Annals of Otology Rhinology and Laryngology 2021-10-22

Reversible Canalith Jam of the Horizontal Semicircular Canal Mimicking Cupulolithiasis

Olivia A. Kalmanson,Davis M. Aasen,Samuel P. Gubbels,Carol A. Foster

Publication date 03-04-2021


To describe a case of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) resulting in reversible horizontal semicircular canalith jam successfully treated with horizontal canal occlusion. A brief literature review of similar cases was performed. Case report and literature review. A 68-year-old female presented with apogeotropic positional nystagmus, attributed to reversible horizontal canalith jam mimicking cupulolithiasis that was refractory to tailored repositioning maneuvers across months. She was unable to work due to the severity of her symptoms. She underwent surgical occlusion of the affected canal with immediate resolution of her symptoms. A literature review revealed similar cases of canalith jam mimicking cupulolithiasis. Reversible canalith jam, in which particles moving with horizontal head position alternate between obstructing the semicircular canal and resting on the cupula, can mimic signs of cupulolithiasis. This variant of BPPV can be effectively managed with surgical canal occlusion should symptoms fail to resolve after tailored repositioning maneuvers.

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The Sinonasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) Is a Poor Diagnostic Tool for Chronic Rhinosinusitis

Michael T. Yim,Richard R. Orlandi,Gretchen M. Oakley,Jeremiah A. Alt

Publication date 04-03-2021


The SNOT-22 is a validated and widely used outcomes tool in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). We hypothesized that SNOT-22 scores and response patterns could be used as a diagnostic tool to differentiate between patients with CRS and those who present with CRS-like symptoms but prove not to have CRS. SNOT-22 measurements were collected from 311 patients who presented with a chief complaint of sinusitis to a tertiary rhinology practice. Following a full diagnostic evaluation, patients were diagnosed with CRS or determined to have non-CRS diagnoses. A response pattern "heatmap" of the SNOT-22 scores for each group was compared. An optimal cutoff point for total SNOT-22 score in predicting CRS was sought using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. A total of 109 patients were diagnosed with CRS and 202 patients were assigned to non-CRS. The non-CRS SNOT-22 total score histogram had lower overall scores compared to the CRS group, although there was substantial overlap. The CRS SNOT-22 heatmaps had a distinctive pattern compared to the non-CRS group. As individual measures, 3 of the 4 cardinal symptoms of CRS (nasal congestion, loss of smell, and rhinorrhea) were found to be significantly different between the 2 groups ( Our results cause us to reject our hypothesis and conclude that, while an effective outcomes tool, the SNOT-22 (using total score and response pattern) is a poor differentiator between CRS and non-CRS patients.

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Radiologic Assessment of the Sinonasal Tract, Nasopharynx and Mastoid Cavity in Patients with SARS-Cov-2 Infection Presenting with Acute Neurological Symptoms

Gul Moonis,Ryan Mitchell,Betsy Szeto,Anil K. Lalwani

Publication date 11-02-2021


Acute neurological sequela in patients with COVID-19 infection include acute thromboembolic infarcts related to cytokine storm and post infectious immune activation resulting in a prothrombotic state. Radiologic imaging studies of the sinonasal tract and mastoid cavity in patients with COVID-19 infection are sparse and limited to case series. In this report, we investigate the radiologic involvement of nasal cavity, nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, and mastoid cavity in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection who presented with acute neurological symptoms. Retrospective review of medical records and neuroradiologic imaging in patients diagnosed with acute COVID-19 infection who presented with acute neurological symptoms to assess radiologic prevalence of sinus and mastoid disease and its correlation to upper respiratory tract symptoms. Of the 55 patients, 23 (42%) had partial sinus opacification, with no evidence for complete sinus opacification. The ethmoid sinus was the most commonly affected (16/55 or 29%). An air fluid level was noted in 6/55 (11%) patients, most commonly in the maxillary sinus. Olfactory recess and mastoid opacification were uncommon. There was no evidence of bony destruction in any of the studies, Cough, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, and sore throat were not significantly associated with any radiological findings. In patients who present with acute neurological symptoms, COVID-19 infection is characterized by limited and mild mucosal disease within the sinuses, nasopharynx and mastoid cavity. 4.

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Characteristics of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo Following an Earthquake

Muhammed Gazi Yildiz,Nagihan Bilal,Irfan Kara,Saime Sagiroglu,Israfil Orhan,Adem Doganer

Publication date 15-03-2021


Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) is a commonly encountered peripheral vestibular disorder. People exposed to massive earthquakes experience intense and long-term problem associated with dizziness. The purpose of our study is to investigate this relationship and to demonstrate the efficacy of the treatment modalities used in the management of patients with post-earthquake dizziness. The study was carried out by examining the retrospective records of patients who presented with dizziness to the otorhinolaryngological outpatient unit before and after the Elazig earthquake that occurred on 24th Jan 2020. Parameters evaluated include patients' age and gender, onset of dizziness, accompanying symptoms and comorbidities, videonystagmography (VNG) findings, pre- and post-treatment Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The number of patients who presented with dizziness to our outpatient clinic after the earthquake and were included in our study totaled 84. The number of patients who visited the outpatient clinic before the earthquake was identified to be 75. In the earthquake related group, while there was a statistically significant difference between residual symptoms (RS) and the need for repetitive repositioning maneuvers, there was no statistically significant difference detected for age, gender, and comorbidities. Also, no statistically significant difference was found in the pre- and post-treatment assessments of VAS, DHI, and HADS median values in the earthquake group. There was a remarkable increase in the number of patients presenting with dizziness in the early post-earthquake period. Management of these patients may differ from the classic BPPV. Residual symptoms appearing after performing repositioning maneuvers can be more commonly seen among these patients.

