 to 4.25 and 0.51 to 4.49; for dysgeusia/ageusia from 0.56 to 6.09 and 0.56 to 6.12; and for epistaxis from 1.03 to 27.24 and 1.03 to 30.76, respectively. All medications which listed anosmia within the top AEs had PRR and ROR values exceeding 2 and 1, respectively. The PRR for headache exceeded 2 for 1 medication and the ROR exceeded 1 in 7 medications. The AEs of dyspnea, anosmia, ageusia/dysgeusia, epistaxis, and headache are reported within the FAERS database for commonly prescribed INSs. When compared against the existing scientific literature, the clinical significance of this reporting tool from the FDA for these classes of medications remains unvalidated.Pubmed PDF Web
Brooke Sarna,Adwight Risbud,Ariel Lee,Ethan Muhonen,Mehdi Abouzari,Hamid R. Djalilian
Publication date 03-04-2021
To evaluate the presence of migraine features in patients with persistent postural-perceptual dizziness (PPPD). In a retrospective survey study, consecutive patients presenting to a tertiary care neurotology clinic during an 18-month period were given questionnaires about headache and dizziness symptoms. The survey responses plus history and examination of the patient were used to diagnose patients with PPPD. The prevalence of migraine headache, vestibular migraine (VM), and migraine characteristics was evaluated. In total, 36 subjects with PPPD were included in the study. The mean age of the subjects was 56 ± 16 years with a female (72%) predominance. A total of 19 (53%) patients met the International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria for migraine headache, and 6 of those (17%) met the criteria for definite VM. Of the patients who did not meet full migraine headache criteria, 6 (17%) patients met 4 of 5 criteria, and 5 (14%) patients met 3 of 5 criteria. There was no significant difference between PPPD patients who fulfilled full migraine headache criteria and those who did not in sensitivity to light, sound, smells, weather changes, feelings of mental fog/confusion, and sinus pain/facial pressure. This study demonstrates that a majority of patients with PPPD fulfill the criteria for migraine headache. A large proportion of PPPD patients who do not meet the full criteria for migraine headache still meet a majority of the migraine headache criteria. This suggests an association between the 2 conditions. PPPD may be a part of the spectrum of otologic migraine, where migraine manifests as otologic symptoms.Pubmed PDF Web
Melissa E. Cullom,Garth R. Fraga,Alan R. Reeves,Dhaval Bhavsar,Brian T. Andrews
Publication date 03-04-2021
Cerebriform intradermal nevus and giant congenital blue nevi are rarely reported melanocytic nevi with clinical and histopathologic similarities. Both are known to produce cutis verticis gyrata. We report a significantly large occipital scalp congenital blue nevus with secondary cutis verticis gyrata. The aim of this report is to increase clinical awareness of this entity, highlight histopathologic and mutational features of cerebriform intradermal nevi and giant congenital blue nevi, and stress the importance of clinicopathologic correlation for diagnosis. Case report and review of the literature. A 20-year-old Asian male presented with a long-standing, large (20 cm × 30 cm), exophytic tumor at the occipital scalp and posterior neck. The skin overlying the lesion was arranged in thick folds resembling the surface of the brain, devoid of hair follicles, and discolored by salt-and-pepper pattern hyperpigmentation. After correlating the clinical and histopathologic findings, we diagnosed giant congenital blue nevus with secondary cutis verticis gyrata. Staged surgical excision was performed with subsequent treatment for hypertrophic scarring and occipital alopecia. Cerebriform intradermal nevus and giant congenital blue nevus have overlapping histologic and clinical features. Head and neck surgeons should be aware that nomenclature of these tumors is subjective and often imprecise. Diagnosis requires correlation of clinical findings, patient history, and histopathology. Surgical excision is advised due to rare malignant transformation potential.Pubmed PDF Web
Olivia A. Kalmanson,Davis M. Aasen,Samuel P. Gubbels,Carol A. Foster
Publication date 03-04-2021
To describe a case of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) resulting in reversible horizontal semicircular canalith jam successfully treated with horizontal canal occlusion. A brief literature review of similar cases was performed. Case report and literature review. A 68-year-old female presented with apogeotropic positional nystagmus, attributed to reversible horizontal canalith jam mimicking cupulolithiasis that was refractory to tailored repositioning maneuvers across months. She was unable to work due to the severity of her symptoms. She underwent surgical occlusion of the affected canal with immediate resolution of her symptoms. A literature review revealed similar cases of canalith jam mimicking cupulolithiasis. Reversible canalith jam, in which particles moving with horizontal head position alternate between obstructing the semicircular canal and resting on the cupula, can mimic signs of cupulolithiasis. This variant of BPPV can be effectively managed with surgical canal occlusion should symptoms fail to resolve after tailored repositioning maneuvers.Pubmed PDF Web
Jian Qiao,Jie Qin,Dengxiang Xing,Shuhua Li,Dahai Wu
Publication date 29-03-2021
To compare the retrolingual obstruction during drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) with the retrolingual obstruction during polysomnography with nasopharyngeal tube (NPT-PSG). A cross-sectional study of 77 consecutive patients with moderate and severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) was conducted. After 15 patients were excluded from the study for not completing DISE or NPT-PSG successfully, 62 patients were included in this study. Retrolingual sites of obstruction grade 2 determined by DISE according to the VOTE (velum, oropharynx lateral wall, tongue base, and epiglottis) classification were considered as retrolingual obstruction, while apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 15 events/hour determined by NPT-PSG was considered as retrolingual obstruction. The extent of agreement between DISE and NPT-PSG findings was evaluated using unweighted Cohen's kappa test. The 62 study participants (11 moderate OSA, 51 severe OSA) had a mean (SD) age of 39.8 (9.9) years, and 58 (94%) were men. No statistically significant differences between included and excluded patients were observed in patient characteristics. The extent of agreement in retrolingual obstruction between DISE and NPT-PSG was 80.6% (Cohen Retrolingual obstruction requiring treatment showed good agreement between DISE and NPT-PSG, suggesting that NPT-PSG may also be a reliable method to assess the retrolingual obstruction.Pubmed PDF Web
Harish Dharmarajan,Michael A. Belsky,Jennifer L. Anderson,Shaum Sridharan
Publication date 29-03-2021
To analyze trends in otolaryngology consultations and provide algorithms to guide management during the COVID-19 pandemic. A retrospective cohort study at a single institution tertiary care hospital. A total of 95 otolaryngology consultations were performed from March 1, 2020 to April 26, 2020 (COVID-era) and 363 were performed from September 1, 2019 to February 29, 2020 (pre-COVID-era) at the UPMC Oakland campus. Data collected included patient demographics, COVID-19 status, reason for consult, location of consult, type of consult, procedures performed, need for surgical intervention, length of hospital stay and recommended follow up. Patient populations in the pre-COVID-era and COVID-era were similar in terms of their distribution of demographics and chief complaints. Craniofacial trauma was the most common reason for consultation in both periods, followed by vocal fold and airway-related consults. We saw a 21.5% decrease in the rate of consults seen per month during the COVID-era compared to the 6 months prior. Review of trends in the consult workflow allowed for development of several algorithms to safely approach otolaryngology consults during the COVID-19 pandemic. Otolaryngology consultations provide valuable services to inpatients and patients in the emergency department ranging from evaluation of routine symptoms to critical airways. Systematic otolaryngology consult service modifications are required in order to reduce risk of exposure to healthcare providers while providing comprehensive patient care.Pubmed PDF Web
Austin L. Johnson,Adam Corcoran,Matthew Ferrell,Bradley S. Johnson,Scott E. Mann,Jennifer A. Villwock,Sydney Ferrell,Matt Vassar
Publication date 24-03-2021
Scholastic activity through research involvement is a fundamental aspect of a physician's training and may have a significant influence on future academic success. Here, we explore publication rates before, during, and after otolaryngology residency training and whether publication efforts correlate with future academic achievement. This cross-sectional analysis included a random sample of 50 otolaryngology residency programs. From these programs, we assembled a list of residents graduating from the years in 2013, 2014, and 2015. Using SCOPUS, Pub Med, and Google Scholar, we compiled the publications for each graduate, and data were extracted in an independent, double-blinded fashion. We included 32 otolaryngology residency programs representing 249 residents in this analysis. Graduates published a mean of 1.3 (SD = 2.7) articles before residency, 3.5 (SD = 4.3) during residency, and 5.3 (SD = 9.3) after residency. Residents who pursued a fellowship had more total publications ( Research productivity correlated with a number of characteristics such as future fellowship training, the pursuit of an academic career, and overall h-index in this study.Pubmed PDF Web