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Aerosol and Droplet Risk of Common Otolaryngology Clinic Procedures

Devi Sai Sri Kavya Boorgu,Harish Dharmarajan,Edward S. Sim,Lindsey Goyal,Monika E. Freiser,Michael Weinstock,Rachel Whelan,Timothy E. Corcoran,Noel Jabbour,Eric Wang,David H. Chi

Publication date 18-03-2021


Define aerosol and droplet risks associated with routine otolaryngology clinic procedures during the COVID-19 era. Clinical procedures were simulated in cadaveric heads whose oral and nasal cavities were coated with fluorescent tracer (vitamin B2) and breathing was manually simulated through retrograde intubation. A cascade impactor placed adjacent to the nares collected generated particles with aerodynamic diameters ≤14.1 µm. The 3D printed models and syringes were used to simulate middle and external ear suctioning as well as open suctioning, respectively. Provider's personal protective equipment (PPE) and procedural field contamination were also recorded for all trials using vitamin B2 fluorescent tracer. The positive controls of nebulized vitamin B2 produced aerosol particles ≤3.30 µm and endonasal drilling of a 3D model generated particles ≤14.1 µm. As compared with positive controls, aerosols and small droplets with aerodynamic diameter ≤14.1 µm were not detected during rigid nasal endoscopy, flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy, and rigid nasal suction of cadavers with simulated breathing. There was minimal to no field contamination in all 3 scenarios. Middle and external ear suctioning and open container suctioning did not result in any detectable droplet contamination. The clinic suction unit contained all fluorescent material without surrounding environmental contamination. While patients' coughing and sneezing may create a baseline risk for providers, this study demonstrates that nasal endoscopy, flexible laryngoscopy, and suctioning inherently do not pose an additional risk in terms of aerosol and small droplet generation. An overarching generalization cannot be made about endoscopy or suctioning being an aerosol generating procedure. 3.

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Clinical Practices in Head and Neck Cancer: A Speech-Language Pathologist Practice Pattern Survey

Ashley M. Logan,Mario A. Landera

Publication date 18-03-2021


Clinical practices of speech-language pathologists (SLP) treating head and neck cancer (HNC) patients range widely despite literature trending toward best practices. This survey study was designed to identify current patterns and assess for gaps in clinical implementation of research evidence. A web-based survey was distributed to SLPs via listserv and social media outlets. Descriptive statistics and group calculations were completed to identify trends and associations in responses. Of 152 received surveys, the majority of respondents were hospital-based (86%) and had greater than 5 years of experience (65%). There was group consensus for the use of prophylactic exercise programs (95%), recommendations for SLP intervention during HNC treatment (75%), and use of maintenance programs post-treatment (97%). Conversely, no group consensus was observed for use of pre-treatment swallow evaluations, frequency of service provision, and content of therapy sessions. Variation in clinical decision making was noted in use of prophylactic feeding tubes and number of patients taking nothing by mouth during treatment. No associations were found between years of experience and decision-making practices, nor were any associations found between practice setting and clinical decision making. Despite the growing body of literature outlining evidence-based treatment practices for HNC patients, clinical practice patterns among SLPs continue to vary widely resulting in inconsistent patient care across practice settings. As compared to prior similar data, increased alignment with best practices was observed relative to early referrals, implementation of prophylactic intervention programs, and intervention with the SLP during the period of HNC treatment.

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The Effect of the Mother’s Participation in Therapy on Children with Vocal Fold Nodules

Nevreste Didem Sonbay Yılmaz,Cansu Afyoncu,Nuray Ensari,Muhammet Yıldız,Özer Erdem Gür

Publication date 18-03-2021


Vocal fold nodules (VFN) are a bilateral epithelial thickening of the membranous vocal folds. In this study, children with VFN and their mothers took part in voice therapy. We then compared acoustic analyzes and subjective evaluations to those in previous literature to determine whether voice therapy is more effective for children with VFN when their mothers also take part in therapy. Children aged eight to 12 years who were diagnosed with bilateral VFN between January 2018 and January 2020 were included in this study. Participating children diagnosed with bilateral VFN were divided into two groups based on the wishes and cooperation of their families. Group 1 consisted of 16 patients; Group 2 included 17 patients. The children in Group 1 received voice therapy alone; children in Group 2 took part in therapy with their mothers. For all participants, the average fundemental frequency (F0), jitter percentages, shimmer percentages, maximum phonation time (MPT) and s/z ratios were measured. Pediatric voice handicap index (p-VHI) values were calculated as well. The two groups' measures pre-treatment and post-treatment were compared. Except for p-VHI, no significant difference was observed between the two groups. However, p-VHI post-treatment was significantly lower in Group 2 than in Group 1. Involving the families and even teachers of children with VFN in voice therapy can increase the effectiveness of therapy. The family's involvement increases the child's motivation in therapy. The mother's presence during therapy, supporting the child or even doing the work with the child, can be a very important source of motivation for the child, who may already be tired from school and other activities. Thus, the mother's involvement increases the child's compliance with and interest in therapy.