Gian Luca Fadda,Fabiana Allevi,Cecilia Rosso,Federica Martino,Carlotta Pipolo,Giovanni Cavallo,Giovanni Felisati,Alberto Maria Saibene
Publication date 18-03-2021
Paranasal sinus fungus ball is a common non-invasive mycosis with excellent long-term surgical treatment results. The present systematic review and meta-analysis were undertaken to define current treatment concepts and success rates in paranasal sinus fungus ball treatment. Systematic searches were performed in multiple databases with criteria designed to include all studies published until May 2020 focusing on paranasal sinuses fungus ball treatment in humans. We selected studies including at least 10 patients, specifying treatment modalities, providing a minimum 6-month follow-up, and objectivating treatment success. After duplicate removal, abstract and full-text selection, and quality assessment, we reviewed eligible articles for treatment modalities and success rates. Success rates were pooled in a random effect meta-analysis and compared according to the use of intraoperative sinus lavages and postoperative antibiotics. Among 740 unique citations, 14 studies were deemed eligible. Most (n = 11) were retrospective case series. All studies relied on endoscopic sinus surgery. Intraoperative lavages were proposed in 10 studies and postoperative antibiotics in 7 (for all patients in 5 studies and for selected patients in 2). No significant heterogeneity was observed between results (Cochran's Q Endoscopic sinus surgery shows excellent results in fungus ball treatment. Further prospective studies might help further reducing antibiotics prescriptions in these patients and improve their management.Pubmed PDF Web
Nevreste Didem Sonbay Yılmaz,Cansu Afyoncu,Nuray Ensari,Muhammet Yıldız,Özer Erdem Gür
Publication date 18-03-2021
Vocal fold nodules (VFN) are a bilateral epithelial thickening of the membranous vocal folds. In this study, children with VFN and their mothers took part in voice therapy. We then compared acoustic analyzes and subjective evaluations to those in previous literature to determine whether voice therapy is more effective for children with VFN when their mothers also take part in therapy. Children aged eight to 12 years who were diagnosed with bilateral VFN between January 2018 and January 2020 were included in this study. Participating children diagnosed with bilateral VFN were divided into two groups based on the wishes and cooperation of their families. Group 1 consisted of 16 patients; Group 2 included 17 patients. The children in Group 1 received voice therapy alone; children in Group 2 took part in therapy with their mothers. For all participants, the average fundemental frequency (F0), jitter percentages, shimmer percentages, maximum phonation time (MPT) and s/z ratios were measured. Pediatric voice handicap index (p-VHI) values were calculated as well. The two groups' measures pre-treatment and post-treatment were compared. Except for p-VHI, no significant difference was observed between the two groups. However, p-VHI post-treatment was significantly lower in Group 2 than in Group 1. Involving the families and even teachers of children with VFN in voice therapy can increase the effectiveness of therapy. The family's involvement increases the child's motivation in therapy. The mother's presence during therapy, supporting the child or even doing the work with the child, can be a very important source of motivation for the child, who may already be tired from school and other activities. Thus, the mother's involvement increases the child's compliance with and interest in therapy.Pubmed PDF Web
Ashley M. Logan,Mario A. Landera
Publication date 18-03-2021
Clinical practices of speech-language pathologists (SLP) treating head and neck cancer (HNC) patients range widely despite literature trending toward best practices. This survey study was designed to identify current patterns and assess for gaps in clinical implementation of research evidence. A web-based survey was distributed to SLPs via listserv and social media outlets. Descriptive statistics and group calculations were completed to identify trends and associations in responses. Of 152 received surveys, the majority of respondents were hospital-based (86%) and had greater than 5 years of experience (65%). There was group consensus for the use of prophylactic exercise programs (95%), recommendations for SLP intervention during HNC treatment (75%), and use of maintenance programs post-treatment (97%). Conversely, no group consensus was observed for use of pre-treatment swallow evaluations, frequency of service provision, and content of therapy sessions. Variation in clinical decision making was noted in use of prophylactic feeding tubes and number of patients taking nothing by mouth during treatment. No associations were found between years of experience and decision-making practices, nor were any associations found between practice setting and clinical decision making. Despite the growing body of literature outlining evidence-based treatment practices for HNC patients, clinical practice patterns among SLPs continue to vary widely resulting in inconsistent patient care across practice settings. As compared to prior similar data, increased alignment with best practices was observed relative to early referrals, implementation of prophylactic intervention programs, and intervention with the SLP during the period of HNC treatment.Pubmed PDF Web
Devi Sai Sri Kavya Boorgu,Harish Dharmarajan,Edward S. Sim,Lindsey Goyal,Monika E. Freiser,Michael Weinstock,Rachel Whelan,Timothy E. Corcoran,Noel Jabbour,Eric Wang,David H. Chi
Publication date 18-03-2021
Define aerosol and droplet risks associated with routine otolaryngology clinic procedures during the COVID-19 era. Clinical procedures were simulated in cadaveric heads whose oral and nasal cavities were coated with fluorescent tracer (vitamin B2) and breathing was manually simulated through retrograde intubation. A cascade impactor placed adjacent to the nares collected generated particles with aerodynamic diameters ≤14.1 µm. The 3D printed models and syringes were used to simulate middle and external ear suctioning as well as open suctioning, respectively. Provider's personal protective equipment (PPE) and procedural field contamination were also recorded for all trials using vitamin B2 fluorescent tracer. The positive controls of nebulized vitamin B2 produced aerosol particles ≤3.30 µm and endonasal drilling of a 3D model generated particles ≤14.1 µm. As compared with positive controls, aerosols and small droplets with aerodynamic diameter ≤14.1 µm were not detected during rigid nasal endoscopy, flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy, and rigid nasal suction of cadavers with simulated breathing. There was minimal to no field contamination in all 3 scenarios. Middle and external ear suctioning and open container suctioning did not result in any detectable droplet contamination. The clinic suction unit contained all fluorescent material without surrounding environmental contamination. While patients' coughing and sneezing may create a baseline risk for providers, this study demonstrates that nasal endoscopy, flexible laryngoscopy, and suctioning inherently do not pose an additional risk in terms of aerosol and small droplet generation. An overarching generalization cannot be made about endoscopy or suctioning being an aerosol generating procedure. 3.Pubmed PDF Web
Benjamin Heigle,Micah Kee,Ryan Ottwell,Wade Arthur,Lacy Brame,Drew N. Wright,Micah Hartwell,Jam Khojasteh,Matt Vassar
Publication date 18-03-2021
To identify, quantify, and characterize the presence of spin-specific strategies leading to misrepresentation of study results-in the abstracts of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of Ménière's disease treatment. Using a cross-sectional design, we searched MEDLINE and Embase on May 28, 2020, for systematic reviews and meta-analyses focused on Ménière's disease treatment. Returned searches were screened, and data were extracted in a masked, duplicate fashion. Our sample included 36 systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Of the 36 included studies, 22 (61.1%) abstracts contained spin while 14 (38.9%) did not. The most common spin types were selective reporting of benefit (10/36, 27.8%) or harm (8/36, 22.2%). Other types of spin occurred when findings were extrapolated to the global improvement of the disease (5/36, 13.9%), beneficial effects were reported with high risk of bias in primary studies (3/36, 8.3%), and when beneficial effects were extrapolated to an entire class of interventions (1/36, 2.8%). No instances of other spin types occurred. Abstracts containing spin were substantively associated with studies of critically low methodological quality compared with studies with low and moderate quality. No studies had a methodological rating of high quality. No associations were observed between spin and intervention types, journal recommendation of adhering to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, or funding. We found a negative correlation ( Our study highlights that spin in the abstracts of systematic reviews of Ménière's disease is common, and it further enhances the discussion surrounding spin in abstracts of scientific research. Spin in an abstract does not discredit a study's findings; however, its occurrence should be eliminated.Pubmed PDF Web
Muhammed Gazi Yildiz,Nagihan Bilal,Irfan Kara,Saime Sagiroglu,Israfil Orhan,Adem Doganer
Publication date 15-03-2021
Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) is a commonly encountered peripheral vestibular disorder. People exposed to massive earthquakes experience intense and long-term problem associated with dizziness. The purpose of our study is to investigate this relationship and to demonstrate the efficacy of the treatment modalities used in the management of patients with post-earthquake dizziness. The study was carried out by examining the retrospective records of patients who presented with dizziness to the otorhinolaryngological outpatient unit before and after the Elazig earthquake that occurred on 24th Jan 2020. Parameters evaluated include patients' age and gender, onset of dizziness, accompanying symptoms and comorbidities, videonystagmography (VNG) findings, pre- and post-treatment Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The number of patients who presented with dizziness to our outpatient clinic after the earthquake and were included in our study totaled 84. The number of patients who visited the outpatient clinic before the earthquake was identified to be 75. In the earthquake related group, while there was a statistically significant difference between residual symptoms (RS) and the need for repetitive repositioning maneuvers, there was no statistically significant difference detected for age, gender, and comorbidities. Also, no statistically significant difference was found in the pre- and post-treatment assessments of VAS, DHI, and HADS median values in the earthquake group. There was a remarkable increase in the number of patients presenting with dizziness in the early post-earthquake period. Management of these patients may differ from the classic BPPV. Residual symptoms appearing after performing repositioning maneuvers can be more commonly seen among these patients.Pubmed PDF Web
Leighton Reed,Stephen Larson,Anthony Sheyn,Jennifer McLevy
Publication date 04-03-2021
Airway foreign bodies are the leading cause of infantile deaths and fourth among preschool children. Airway foreign bodies in extremely premature neonates represent a rare but potentially lethal entity. There are very few reports in the literature describing the treatment of such a condition in premature neonates. The objectives of this report are to describe the safe removal of an airway foreign body in an extremely premature infant using urologic instruments in a trans-endotracheal tube fashion and to review the literature for other techniques that have proven safe and effective, thereby adding technical options for future cases. We reviewed the case reported and reviewed pertinent literature. A 2-week old, ex-24 3/7-week, 820-g pre-mature infant was intubated with a 2.5 endotracheal tube. After intubation, a 2-cm foreign body was discovered in the distal trachea by chest x-ray. The child's respiratory status continuously deteriorated with increasing oxygen and positive pressure requirements. While remaining intubated, the child underwent direct suspension laryngoscopy, the ventilator circuitry was disconnected, and the object was successfully removed using a 1.2 mm rigid ureteroscope and 1.1 mm grasping forceps through the 2.5 endotracheal tube. This case report demonstrates the effectiveness of using a 1.2 mm ureteroscope and 1.2 mm urologic graspers to extract an airway foreign body from an extremely premature neonate through an endotracheal tube without paralyzing the patient. This method provides a safe and effective means of visualizing and, if necessary, manipulating the airway in a population prone to respiratory complications.Pubmed PDF Web
Ian A. Schonman,Sona Sehgal,Luv R. Javia,Nancy M. Bauman
Publication date 04-03-2021
We report obstructing laryngeal manifestations of Crohn's disease in a toddler with very early onset-IBD (VEO-IBD) who required tracheotomy tube placement at 27 months of age for relief of recalcitrant airway obstruction unresponsive to maximal medical therapy. We review the literature for the frequency of extra-intestinal laryngeal manifestations of Crohn's disease in adults and children. Case report and literature review of laryngeal manifestations of Crohn's disease. Laryngeal involvement of Crohn's disease is very rare with only 14 other cases reported. Most cases appear in adults, with the supraglottis most commonly affected. This case marks the youngest report and only the second report of a patient requiring a tracheotomy for supraglottic obstruction when intensive medical management, including use of steroids and biologics, failed to relieve obstructing laryngeal inflammation. Despite ongoing Crohn's disease, laryngeal manifestations improved permitting decannulation the following year. Laryngeal manifestations of Crohn's disease are rare and usually affect adults. Most cases are managed with medical therapy, however surgical excision of obstructing lesions or tracheotomy placement is sometimes required for temporary relief of airway obstruction.Pubmed PDF Web
Michael T. Yim,Richard R. Orlandi,Gretchen M. Oakley,Jeremiah A. Alt
Publication date 04-03-2021
The SNOT-22 is a validated and widely used outcomes tool in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). We hypothesized that SNOT-22 scores and response patterns could be used as a diagnostic tool to differentiate between patients with CRS and those who present with CRS-like symptoms but prove not to have CRS. SNOT-22 measurements were collected from 311 patients who presented with a chief complaint of sinusitis to a tertiary rhinology practice. Following a full diagnostic evaluation, patients were diagnosed with CRS or determined to have non-CRS diagnoses. A response pattern "heatmap" of the SNOT-22 scores for each group was compared. An optimal cutoff point for total SNOT-22 score in predicting CRS was sought using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. A total of 109 patients were diagnosed with CRS and 202 patients were assigned to non-CRS. The non-CRS SNOT-22 total score histogram had lower overall scores compared to the CRS group, although there was substantial overlap. The CRS SNOT-22 heatmaps had a distinctive pattern compared to the non-CRS group. As individual measures, 3 of the 4 cardinal symptoms of CRS (nasal congestion, loss of smell, and rhinorrhea) were found to be significantly different between the 2 groups ( Our results cause us to reject our hypothesis and conclude that, while an effective outcomes tool, the SNOT-22 (using total score and response pattern) is a poor differentiator between CRS and non-CRS patients.Pubmed PDF Web
Aliasghar A. Mianroodi,Sadaf Mohtashami,Nahir Romero,Andrew Fuson,Arjun Joshi,Nader Sadeghi
Publication date 04-03-2021
Frey's syndrome and facial asymmetry from loss of parotid tissue are long-term sequelae of parotid surgeries causing significant morbidity. Various techniques have been used to fill the parotidectomy defect, preserve facial contour symmetry, and prevent Frey's syndrome. Free dermal-fat-fascial graft (DFFG) is one such technique; however, its use is largely undocumented in the literature. In this case series, we investigate the efficacy of free DFFG in reconstructing parotidectomy defects at 2 tertiary care centers. Medical records of 54 patients who underwent primary parotidectomy and immediate reconstruction with autologous abdominal free DFFG by 2 surgeons in George Washington University Hospital and Mc Gill University Health Centre between 2007 and 2019 were collected prospectively. Patients responded to 2 questionnaires addressing postoperative outcomes. Fifty-four patients were included; 32 superficial parotidectomies and 22 total parotidectomies were performed for 39 benign and 15 malignant tumors. Thirty-seven patients could be reached. Out of 37 patients who responded to the first questionnaire, 59% (22) reported complete facial symmetry, 27% (10) reported mild hollowness, and 14% (5) reported mild fullness. None declared noticeable hollowness or fullness. While 81% (30) did not experience Frey's syndrome, 5.4% (2) experienced mild symptoms without disability, and 13.5% (5) experienced debilitating symptoms. Out of 37 patients, 8 patients responded to a second questionnaire addressing the outcome of the abdominal graft donor site. In regard to the donor site, 87.5% (7) were satisfied or very satisfied from its cosmetic appearance, 75% (6) were not bothered by its cosmetic appearance, and 87.5% (7) had no discomfort at the graft donor site. Patients did not report any other symptom at the graft donor site. In this large series of total parotidectomies including malignant pathologies, autologous abdominal free DFFG effectively prevented Frey's syndrome and preserved facial cosmesis in most patients.Pubmed PDF Web
Scott Ryan Hall,Mrudula Thiriveedi,Usha Yandrapalli,Nan Zhang,David G. Lott
Publication date 02-03-2021