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Spin the Abstracts of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Regarding the Treatment of Ménière’s Disease

Benjamin Heigle,Micah Kee,Ryan Ottwell,Wade Arthur,Lacy Brame,Drew N. Wright,Micah Hartwell,Jam Khojasteh,Matt Vassar

Publication date 18-03-2021


To identify, quantify, and characterize the presence of spin-specific strategies leading to misrepresentation of study results-in the abstracts of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of Ménière's disease treatment. Using a cross-sectional design, we searched MEDLINE and Embase on May 28, 2020, for systematic reviews and meta-analyses focused on Ménière's disease treatment. Returned searches were screened, and data were extracted in a masked, duplicate fashion. Our sample included 36 systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Of the 36 included studies, 22 (61.1%) abstracts contained spin while 14 (38.9%) did not. The most common spin types were selective reporting of benefit (10/36, 27.8%) or harm (8/36, 22.2%). Other types of spin occurred when findings were extrapolated to the global improvement of the disease (5/36, 13.9%), beneficial effects were reported with high risk of bias in primary studies (3/36, 8.3%), and when beneficial effects were extrapolated to an entire class of interventions (1/36, 2.8%). No instances of other spin types occurred. Abstracts containing spin were substantively associated with studies of critically low methodological quality compared with studies with low and moderate quality. No studies had a methodological rating of high quality. No associations were observed between spin and intervention types, journal recommendation of adhering to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, or funding. We found a negative correlation ( Our study highlights that spin in the abstracts of systematic reviews of Ménière's disease is common, and it further enhances the discussion surrounding spin in abstracts of scientific research. Spin in an abstract does not discredit a study's findings; however, its occurrence should be eliminated.

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Scholarly Research Productivity among Otolaryngology Residency Graduates and its Relationship to Future Academic Achievement

Austin L. Johnson,Adam Corcoran,Matthew Ferrell,Bradley S. Johnson,Scott E. Mann,Jennifer A. Villwock,Sydney Ferrell,Matt Vassar

Publication date 24-03-2021


Scholastic activity through research involvement is a fundamental aspect of a physician's training and may have a significant influence on future academic success. Here, we explore publication rates before, during, and after otolaryngology residency training and whether publication efforts correlate with future academic achievement. This cross-sectional analysis included a random sample of 50 otolaryngology residency programs. From these programs, we assembled a list of residents graduating from the years in 2013, 2014, and 2015. Using SCOPUS, Pub Med, and Google Scholar, we compiled the publications for each graduate, and data were extracted in an independent, double-blinded fashion. We included 32 otolaryngology residency programs representing 249 residents in this analysis. Graduates published a mean of 1.3 (SD = 2.7) articles before residency, 3.5 (SD = 4.3) during residency, and 5.3 (SD = 9.3) after residency. Residents who pursued a fellowship had more total publications ( Research productivity correlated with a number of characteristics such as future fellowship training, the pursuit of an academic career, and overall h-index in this study.

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Diagnosis of Retrolingual Obstruction during Drug-Induced Sleep Endoscopy versus Polysomnography with Nasopharyngeal Tube in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Jian Qiao,Jie Qin,Dengxiang Xing,Shuhua Li,Dahai Wu

Publication date 29-03-2021


To compare the retrolingual obstruction during drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) with the retrolingual obstruction during polysomnography with nasopharyngeal tube (NPT-PSG). A cross-sectional study of 77 consecutive patients with moderate and severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) was conducted. After 15 patients were excluded from the study for not completing DISE or NPT-PSG successfully, 62 patients were included in this study. Retrolingual sites of obstruction grade 2 determined by DISE according to the VOTE (velum, oropharynx lateral wall, tongue base, and epiglottis) classification were considered as retrolingual obstruction, while apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 15 events/hour determined by NPT-PSG was considered as retrolingual obstruction. The extent of agreement between DISE and NPT-PSG findings was evaluated using unweighted Cohen's kappa test. The 62 study participants (11 moderate OSA, 51 severe OSA) had a mean (SD) age of 39.8 (9.9) years, and 58 (94%) were men. No statistically significant differences between included and excluded patients were observed in patient characteristics. The extent of agreement in retrolingual obstruction between DISE and NPT-PSG was 80.6% (Cohen Retrolingual obstruction requiring treatment showed good agreement between DISE and NPT-PSG, suggesting that NPT-PSG may also be a reliable method to assess the retrolingual obstruction.

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Adverse Events Associated with Intranasal Sprays: An Analysis of the Food and Drug Administration Database and Literature Review

Salma Ahsanuddin,Roman Povolotskiy,Rahma Tayyab,Wissam Nasser,Gregory L. Barinsky,Jordon G. Grube,Boris Paskhover

Publication date 03-04-2021


Intranasal sprays (INSs) are commonly used medications for the treatment of many rhinologic conditions. Despite their popularity, an analysis of a nationwide reporting database and comparison to the available literature has never been performed. The Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database was accessed to obtain adverse event (AE) records from 2014 to 2019 for varying INSs, including: 10 corticosteroids, 1 alpha adrenergic, and 3 antihistamines. The Proportional Reporting Ratios (PRR) and Reporting Odds Ratios (ROR) were calculated for dyspnea, anosmia, ageusia/dysgeusia, epistaxis, and headache. A PRR ≥ 2 or ROR ≥ 1 was considered significant. Corticosteroids had 98 864 total reported AEs to the database, followed by antihistamines (7011) and alpha adrenergics (2071). In total, dyspnea was reported 5843 times, followed by headache (4230), epistaxis (1205), ageusia/dysgeusia (920), and anosmia (312). Overall, PRR and ROR values for dyspnea ranged from 0.51 to 4.25 and 0.51 to 4.49; for dysgeusia/ageusia from 0.56 to 6.09 and 0.56 to 6.12; and for epistaxis from 1.03 to 27.24 and 1.03 to 30.76, respectively. All medications which listed anosmia within the top AEs had PRR and ROR values exceeding 2 and 1, respectively. The PRR for headache exceeded 2 for 1 medication and the ROR exceeded 1 in 7 medications. The AEs of dyspnea, anosmia, ageusia/dysgeusia, epistaxis, and headache are reported within the FAERS database for commonly prescribed INSs. When compared against the existing scientific literature, the clinical significance of this reporting tool from the FDA for these classes of medications remains unvalidated.

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Treatment of Paranasal Sinus Fungus Ball: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Gian Luca Fadda,Fabiana Allevi,Cecilia Rosso,Federica Martino,Carlotta Pipolo,Giovanni Cavallo,Giovanni Felisati,Alberto Maria Saibene

Publication date 18-03-2021


Paranasal sinus fungus ball is a common non-invasive mycosis with excellent long-term surgical treatment results. The present systematic review and meta-analysis were undertaken to define current treatment concepts and success rates in paranasal sinus fungus ball treatment. Systematic searches were performed in multiple databases with criteria designed to include all studies published until May 2020 focusing on paranasal sinuses fungus ball treatment in humans. We selected studies including at least 10 patients, specifying treatment modalities, providing a minimum 6-month follow-up, and objectivating treatment success. After duplicate removal, abstract and full-text selection, and quality assessment, we reviewed eligible articles for treatment modalities and success rates. Success rates were pooled in a random effect meta-analysis and compared according to the use of intraoperative sinus lavages and postoperative antibiotics. Among 740 unique citations, 14 studies were deemed eligible. Most (n = 11) were retrospective case series. All studies relied on endoscopic sinus surgery. Intraoperative lavages were proposed in 10 studies and postoperative antibiotics in 7 (for all patients in 5 studies and for selected patients in 2). No significant heterogeneity was observed between results (Cochran's Q Endoscopic sinus surgery shows excellent results in fungus ball treatment. Further prospective studies might help further reducing antibiotics prescriptions in these patients and improve their management.

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Effects of Tham Nasal Alkalinization on Airway Microbial Communities: A Pilot Study in Non-CF and CF Adults

Zachary M. Holliday,Janice L. Launspach,Lakshmi Durairaj,Pradeep K. Singh,Joseph Zabner,David A. Stoltz

Publication date 22-10-2021


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Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) as a Cause of Facial Nerve Stimulation After Cochlear Implantation: A Case Report

Smruti Rath,Mica Glaun,Claudia Emery,Yi-Chun Carol Liu

Publication date 15-10-2021


To discuss persistent facial nerve stimulation (FNS) related to repeated electrostatic discharge (ESD) shock following cochlear implantation. Single case report with literature review. FNS is a feared complication after cochlear implantation, occurring in approximately 7% of cases, with most patients having anatomic abnormalities. The presented case has no anatomical abnormalities but reported frequent environmental static shock. FNS during the first 1 to 3 seconds of processor attachment caused a significant decrease in the patient's quality of life, requiring subsequent re-implantation with full resolution. FNS is a complication of cochlear implantation that can cause a great deal of distress and discomfort. Frequent electrostatic discharge (ESD) contributed to device malfunctioning and FNS in a patient with otherwise normal anatomy and should be avoided if possible.

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Dyskeratosis Congenita and Squamous Cell Cancer of the Head and Neck: A Case Report and Systematic Review

Alice Q. Liu,Emily C. Deane,Eitan Prisman,J. Scott Durham

Publication date 15-10-2021


Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is a progressive congenital disorder that predisposes patients to squamous cell cancers (SCC) of the head and neck. We report a case of a patient who underwent primary osteocutaneous free flap for mandibular SCC followed by additional treatments for positive margins and discuss a systematic review on therapeutic management for this patient population. Case report of a 39-year-old male with DC who underwent resection and reconstruction with a fibular free flap for mandible SCC, followed by revision surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy for positive margins.
A systematic review was completed afterward with the following terms: "dyskeratosis congenita" AND "oral cancer" OR "head and neck" OR "otolaryngology" on Medline and Web of Science for articles between 1980 and 2021. In total, 12 articles were included that reported on DC and SCC in the head and neck. Of the case reports that were included in this review, half the patients had recurrence within 1 year of primary treatments. Only 2 patients did not require revision surgery, adjuvant, or salvage therapy. Half of patients that received radiation therapy had severe side effects. This is the largest review of DC and SCC in the head and neck. Based off our case report and review, these patients have aggressive disease that often requires multi-modality treatment. Consideration should be taken in regards to reports of side effects with radiation therapy.