The goal of this study was to evaluate the benefit of sublesional bevacizumab injection for recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) as used in a typical clinical practice. A retrospective review of patients with RRP treated between 2011 and 2016 was undertaken. All patients were treated with in-office potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser photoablation. Sublesional bevacizumab injection was used based on joint patient-physician decision making. Papilloma burden was objectively measured on prior recordings by 2 blinded reviewers and described as vocal fold segments affected (VFSA) by papilloma. Each patient served as their own control by comparing times when bevacizumab was or was not used. Mixed model for longitudinal data was used to determine if the previous use of bevacizumab decreased the disease burden. A total of 19 patients met inclusion criteria and all prior laryngoscopic exams were reviewed for VFSA as described above. The mean (SD) number of VFSA when bevacizumab was not used at the prior procedure was 15 (14) as compared to 8 (11) when bevacizumab was used. When adjusted for age, time from initial presentation and baseline disease burden, mixed model showed a decrease of 11 VFSA (95% CI 6.5, 15.5, Using sublesional bevacizumab intermittently based on clinical findings appears to be effective in improving disease control. Papilloma burden is significantly decreased at the subsequent clinical follow-up following injection of sublesional bevacizumab. The beneficial effect of sublesional bevacizumab may be not be dose-dependent.Pubmed PDF Web
Candice Kremer,Roy Jiang,Amrita Singh,Jordan Sukys,Alexandria Brackett,Nikita Kohli
Publication date 01-03-2021
To investigate surgical adjuncts (stents) and previous surgeries on outcomes from posterior glottic stenosis (PGS). PubMED/Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Web of Science were searched for publications on adult patients undergoing surgery for PGS. Decannulation and need for additional surgeries were evaluated as outcomes. Linear mixed-effects (with random effects and fixed effects) models were used for multivariate testing. In total, 516 abstracts were reviewed and 26 articles were considered for systematic review. Of these, 19 articles with 140 pooled patient cases were extracted for meta-analysis. On multivariate meta-analysis analysis accounting for study-specific variation and use of open procedures, prior surgeries were associated with additional surgeries (RR = 3.76 [1.39-3.86], Minimizing repeat surgery is a predictor for avoiding additional future surgeries and use of a stent was correlated with poor outcomes. These 2 findings may assist providers in patient counseling regarding the need for further surgical interventions. Further, this study is the first to compare the efficacy of surgical approaches for the resolution of PGS, and highlights the importance of avoiding repeat procedures and stents for the management of PGS.Pubmed PDF Web
Elizabeth H. Wick,Mark E. Whipple,Marc H. Hohman,Kris S. Moe
Publication date 01-03-2021
To describe the surgical technique of navigation-guided nasal osteotomies and assess feasibility of this technique for treating complex nasal bone deformities in reconstructive rhinoplasty. A retrospective chart review was performed in order to identify patients who underwent computer-aided rhinoplasty from August 2014 to February 2017. Inclusion criteria were nasal bone deformities on computed-tomography (CT) that correlated with specific nasal complaints. All patients underwent computer-aided rhinoplasty with navigation-guided nasal osteotomies using a standard navigation system. Osteotomies were performed using real-time visualization on the navigation screen. Additional soft tissue procedures were performed as needed. Medical records were reviewed for presenting symptoms, radiologic and operative findings, and postoperative course. Cosmetic outcomes were subjectively based on patients' standard 6-view photo-documentation from pre- and post-operative timepoints. Twenty-one patients were included in the study; 8 were revision cases and 3 had mild-to-moderate hemifacial microsomia. Fifteen were completely closed procedures. No cases were opened because of inadequate visualization or difficulty accessing bony pathology. Mean (range) follow up was 98.6 (6-559) days. There were no intra-operative complications, unplanned admissions or re-admissions, or iatrogenic cosmetic complications (ie, "inverted V" or "saddle nose" deformities). Two patients required revision. One was after suffering nasal trauma within 4 weeks of initial rhinoplasty. The second underwent further correction of a deformity that required a costochondral graft. Both experienced good final results. Computer-aided rhinoplasty is safe and feasible for treating complex nasal deformities using standard navigation systems.Pubmed PDF Web
Paloma Belle Perez,Anne Elizabeth Gunter,Minhee Pak Moody,Aurora Grace Vincent,Christian Rene Perez,Renee Makowski Serra,Marc Hale Hohman
Publication date 26-02-2021
To determine whether Endotine-assisted endoscopic brow lift with concomitant upper lid blepharoplasty provides long-term brow elevation. Pre- and post-operative photographs from 35 patients who underwent endoscopic brow lift using Endotine Forehead 3 mm implants with concomitant upper lid blepharoplasty were measured to determine changes in brow height with surgery and up to 55 months post-operatively. Photographs of 20 control subjects who did not undergo periorbital surgery and 11 control subjects who underwent upper blepharoplasty without brow lifting were also measured to provide a basis for comparison. Emotrics software was used to perform automated brow height measurements in order to determine elevation and longevity achieved with endoscopic brow lifting in conjunction with upper lid blepharoplasty. There was a statistically significant increase in brow height post-operatively, averaging 1.6 mm ( Endotine-assisted endoscopic brow lift in conjunction with upper lid blepharoplasty provides modest brow elevation and long-term brow fixation as demonstrated by stable post-operative brow height measurements for up to 55 months.Pubmed PDF Web
Karen K. Hoi,Stuart H. Curtis,Lynn Driver,Erica Wisnosky,David A. Zopf,Lauren A. Bohm
Publication date 25-02-2021
The COVID-19 pandemic has introduced a period of social isolation that has challenged the ability of providers to uphold in-person patient care. Although commonplace in pediatric otolaryngology, multidisciplinary clinics pose a unique challenge during this time due to increased infection risk from multiple patient-provider interactions. Guidance on the application of telemedicine for multidisciplinary clinics in pediatric otolaryngology is limited.
We provide comprehensive guidance on best practices for conducting telemedicine visits for a number of multidisciplinary otolaryngology clinics using our experiences at a single tertiary care children's hospital. A review of literature to support the adoption of telemedicine in multidisciplinary pediatric otolaryngology is also incorporated.
Telemedicine was successfully adopted for 7 multidisciplinary pediatric clinics with a variety of specialists: aerodigestive disorders, congenital hearing loss, microtia/aural atresia, orofacial clefting, sleep disorders, tracheostomy care, and velopharyngeal dysfunction. Telemedicine is feasible for a variety of multidisciplinary clinics and its optimization is critical for providing care to complex pediatric otolaryngology patients during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.
Andreas Frithioff,Mads Juhl Guldager,Steven Arild Wuyts Andersen
Publication date 25-02-2021
Otoscopy is a frequently performed procedure and competency in this skill is important across many specialties. We aim to systematically review current medical educational evidence for training of handheld otoscopy skills. Following the PRISMA guideline, studies reporting on training and/or assessment of handheld otoscopy were identified searching the following databases: Pub Med, Embase, OVID, the Cochrane Library, PloS Medicine, Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ), and Web of Science. Two reviewers extracted data on study design, training intervention, educational outcomes, and results. Quality of educational evidence was assessed along with classification according to Kirkpatrick's model of educational outcomes. The searches yielded a total of 6064 studies with a final inclusion of 33 studies for the qualitative synthesis. Handheld otoscopy training could be divided into workshops, physical simulators, web-based training/e-learning, and smartphone-enabled otoscopy. Workshops were the most commonly described educational intervention and typically consisted of lectures, hands-on demonstrations, and training on peers. Almost all studies reported a favorable effect on either learner attitude, knowledge, or skills. The educational quality of the studies was reasonable but the educational outcomes were mostly evaluated on the lower Kirkpatrick levels with only a single study determining the effects of training on actual change in the learner behavior. Overall, it seems that any systematic approach to training of handheld otoscopy is beneficial in training regardless of learner level, but the heterogeneity of the studies makes comparisons between studies difficult and the relative effect sizes of the interventions could not be determined.Pubmed PDF Web
Gabriela DeVries,Megan Rudolph,Howard David Reines,Philip E. Zapanta
Publication date 25-02-2021
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has guidelines on assessing surgical qualifications based on experience. Attending surgeons have various assumptions on how their trainees learn and acquire surgical skills. This study primarily investigates the resident's perspective on gaining experience and achieving competency in thyroid surgical procedures.