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Acute Vocal Fold Paresis and Paralysis After COVID-19 Infection: A Case Series

Sarah K. Rapoport,Ghiath Alnouri,Robert T. Sataloff,Peak Woo

Publication date 13-10-2021


Evidence demonstrates neurotropism is a common feature of coronaviruses. In our laryngology clinics we have noted an increase in cases of "idiopathic" vocal fold paralysis and paresis in patients with no history of intubation who are recovering from the novel SARS-Cov-2 coronavirus (COVID-19). This finding is concerning for a post-viral vagal neuropathy (PVVN) as a result of infection with COVID-19. Our objective is to raise the possibility that vocal fold paresis may be an additional neuropathic sequela of infection with COVID-19. Retrospective review of patients who tested positive for COVID-19, had no history of intubation as a result of their infection, and subsequently presented with vocal fold paresis between May 2020 and January 2021. Charts were reviewed for demographic information, confirmation of COVID-19 infection, presenting symptoms, laryngoscopy and stroboscopy exam findings, and laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) results. Sixteen patients presented with new-onset dysphonia during and after recovering from a COVID-19 infection and were found to have unilateral or bilateral vocal fold paresis or paralysis. LEMG was performed in 25% of patients and confirmed the diagnosis of neuropathy in these cases. We believe that COVID-19 can cause a PVVN resulting in abnormal vocal fold mobility. This diagnosis should be included in the constellation of morbidities that can result from COVID-19 as the otolaryngologist can identify this entity through careful history and examination.

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Evaluation of Industry Relationships Among Authors of Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses Regarding Ménières Disease

David Wenger,Ross Nowlin,Austin L. Johnson,Michael Anderson,Michael Weaver,Micah Hartwell,Matt Vassar

Publication date 12-10-2021


To quantify the presence of conflicts of interest (COI) in SRs and MAs of Ménières disease treatment and identify any related secondary characteristics of these articles. A search was conducted on May 28, 2020 to search MEDLINE and Embase databases for SRs or MAs pertaining to Ménières disease published between September 1, 2016 and June 2, 2020. A risk of bias assessment was performed using the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias assessment criteria. A total of 13 systematic reviews conducted by 49 authors met the inclusion criteria. Of the 49 authors, 7 (14.3%) were found to have some form of COI. Of these 7 authors, 1 (14.3%) completely disclosed all COI within the SR, 1 (14.3%) disclosed one or more COI but were found to have an additional undisclosed COI, and 5 (71.4%) were found to have only undisclosed COI. One of 2 industry funded SRs (50%) had a high risk of bias, and 1 (50%) of the non-industry sponsored SRs were found to have a high risk of bias. Overall authors of SRs pertaining to Ménières disease appear to be properly disclosing COI at higher rates than other fields of medicine; however, further room for improvement has been noted.

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Spending and Utilization on Drugs Prescribed by Otolaryngologists to Medicare Beneficiaries, 2013 to 2017

Shivani A. Shah,Lauren E. Miller,Roy Xiao,Alan Workman,Lucy Xu,Vinay K. Rathi

Publication date 09-10-2021


The significant and rising cost of prescription drugs is a pressing concern for patients and payers. However, little is known about spending on and utilization of drugs prescribed by otolaryngologists. Utilizing publicly available Medicare Part D Prescriber Public Use data, we conducted a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of 34 small-molecule drugs commonly prescribed by otolaryngologists (defined as 2017 Medicare Part D spending ≥$500 000) to Medicare beneficiaries. Prescription data was characterized by drug type (brand name vs generic). Primary outcomes for each prescription drug included the total annual cost and the total annual number of days supplied. From 2013 to 2017, spending on drugs prescribed by otolaryngologists to Medicare beneficiaries decreased by $32.1 million ($131.7-$99.5 million; relative decrease 24.4%; compound annual growth rate [CAGR] -5.4%), while total utilization increased by 24.9 million days supplied (74.6-99.5 million; relative increase 33.3%; CAGR 5.9%). For brand name drugs, there was a decrease in spending ($71.1-$26.7 million; relative decrease -62.4%; CAGR -17.8%) and utilization (11.2-3.1 million days supplied; relative decrease -72.5%; CAGR -22.8%). In contrast, generic drugs demonstrated increased spending ($60.6-$72.8 million; relative increase 20.2%; CAGR 3.7%) and utilization (63.5-96.4 million days supplied; relative increase 51.9%; CAGR 8.7%). Spending on drugs prescribed by otolaryngologists to Medicare Part D beneficiaries declined between 2013 and 2017 in part due to a transition from brand name drugs to lower-cost generic equivalents.