A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was designed to derive themes that discuss the acquisition of competency in thyroid surgery. After IRB approval, data was collected from 2012 to 2014 at 4 academic centers in the Washington, DC area. Fourteen chief residents specializing in either general surgery or otolaryngology were interviewed until saturation was achieved. These semi-structured interviews were transcribed and broken up into codes utilizing Moustakas' analysis. A comprehensive list of master themes in regards to achieving competency in thyroid surgery was developed. A follow up survey of the surgeons was undertaken at 5 years to determine if the perceptions during residency persisted in practice.
Surgical specialty residents experience and learn thyroid surgery in 5 learning themes:1. Self-directed learning is significant during residency.2. Repetition with graduated autonomy is key.3. Effective mentors are competent surgeons who challenge residents and use positive teaching techniques.4. Residents employ active learning through the "see one, do one, teach one" philosophy.5. Learning from complexity is of importance to residency training.
After several years in practice, the most important theme in learning after residency was repetition of cases. This study demonstrates how residents progress in approaching competency in thyroid surgery. Adult learning strategies are preferred, and programs should incorporate tailored techniques to meet the individual needs of the residents. Perceptions of what is most important shifted in long-term follow up. Further study is needed to assure competency in residency and in practice.
Tyler R. Schwartz,Timothy Logan Lindemann,Gino Mongelluzzo,P. Ashley Wackym,Arun K. Gadre
Publication date 25-02-2021
This is a qualitative study to explore the utility of gray-scale inversion or the "invert" function of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans in the diagnosis of temporal bone anatomy and pathology. This is a case series describing an innovative application of an existing image processing tool to visualize temporal bone anatomy and pathology. Illustrative patients at a tertiary referral center with otologic symptoms and findings leading to HRCT scans of the temporal bone were included. Diagnostic HRCT scans were evaluated utilizing the gray-scale inversion function (invert function). Nine illustrative cases which demonstrate conditions such as persistent stapedial artery, membranous stapes footplate, total ossicular prosthesis migration into the vestibule, third window syndrome such as superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) and cochlea-facial nerve dehiscence, otosclerosis, and ossicular chain discontinuity are included. The enhanced visualization was confirmed surgically in 3 cases, and 1 had physiological confirmation using cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP). Gray-scale inversion can be used to improve visualization of temporal bone anatomy and pathologic changes when diagnoses are in doubt. The invert function is a useful adjunct in the armamentarium of both radiologists and otologists when evaluating HRCT of the temporal bone.Pubmed PDF Web
Jaclyn Lee,Li-Ching Huang,Lynn D. Berry,Catherine Anderson,Milan R. Amin,Michael S. Benninger,Joel H. Blumin,Jonathan M. Bock,Paul C. Bryson,Paul F. Castellanos,Sheau-Chiann Chen,Matthew S. Clary,Seth M. Cohen,Brianna K. Crawley,Seth H. Dailey,James J. Daniero,Alessandro de. Alarcon,Donald T. Donovan,Eric S. Edell,Dale C. Ekbom,Daniel S. Fink,Ramon A. Franco,C. Gaelyn Garrett,Elizabeth A. Guardiani,Alexander T. Hillel,Henry T. Hoffman,Norman D. Hogikyan,Rebecca J. Howell,Lena K. Hussain,Michael M. Johns,Jan L. Kasperbauer,Sid M. Khosla,Cheryl Kinnard,Robbi A. Kupfer,Alexander J. Langerman,Robert J. Lentz,Robert R. Lorenz,David G. Lott,Anne S. Lowery,Samir S. Makani,Fabien Maldonado,Kyle Mannion,Laura Matrka,Andrew J. McWhorter,Albert L. Merati,Matthew Mori,James L. Netterville,Karla O’Dell,Julina Ongkasuwan,Gregory N. Postma,Lindsay S. Reder,Sarah L. Rohde,Brent E. Richardson,Otis B. Rickman,Clark A. Rosen,Michael J. Rutter,Guri S. Sandhu,Joshua S. Schindler,G. Todd Schneider,Rupali N. Shah,Andrew G. Sikora,Robert J. Sinard,Marshall E. Smith,Libby J. Smith,Ahmed M.S. Soliman,Sigríður Sveinsdóttir,Douglas J. Van Daele,David Veivers,Sunil P. Verma,Paul M. Weinberger,Philip A. Weissbrod,Christopher T. Wootten,Yu Shyr,David O. Francis,Alexander Gelbard
Publication date 25-02-2021
To examine whether social determinants of health (SDH) factors are associated with time to diagnosis, treatment selection, and time to recurrent surgical intervention in idiopathic subglottic stenosis (iSGS) patients.
Adult patients with diagnosed iSGS were recruited prospectively (2015-2017) via clinical providers as part of the North American Airway Collaborative (NoAAC) and via an online iSGS support community on Facebook. Patient-specific SDH factors included highest educational attainment (self-reported), median household income (matched from home zip code via U.
S. Census data), and number of close friends (self-reported) as a measure of social support. Main outcomes of interest were time to disease diagnosis (years from symptom onset), treatment selection (endoscopic dilation [ED] vs cricotracheal resection [CTR] vs endoscopic resection with adjuvant medical therapy [ERMT]), and time to recurrent surgical intervention (number of days from initial surgical procedure) as a surrogate for disease recurrence. The total 810 participants were 98.5% female, 97.2% Caucasian, and had a median age of 50 years (IQR, 43-58). The cohort had a median household income of $62 307 (IQR, $50 345-$79 773), a median of 7 close friends (IQR, 4-10), and 64.7% of patients completed college or graduate school. Education, income, and number of friends were not associated with time to diagnosis via multivariable linear regression modeling. Univariable multinominal logistic regression demonstrated an association between education and income for selecting ED versus ERMT, but no associations were noted for CTR. No associations were noted for time to recurrent surgical procedure via Kaplan Meier modeling and Cox proportional hazards regression. Patient education, income, and social support were not associated with time to diagnosis or time to disease recurrence. This suggests additional patient, procedure, or disease-specific factors contribute to the observed variations in iSGS surgical outcomes.