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Understanding the Role of the Otolaryngology Hospitalist: Tracheostomies and Tracheostomy Care

Mohamad Issa,Nadeem El-Kouri,Sara Mater,Jonathan Y. Lee,Carl Snyderman,Yan Lee

Publication date 09-10-2021


The concept of a hospitalist has been well established. This model has been associated with reduced length of stay contributing to reduction in healthcare costs. Minimal literature is available assessing the effects of an otolaryngology (ENT) hospitalist at a tertiary medical center. The aim of this study is to assess the role of an ENT hospitalist on (1) performing tracheostomies and (2) providing care as part of the tracheostomy care team (TCT). Retrospective chart review of all tracheostomies performed by the ENT service over 2 years (July 2015-June 2017), and prospective data collection of all tracheostomy care consults over 1 year (July 2016-June 2017). In year 1 (from July 2015 to June 2016), no ENT hospitalist was employed, and in year 2 (from July 2016 to June 2017), an ENT hospitalist was employed. Compared to other Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) surgeons, the ENT hospitalist performed tracheostomies with shorter patient wait times, and performed a greater proportion of percutaneous tracheostomies at the bedside versus open tracheostomies in the operating room. The tracheostomy care team (TCT) received 91 consults over the course of 1 year with an average of 1.1 billable procedures generated per consult. In this study, an ENT hospitalist was decreased patient wait time to tracheostomy and increased bedside percutaneous tracheostomies, which has positive implications for resource utilization and healthcare cost. The average wait time to receive a tracheostomy was reduced when calculated across the entire department due to the availability of the ENT hospitalist to see and perform tracheostomies. The TCT generated many billable bedside procedures in addition to encouraged decannulation of patients. This study highlights the fact that the ENT hospitalist contributes to providing expedient tracheostomies and provides valuable consulting services as part of a TCT at a high-volume tertiary care facility.

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“A Major Quality of Life Issue”: A Survey-Based Analysis of the Experiences of Adults With Laryngotracheal Stenosis with Mucus and Cough

Gemma M. Clunie,Catherine Anderson,Matthew Savage,Catherine Hughes,Justin W. G. Roe,Gurpreet Sandhu,Alison McGregor,Caroline M. Alexander

Publication date 08-10-2021


To investigate how the symptoms of mucus and cough impact adults living with laryngotracheal stenosis, and to use this information to guide future research and treatment plans. A survey was developed with the support of patient advisors and distributed to people suffering with laryngotracheal stenosis. The survey comprised 15 closed and open questions relating to mucus and cough and included the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ). Descriptive statistics, In total, 641 participants completed the survey, with 83.62% (n = 536) reporting problems with mucus; 79% having daily issues of varying severity that led to difficulties with cough (46.18%) and breathing (20.90%). Mucus affected voice and swallowing to a lesser degree. Respondents described a range of triggers; they identified smoky air as the worst environmental trigger. Strategies to manage mucus varied widely with drinking water (72.26%), increasing liquid intake in general (49.35%) and avoiding or reducing dairy (45.32%) the most common approaches to control symptoms. The LCQ showed a median total score of 14 (interquartile range 11-17) indicative of cough negatively affecting quality of life. Thematic analysis of free text responses identified 4 key themes-the Mucus Cycle, Social impact, Psychological impact, and Physical impact. This study shows the relevance of research focusing on mucus and cough and its negative impact on quality of life, among adults with laryngotracheal stenosis. It demonstrates the inconsistent advice and management strategies provided by clinicians for this issue. Further research is required to identify clearer treatment options and pathways.

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Recent Laryngology Fellowship Graduates: Where Are They Now?

Benjamin Damazo,Traci Bailey,Daniel R. Fisher,Salem Dehom,Victoria Cress,Thomas Murry,Michael M. Johns,Priya Krishna,Brianna K. Crawley

Publication date 08-10-2021


Over the past 30 years laryngology fellowships have grown in number and diversity. This study investigated the career trajectories of recent laryngology fellowship graduates with the purpose of informing residents considering fellowship. Cross-sectional survey. Academic medical center. The directors of all 27 US laryngology fellowships that graduated/recruited fellows from 2010 to 2019 were contacted, and a list of former fellows was compiled. A short survey was administered in person or via email or phone. Additional data was gathered through internet searches. One hundred eighty-three fellows were identified having completed American laryngology fellowships between 2010 and 2019 (100M:83F). Fifteen percent now practice internationally and 68% are in academic practice. A higher proportion of women than men enter laryngology fellowship after otolaryngology residency. One hundred twenty-nine fellows responded to our survey. Two-thirds of former fellows report current participation in laryngology research. Seventy-two percent of former fellows are still in their first job after fellowship and 53% believe they have their ideal practice. Women were more likely to enter academics than men after laryngology fellowship. Responders were overwhelmingly satisfied with their fellowship experience, with 95% saying they would choose to pursue fellowship training again. Most former laryngology fellows enter academia, contribute to laryngology research, practice away from their training institution, and believe they have found their ideal practice. The results of this study may be useful to residents considering fellowship training, centers considering establishing laryngology fellowships, and practices recruiting fellowship graduates.

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Disparities in Access to Pediatric Otolaryngology Care During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Yvonne Adigwu,Beth Osterbauer,Christian Hochstim

Publication date 08-10-2021


Racial/ethnic minority pediatric otolaryngology patients experience health disparities, including barriers to accessing health care. Our hypothesis for this study is that Hispanic or economically disadvantaged patients would represent a larger percentage of missed appointments and report more barriers to receiving care during the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional survey utilizing a modified version of the Barriers to Care Questionnaire was administered via telephone to no-show patients, and median income by zip code was collected. Chi-squared, logistic regression, and Student's No-show patients were more likely to be Hispanic than not (OR 2.3, 95% CI: 1.3, 3.9, In our study, we identified ethnic, financial, and logistic concerns that may contribute to patients failing to keep their appointments with the otolaryngology clinic. Future studies are needed to assess the efficacy of measures aimed to reduce these barriers to care such as preventive plans to assist new patients and expanding telehealth services.

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The Digital Dilemma: Perspectives From Otolaryngology Residency Applicants on Social Media

Ankita Patro,Kelly C. Landeen,Madelyn N. Stevens,Nathan D. Cass,David S. Haynes

Publication date 07-10-2021


To evaluate the impact of otolaryngology programs' social media on residency candidates in the 2020 to 2021 application cycle. An anonymous survey was distributed via Otomatch, Headmirror, and word of mouth to otolaryngology residency applicants in the 2021 Match. Survey items included demographics, social media usage, and impact of programs' social media on applicant perception and ranking. Descriptive statistics were performed, and responses based on demographic variables were compared using Fisher's exact and Mann-Whitney Of 64 included respondents, nearly all (61/64, 95%) used Facebook, Instagram, and/or Twitter for personal and/or professional purposes. Applicants (59/64, 92%) most commonly researched otolaryngology residency programs on Instagram (55/59, 93%) and Twitter (36/59, 61%), with younger ( Social media platforms like Instagram and Twitter are frequently used by applicants to assess otolaryngology residency programs. Programs' social media accounts effectively demonstrate program culture and affect applicants' rank lists. As social media usage continues to rise in the medical community, these findings can help otolaryngology residency programs craft a beneficial online presence that aids in recruitment, networking, and education.

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Cricopharyngeal Achalasia Presenting as Acute Dysphagia in a Pediatric Patient

Laura Beth O’Neill,Matthew Magyar,Brian Reilly,Tamara Gayle

Publication date 07-10-2021


To describe a case of idiopathic cricopharyngeal achalasia (CPA) in a pediatric patient with acute onset of dysphagia managed conservatively with supportive care. Sixteen-month-old boy presented with acute onset of gagging and coughing with feeding. His exam was notable for a well-appearing child with pooling of oral secretions and coarse breath sounds. Plain film series did not show radio-opaque foreign body (FB) and an esophagram demonstrated an endoluminal filling defect of the cervical esophagus and aspiration of contrast. He was taken to the operating room for urgent endoscopy but no FB or food impaction was observed. He had persistent symptoms that required further evaluation and a multidisciplinary team approach. Bedside laryngoscopy did not reveal any abnormalities. Modified barium swallow (MBS) study revealed upper esophageal sphincter (UES) dysfunction, consistent with cricopharyngeal achalasia. Repeat upper endoscopy with biopsies demonstrated mucosal irritation overlying the UES but histologic studies were negative for infectious causes. He was treated with supportive care, including nasogastric feedings for nutrition supplementation as he was unable to tolerate oral feedings without aspiration. Over the course of 3 months after discharge, his symptoms resolved and repeat MBS was normal. CPA is a rare cause of dysphagia in the pediatric population. Conservative management with supportive care is a reasonable approach in cases with acute onset in otherwise healthy children without underlying medical problems.

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The Long-term Effect of Inferior Turbinate Surgery Techniques on Nasal Obstruction and Quality of Life

Teemu Harju,Jura Numminen

Publication date 06-10-2021


The aim of the study was to compare the long-term effects of radiofrequency ablation (RFA), microdebrider-assisted inferior turbinoplasty (MAIT), and diode laser techniques on the severity of nasal obstruction and quality of life (QOL) in a 3-year follow-up. The patients filled a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) regarding the severity of nasal obstruction and the Glasgow Health Status Inventory (GHSI) questionnaire preoperatively and during the control visits at 3 months and 3 years. Acoustic rhinometry was also performed. A total of 78 patients attended both control visits. All 3 techniques improved the VAS score for the severity of nasal obstruction and the GHSI total score significantly compared to the preoperative values at both 3 months and 3 years. Compared to the preoperative values, all 3 techniques increased the V2 to 5 cm values significantly at 3 months. After 3 years, compared to the preoperative values, the MAIT ( The RFA, MAIT, and diode laser all improved both the patients' subjective sensation of the severity of nasal obstruction and QOL significantly. The response was sustained during the 3-year follow-up period with all 3 techniques. A weakening in the objective treatment response to RFA was found in the longer follow-up, but that did not cause a weakening of the patients' subjective treatment response.