Aurora G. Vincent,Jerry L. Barker,Yadranko Ducic
Publication date 25-02-2021
Tracheal stenosis can have a variety of presentations, severities, causes, and be a difficult condition to treat. Some patients demonstrate recurrent stenosis after multiple endoscopic treatments and are either poor candidates for open procedures or do not desire open surgery. We sought to evaluate low-dose postoperative external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) as a novel therapy for patients with recurrent tracheal stenosis refractory to endoscopic therapies. We performed a retrospective review of patients with recurrent tracheal stenosis who underwent EBRT in addition to endoscopic dilation. We compared the number of endoscopic procedures required in the 6 months before EBRT to the number required in the 6 months after EBRT. Six patients met criteria for inclusion in our study. The cause of stenosis was variable among the study population. In the 6 months leading up to EBRT, patients underwent an average 6.2 endoscopic procedures. This dropped to an average 1.9 procedures in the 6 months following EBRT ( Herein, we show that low-dose postoperative external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), a novel therapy for patients with recurrent tracheal stenosis refractory to endoscopic therapies, is effective in decreasing the frequency of endoscopic dilations. 4.Pubmed PDF Web
Jerome Zhiyi Ong,Alex Chengyao Tham,Jian Li Tan
Publication date 25-02-2021
Omohyoid muscle syndrome (OMS) is a condition that causes a X-shaped lateral neck lump on swallowing, caused by the failure of the central tendon of the omohyoid muscle to restrict movement of the muscle during swallowing. We aim to review the etiology, pathophysiology, diagnostic tests, and management options for this condition. Pubmed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched for all articles and abstracts related to OMS up to 29th July 2020. A systematic review was performed, data extracted from relevant full text articles. Both quantitative data and qualitative data were analyzed. Twenty cases of OMS were reported. Patients presented at a mean age of 36.0. All cases were Asian. There is a 7:3 ratio of males to females. The most common symptom was a transient neck mass. Most cases were managed conservatively with good prognosis. Open or endoscopic transection of the muscle and ultrasound-guided botulinum toxin injection were 3 treatment options, with no recurrence at 4 years, 6 months, and 6 months respectively. OMS could be genetic as all cases were Asian in ethnicity. The deep cervical fascia which usually envelopes the omohyoid muscle may be weakened by stress as 20% of cases had a preceding traumatic event. Real-time ultrasonography establishes the diagnosis, demonstrating the anterolateral displacement of the sternocleidomastoid muscle by a thickened omohyoid muscle during swallowing. Surgical transection can achieve cure, but due to limited studies available, they should be reserved for patients who are extremely bothered. Intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin is an effective alternative, but recurrence is expected.Pubmed PDF Web
Hilary C. McCrary,Sierra R. McLean,Abigail Luman,Patricia O’Sullivan,Brigitte Smith,Richard B. Cannon
Publication date 22-02-2021
The aim of this study is to describe the current state of robotic surgery training among Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (OHNS) residency programs in the United States. This is a national survey study among OHNS residents. All OHNS residency programs were identified via the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education website. A total of 64/127 (50.3%) of OHNS programs were selected based on a random number generator. The main outcome measure was the number of OHNS residents with access to robotic surgery training and assessment of operative experience in robotic surgery among those residents. A total of 140 OHNS residents participated in the survey, of which 59.3% (n = 83) were male. Response rate was 40.2%. Respondents came from middle 50.0% (n = 70), southern 17.8% (n = 25), western 17.8% (n = 25), and eastern sections 14.3% (n = 20). Most respondents (94.3%, n = 132) reported that their institution utilized a robot for head and neck surgery. Resident experience at the bedside increased in the junior years of training and console experience increased across the years particularly for more senior residents. However, 63.4% of residents reported no operative experience at the console. Only 11.4% of programs have a structured robotics training program. This survey indicated that nearly all OHNS residencies utilize robotic surgery in their clinical practice with residents receiving little formal education in robotics or experience at the console. OHNS residencies should aim to increase access to training opportunities in order to increase resident competency. IV.Pubmed PDF Web
Gabriel Dunya,Fadi Najem,Aurelie Mailhac,Samer Abou Rizk,Marc Bassim
Publication date 22-02-2021
The effect of hearing aid use on the evolution of presbycusis has not been well described in the literature, with only a handful of publications addressing this topic. This paper aims to evaluate the long-term use of amplification and its effect on pure-tone thresholds and word recognition scores. Monaurally fitted patients were followed with serial audiograms. Data was collected from hearing aid centers. Seventy-seven patients with presbycusis met the inclusion criteria and participated in the present study. The progression of hearing loss in both pure tone thresholds and word recognition scores were compared between the hearing aid ears (HA), and the non-hearing aid ears (NHA). Pure tone thresholds were analyzed by comparing the pure tone average at the initial and last audiograms. Word Recognition Scores (WRS) were analyzed using the model of Thornton and Raffin (1978), and by comparing the change in the absolute values of WRS from the initial to the last audiogram between the HA ear and the NHA ear. No significant difference in pure-tone thresholds between the HA ear and NHA ear was found at the last audiogram ( The present study supports the previously defined auditory deprivation effect on non-fitted ears, which showed worsening of word recognition over time and no effect on pure tone average. It provides an additional argument for the counseling of patients with presbycusis considering amplification, and highlights the importance of bilateral amplification in preserving the residual hearing of hearing impaired patients.Pubmed PDF Web
Kirsten Meenan,Kavita Bhatnagar,Elizabeth Guardiani
Publication date 15-02-2021
To identify the incidence and risk factors for intubation-related laryngeal lesions that preclude tracheostomy decannulation in a large population. A 3-year retrospective case-control study was performed of tracheotomized adults in acute rehabilitation facilities who underwent routine endoscopic evaluation of the airway as part of the facilities' decannulation protocol. Patients with known upper airway pathology, external laryngeal trauma, cricothyrotomy or emergent tracheostomy, prior head and neck radiation, isolated tracheal lesions, and patients with incomplete reports were excluded. The laryngeal pathologies were classified, and demographics and clinical features were compared between those whose lesions precluded decannulation and all other patients. Three hundred seventy-one patients met inclusion criteria. One hundred six (28.6%) had laryngotracheal lesions. Forty-nine patients (13.2%) had intubation-related lesions of the larynx that precluded decannulation. These lesions included posterior glottic stenosis (30.6%), granulation tissue (24.5%), vocal fold immobility (16.3%), subglottic stenosis (16.3%), a combination of granulation tissue and stenosis (10.2%), and glottic edema (2.0%). A BMI ≥ 25 kg/m BMI ≥ 25 kg/mPubmed PDF Web
Michael A. Belsky,Erica Corredera,Hridesh Banerjee,John Moore,Li Wang,Lawrence P. Kane,Stella E. Lee
Publication date 12-02-2021
Previous work showed that higher polyp mast cell load correlated with worse postoperative endoscopic appearance in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Polyp epithelial mast cells showed increased expression of T-cell/transmembrane immunoglobulin and mucin domain protein 3 (TIM-3), a receptor that promotes mast cell activation and cytokine production. In this study, CRSwNP patients were followed post-operatively to investigate whether mast cell burden or TIM-3 expression among mast cells can predict recalcitrant disease.
Nasal polyp specimens were obtained via functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) and separated into epithelial and stromal layers via enzymatic digestion. Mast cells and TIM-3-expressing mast cells were identified via flow cytometry. Mann-Whitney
Twenty-three patients with CRSwNP were studied and followed for 6 months after undergoing FESS.
Higher mast cell levels were associated with earlier recurrence of polypoid edema: epithelial HR = 1.283 ( Mast cell load in polyp epithelium and stroma may predict a more refractory postoperative course for CRSwNP patients. The role of TIM-3 in the chronic inflammatory state seen in CRSwNP remains unclear.
Gul Moonis,Ryan Mitchell,Betsy Szeto,Anil K. Lalwani
Publication date 11-02-2021
Acute neurological sequela in patients with COVID-19 infection include acute thromboembolic infarcts related to cytokine storm and post infectious immune activation resulting in a prothrombotic state. Radiologic imaging studies of the sinonasal tract and mastoid cavity in patients with COVID-19 infection are sparse and limited to case series. In this report, we investigate the radiologic involvement of nasal cavity, nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, and mastoid cavity in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection who presented with acute neurological symptoms. Retrospective review of medical records and neuroradiologic imaging in patients diagnosed with acute COVID-19 infection who presented with acute neurological symptoms to assess radiologic prevalence of sinus and mastoid disease and its correlation to upper respiratory tract symptoms. Of the 55 patients, 23 (42%) had partial sinus opacification, with no evidence for complete sinus opacification. The ethmoid sinus was the most commonly affected (16/55 or 29%). An air fluid level was noted in 6/55 (11%) patients, most commonly in the maxillary sinus. Olfactory recess and mastoid opacification were uncommon. There was no evidence of bony destruction in any of the studies, Cough, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, and sore throat were not significantly associated with any radiological findings. In patients who present with acute neurological symptoms, COVID-19 infection is characterized by limited and mild mucosal disease within the sinuses, nasopharynx and mastoid cavity. 4.Pubmed PDF Web
Benjamin K. Walters,Samuel L. Garrett,James K. Aden,Grant M. Williams,Samantha L. Butler-Garcia,Travis R. Newberry,Alex J. Mckinlay
Publication date 11-02-2021
An indeterminate thyroid nodule fine-needle aspiration (FNA) presents a unique dilemma. We evaluated our institution's experience with Bethesda III thyroid nodules, including the risk of malignancy (ROM) of these nodules removed for diagnostic lobectomy and radiologic and clinical risk factors for malignancy. Retrospective chart review. San Antonio Military Medical Center (SAMMC; 483 bed Military Treatment Facility and Level 1 Trauma Center). We identified all patients with a Bethesda III thyroid FNA at our institution from 2010 to 2018 and determined which nodules were removed. The final histological diagnosis was recorded. Whether or not age, gender, body mass index (BMI), race, nodule size, margin regularity, rate of nodule growth, vascularity, internal calcifications, family history of thyroid cancer, personal history of radiation, and history of repeated AUS/FLUS on FNA had a significant impact on malignancy risk was evaluated with chi square and rank sum Wilcoxon tests. 492 patients had 1 or more AUS result. 52% (258/492) underwent repeat FNA. This resulted in Bethesda II or III in 90% (232/258). In 10% (26/258), the repeat FNA resulted in a higher Bethesda grade. 183 lobectomies were performed on the side containing an AUS nodule. The malignancy percentage was 38.3% (70/183). Age less than 30 was the only variable showing statistical significance for increased risk of malignancy ( The ROM of nodules characterized as AUS/FLUS on FNA may be higher than expected. Age may be a better predictor of malignancy than repeat FNA.Pubmed PDF Web
Taner Yılmaz,Furkan Özer,Fatma Esen Aydınlı
Publication date 11-02-2021
Laser reduction glottoplasty is a relatively new surgical procedure for voice feminization on transgender women. This study aims to determine long-term voice results of glottoplasty on transwomen. Nonrandomized, retrospective, cohort. Tertiary referral center. Endoscopic laser reduction glottoplasty was performed on 28 transwomen. Voice Handicap Index (VHI-30), Transsexual Voice Questionnaire (TVQ), acoustic analysis with /a/ for F Mean total VHI and TVQ scores improved significantly postoperatively ( Laser reduction glottoplasty is an accomplished and satisfying operation for feminizing voice of transwomen. Its voice outcome appears to be durable for 5 years. However, secondary operation may be needed to further gratify transwomen.Pubmed PDF Web
Christopher A. Maroun,Habib G. Zalzal,Ayman A. Mustafa,Michele Carr
Publication date 10-02-2021
The objective of this study was to compare complications and other perioperative outcomes between intraoral and transcervical drainage of both retropharyngeal and parapharyngeal abscesses. This was a retrospective study that analyzed data from the 2012 to 2016 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP)-Pediatric public use files. Baseline characteristics and perioperative outcomes including postoperative complications and length of hospital stay (LOS) were compared between intraoral and transcervical drainage groups. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to inspect predictors of having an extended LOS, defined as LOS greater than 3 days. A total of 1174 patients were included. Mean age was 5.1 ± 3.8 years in the intraoral group (N = 1063) and 4.2 ± 4.3 years in the transcervical group (N = 111, There does not appear to be a significant difference in the rate of post-operative complications after intraoral versus transcervical drainage for pharyngeal abscesses in children. However, transcervical drainage was associated with an extended hospital stay. Further prospective studies will be needed to determine the reasons for this.Pubmed PDF Web
Monika E. Freiser,Anish Ghodadra,Andrew A. McCall,Amber D. Shaffer,Michael Magnetta,Noel Jabbour
Publication date 08-02-2021
Three-dimensional printed models created on a consumer level printer can be used to practice mastoidectomy and to discern mastoidectomy experience level. Current models in the literature for mastoidectomy are limited by expense or operability. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the utility of an inexpensive model for mastoidectomy and (2) to assess whether the model can be used as an evaluation tool to discern the experience level of the surgeon performing mastoidectomy. Three-dimensional printed temporal bone models from the CT scan of a 7-year old patient were created using a consumer-level stereolithography 3D printer for a raw material cost of $10 each. Mastoidectomy with facial recess approach was performed by 4 PGY-2 residents, 4 PGY-5 residents, and 4 attending surgeons on the models who then filled out an evaluation. The drilled models were collected and then graded in a blinded fashion by 6 attending otolaryngologists. Both residents and faculty felt the model was useful for training (mean score 4.7 out of 5; range: 4-5) and case preparation (mean score: 4.3; range: 3-5). Grading of the drilled models revealed significant differences between junior resident, senior resident, and attending surgeon scores ( The described operable model that is patient-specific was rated favorably for pediatric mastoidectomy case preparation and training by residents and faculty. The model may be used to differentiate between experience levels and has promise for use in formative and summative evaluations.Pubmed PDF Web
Kostas Vahtsevanos,Angelos Chatziavramidis,Ioannis (Yiannis) Papadiochos,Georgios Koloutsos,Anastasios Stefanidis,Kyriaki Kitikidou,Aris Ntomouchtsis,Anna Patrikidou
Publication date 06-02-2021
Frey's syndrome is a well-known complication of parotid surgery; its prevention may be achieved by the use of an interpositional barrier between the overlying flaps and the exposed parenchymal bed of parotid gland. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate clinical outcomes with and without the interpositional placement of a porcine dermal collagen graft (PDCG) for prevention of syndrome occurrence. We conducted a 20-year retrospective study including the patients who had undergone "formal" (superficial, total, or subtotal) parotidectomies for benign pathologies. The inclusion criteria also involved patients that were (i) regularly monitored about clinical symptoms related to syndrome, and (ii) examined with Minor starch-iodine test. The severity of the diagnosed syndrome was retrospectively evaluated according to the grading score system of Luna-Ortiz. To assess group differences in terms of the extent of dissection in operating sites, we estimated the tumor and histological specimen volumes using the available dimensions. We included Porcine dermal collagen is a safe, practical, and useful means for parotid reconstruction, since it seems to contribute in prevention of Frey's syndrome when increased amount of glandular tissue has to be removed. Additional randomized controlled studies with bigger samples are required to better assess the PDCG use in parotid surgery.Pubmed PDF Web
Elizabeth J. Abraham,Ashank Bains,Batsheva R. Rubin,Michael B. Cohen,Jessica R. Levi
Publication date 05-02-2021
To determine the prevalence and characteristics of children with normal elective polysomnography for obstructive sleep disordered breathing (oSDB) based on the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (AAO-HNS) guidelines. In this retrospective cohort study, we identified patients ages 2 to 18 who underwent diagnostic polysomnography (PSG) ordered by our otolaryngology department for SDB between 2012 and 2018. All patients were seen by otolaryngologists at an urban tertiary safety net hospital. There were a total of 456 patients studied (average age 5.66 ± 3.19; 263 (57.7%) males, 193 (42.3%) females. Demographic factors (age, gender, race, ethnicity, language, insurance status) and clinical findings (symptom severity, tonsil size) were recorded. The data were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analysis. Two hundred four patients (44.7%) had no obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) based on AHI<2 on PSG. Children with a larger tonsil size had 3.18 times the odds of OSA compared to those with a medium tonsil size (95% CI 1.64, 6.19) when adjusting for symptoms, age category, and race ( Among our patient population, 44.7% had normal sleep studies. Younger children (ages 2-3) were less likely to have normal polysomnography. This research demonstrates that obtaining sleep studies in otherwise healthy children with SDB can affect management decisions, and they should be discussed with families with a focus on patient centered decision making.Pubmed PDF Web
Kevin Calamari,Stephen Politano,Laura Matrka
Publication date 01-02-2021
Expiratory disproportion index (EDI) is the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) divided by peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) multiplied by 100. Prominent EDI (>50) values can differentiate subglottic stenosis (SGS) from paradoxical vocal fold movement disorder (PVFMD), but this has not been verified when considering body habitus. We hypothesize that the predictive value of elevated EDI in differentiating SGS from PVFMD will be lower in obese patients than non-obese patients.
Patients ≥ 18 years old with recorded PFT values, BMI, and airway imaging were reviewed retrospectively from 01/2011 to 10/2018.
EDI was recorded for 4 cohorts: non-obese/SGS, non-obese/ PVFMD, obese/SGS, and obese/ PVFMD, to determine the mean EDI and the sensitivity/specificity of an elevated EDI. Mean EDI values were 69.32 and 48.38 in the non-obese SGS and PVFMD groups, respectively ( Prior literature has established that EDI can distinguish SGS from PVFMD in the general population. Our results show that the mean EDI values were significantly different in both cohorts, but an elevated EDI was not as sensitive at identifying SGS cases in obese patients. This suggests that the EDI should be used with caution in obese patients and should not be relied upon to rule out SGS. 3.
Liyona Kampel,Alexandra Dorman,Gilad Horowitz,Dan M. Fliss,Orit Gutfeld,Nidal Muhanna
Publication date 30-01-2021
Advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (CSCCHN) is associated with poor outcome despite multimodality therapy. Comprehensive risk stratification may pinpoint the most suitable adjuvant treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of surgically treated locoregional CSCCHN and to identify prognostic indicators of treatment outcomes. We retrospectively analyzed disease variables, pathologic characteristics, and management in association with treatment outcomes of all consecutive advanced CSCCHN patients who underwent surgical resection at Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center. From 2008 to 2018, 74 patients met the inclusion criteria. Only perineural invasion (PNI) was significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS) ( PNI was associated with worse OS in surgically treated advanced CSCCHN. Adjuvant RT conferred better outcomes despite high risk features.Pubmed PDF Web
Denis D. Nguyen,Ryan T. Judd,Terence E. Imbery,Michael B. Gluth
Publication date 29-01-2021
Surgery on the ossicular chain may impact its underlying mechanical properties. This study aims to investigate comparative differences in frequency-specific hearing outcomes for ossiculoplasty versus stapedotomy. A retrospective chart review was conducted on subjects who underwent ossiculoplasty with partial ossicular replacement prosthesis (PORP) or laser stapedotomy with self-crimping nitinol/fluoroplastic piston, and achieved closure of postoperative pure tone average air-bone gap (PTA-ABG) ≤ 15 dB. 45 PORP and 38 stapedotomy cases were included, with mean length of follow-up of 7.6 months. The mean change in PTA-ABG was similar for the 2 procedures (-17.9 dB vs -18.1 dB, Both procedures achieved a similar mean change in PTA-ABG. Stapedotomy was superior to PORP at ABG closure at 1000 Hz and at 4000 Hz, with 1000 Hz the most discrepant. The exact mechanism responsible for these changes is unclear, but the specific frequencies affected suggest that differences in each procedure's respective impact on the native resonant frequency and mass load of the system could be implicated.Pubmed PDF Web
Geoffrey C. Casazza,Lincoln C. Gray,Debra Hildebrand,Bradley W. Kesser
Publication date 25-01-2021
To record crossed acoustic reflex thresholds (xART's) postoperatively from patients after surgical repair of unilateral congenital aural atresia (CAA). To seek explanations for when xARTs can and cannot be recorded. We hope to understand the implications for this central auditory reflex despite early afferent deprivation. Patients who underwent surgery to correct unilateral CAA at a tertiary academic medical were prospectively enrolled to evaluate for the presence of xART. Preoperative ARTs in the normal (non-atretic) ear, and postoperative ipsilateral ARTs (stimulus in the normal ear) and contralateral ARTs (stimulus in the newly reconstructed atretic ear; record in the normal ear) were measured at 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz. Four of 11 patients with normal ipsilateral reflex thresholds preoperatively demonstrated crossed acoustic reflexes postoperatively (stimulus in reconstructed ear; record from normal ear). Four other patients demonstrated normal ipsilateral thresholds preoperatively but did not have crossed reflexes postoperatively. No reflexes (pre- or postoperatively) could be recorded in 3 patients. Crossed reflex threshold is significantly correlated with the postoperative audiometric threshold. There was no correlation between ipsilateral and contralateral reflex thresholds. Crossed acoustic reflexes can be recorded from some but not all postoperative atresia patients, and the thresholds for those reflexes correlate with the postoperative pure tone threshold. The presence of acoustic reflexes implies an intact CN VIII-to-opposite CN VII central reflex arc despite early unilateral sound deprivation.Pubmed PDF Web
Iku Abe-Fujisawa,Yukihide Maeda,Soshi Takao,Shin Kariya,Kazunori Nishizaki
Publication date 20-01-2021
Subjective symptoms of dizziness in older adults are affected not only by objective data such as postural balance, but also by complex psychological factors. Published data analyzing how simultaneous evaluations of both objective and subjective assessments of balance can predict fall risk remain lacking. This study examined how fall risk can be predicted based on both objective data for balance and hearing and subjective symptoms of dizziness among older adults visiting otolaryngology clinics. Medical charts of 76 patients ≥65 years old with dizziness/vertigo who visited the otolaryngology clinic were reviewed. Objective data were evaluated by postural balance (posturographic data with eyes open and closed, and one-leg standing test), spontaneous nystagmus, and mean hearing levels. Subjective handicap associated with dizziness/vertigo was assessed using the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI). Subjective mental status of anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Information on history (cardiovascular diseases) and fall accidents within the preceding year was collected using an in-house interview sheet. Objective data on postural balance did not correlate with subjective symptoms on DHI or HADS ( Poor postural balance is associated with increased fall risk after adjusting for subjective symptoms in older adults at otolaryngology clinics. Conversely, the self-perceived dizziness handicap of DHI score is an insufficient tool to evaluate their fall risk.Pubmed PDF Web
Jerome R. Lechien,Francois Bobin,Didier Dequanter,Alexandra Rodriguez,Serge Le Bon,Mihaela Horoi,Marie-Paule Thill,Charelle Salem,Vinciane Muls,Sven Saussez
Publication date 20-01-2021
To study the profile and the therapeutic response of patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) at the hypopharyngeal-esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring (HEMII-pH) according to the initial pepsin saliva concentration. From January 2018 to January 2020, patients with positive LPR diagnosis at the HEMII-pH were consecutively recruited from 3 European Hospitals. Saliva pepsin concentration (Peptest™) was measured during the HEMII-pH testing period and patients were classified into 2 groups: negative versus positive Peptest. The clinical outcomes, that is, gastrointestinal and HEMII-pH findings, reflux symptom score-12 (RSS-12), and 3-month therapeutic response, were compared between groups. A total of 124 patients completed the study. Among them, 30 patients had negative Peptest. Pharyngeal reflux events occurred outside 1-hour post-meal time in 74.0%, after the meals in 20.5% and nighttime in 5.5%. The pepsin saliva level was not significantly associated with the reflux events preceding the sample collection. Patients with positive Peptest had better improvement of RSS-12 digestive and respiratory subscores and oral, pharyngeal, and laryngeal findings compared with patients with negative Peptest. Patients with high saliva pepsin concentration had no stronger gastrointestinal, HEMII-pH, or clinical outcomes compared with those with low or undetectable saliva pepsin concentration.Pubmed PDF Web
John Flynn,Christopher Boyd,Sreeya Yalamanchali,David Rouse,Sara Goodwin,Joseph Penn,Christopher Larsen
Publication date 16-01-2021
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by repeated upper airway collapse while sleeping which leads to intermittent hypoxemia. Upper airway stimulation (UAS) is a commonly practiced modality for treating OSA in patients who cannot tolerate, or do not benefit from, positive airway pressure (PAP). The purpose of this study is to identify the effect of lateral pharyngeal collapse patterns on therapy response in UAS. A retrospective cohort study from a single, tertiary-care academic center was performed. Patients who underwent UAS between October 2016 and July 2019 were identified and analyzed. Drug-induced Sleep Endoscopy (DISE) outcomes between Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) responders and AHI non-responders were compared. Those with complete concentric collapse at the velopharynx were not candidates for UAS. About 95 patients that underwent UAS were included in this study. Pre- to Post-UAS demonstrated significant improvements in Epworth Sleepiness Scale (12.0 vs 4.0, Demonstration of lateral pharyngeal collapse on DISE, in the absence of complete concentric velopharyngeal obstruction, does not appear to adversely affect AHI outcomes in UAS patients. VI.Pubmed PDF Web