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Association Between Neonates With Laryngomalacia and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

Elizabeth J. Abraham,David O’Neil Danis,Jessica R. Levi

Publication date 01-10-2021


Laryngomalacia (LM) is the most common congenital anomaly of the larynx. The cause of LM is still largely unknown, but a neurological mechanism has gained the most acceptance. There have not been any studies examining the prevalence of LM in infants with Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS). The aim of our study is to determine if infants with NAS are more likely to be diagnosed with LM. This study was a population-based inpatient registry analysis. We examined nationwide neonatal discharges in 2016 using the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID). Only patients listed as neonates were included. The International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) codes for neonatal withdrawal symptoms from maternal use of drugs of addiction (P96.1) and diagnoses denoting LM were used. To quantify associations between the LM and NAS groups, prevalence rates and odds ratios (ORs) were used. There were 3 970 065 weighted neonatal discharges in the 2016 KID. Among patients included in our dataset, 0.809% (32 128) had NAS and 0.075% (2974) had LM. There was an increased odds ratio for neonates with NAS and LM (OR of 2.85, 95% CI = 2.24-3.63) compared to infants without NAS. Multiple logistic regression accounting for possible confounders produced an adjusted OR of 1.68 (95% CI = 1.29-2.19). Our study found an association between NAS and LM. This suggests that prenatal exposure to opioids or possibly the sequelae of withdrawal symptoms may be risk factors for the development of LM.

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Admission of Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea Undergoing Ambulatory Surgery in Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery

Vincent Wu,Nick Lo,R. Jun Lin,Molly Zirkle,Jennifer Anderson,John M. Lee

Publication date 30-09-2021


Within Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (OHNS), obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients are frequently encountered. To implement policies and screening measures for admission of OSA patients undergoing ambulatory surgery, actual rates of admission must first be determined. We aimed to evaluate rates and reasons for admission of OSA patients after ambulatory OHNS surgery. Retrospective chart review was undertaken of all OSA patients undergoing elective day-surgery OHNS procedures at a tertiary center from January 1, 2018 to December 31, 2019. The primary outcome measure was percentage of OSA patients admitted to hospital after ambulatory OHNS surgery. Secondary outcome measures included reasons for admission. American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, perioperative complications, and patient demographics were captured. There were 118 OSA patients, out of 1942 cases performed during the review period. Thirty-eight were excluded as the procedures were not considered ambulatory. The remaining 80 OSA patients were included for analysis, with an average age of 51.7, SD 13.8, and 30 (38%) females. The admission rate was 47.5% (38/80 patients). Admitted patients were older ( More than half of OSA patients did not require admission to hospital after ambulatory OHNS surgery, unaffected by indications for surgery or type of surgery. Higher ASA score and older age were found in admitted as compared to non-admitted patients.

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Pediatric Otolaryngology During COVID-19: Parental Concern About Elective Surgery

Francesca C. Viola,Lauren DiNardo,Jason C. DeGiovanni,Michele M. Carr

Publication date 25-09-2021


To identify the concerns of parents whose children may need elective surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic. In December 2020, parents of pediatric otolaryngology patients were recruited for a survey about concerns related to elective surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic. A Likert scale quantified concern. The 1 was anchored "Not at all important" and 5 was "Most important." Demographics included gender, age, race, education level, number of children in household, and whether their child had surgery since March 2020. About 253 participants were included. Medians ranged from 1 for concerns about emotional and family support to 4 for concerns about their child being exposed to COVID-19 in the Emergency Room. Black parents were more concerned about the risks of COVID than White parents; they were more concerned about their child contracting COVID-19 during surgery compared to White parents, median was 4 versus 3 ( Parents were most concerned about the risk of seeking Emergency Room care. Black parents were generally more concerned about having their child undergo elective surgery. Whether this is translated into fewer Black children undergoing important but elective surgery requires more study.

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Comparative Treatment Outcome in T3N0 Glottic Cancer With and Without Vocal Fold Fixation Receiving Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Low-Dose Intra-Arterial Cisplatin Infusion

Takeharu Ono,Norimitsu Tanaka,Shun-ichi Chitose,Syuichi Tanoue,Takashi Kurita,Shintarou Sueyoshi,Mioko Fukahori,Yusaku Miyata,Koichiro Muraki,Chiyoko Tsuji,Etsuyo Ogo,Chikayuki Hattori,Kiminobu Sato,Toshi Abe,Hirohito Umeno

Publication date 25-09-2021


Selective radiotherapy and concomitant intra-arterial cisplatin infusion (m-RADPLAT) with a lower cisplatin dosage have been performed for organ and function preservation in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx (SCC-L), and results showing a lower rate of adverse events have been reported. This study evaluated the treatment outcomes of patients with T3N0 glottic SCC-L with or without vocal fold fixation (VFF) who were treated with m-RADPLAT. We retrospectively reviewed the data of 33 patients with T3N0 SCC-L who received m-RADPLAT. The vocal fold in patients with VFF 3 months after completing m-RADPLAT resumed normal movement in 15 patients (83%) and persisted fixation in 3 (17%). The 3-year local control, laryngeal cancer-specific survival, and overall survival rates of patients with or without VFF were 88.9% and 86.7%, 94.1% and 93.3%, and 88.9% and 86.7%, respectively. Additionally, the 3-year freedom from laryngectomy, laryngectomy-free survival, and laryngo-esophageal dysfunction-free survival rates of patients with or without VFF were 94.4% and 86.7%, 88.9% and 73.3%, and 83.3% and 73.3%, respectively.
Grade 3 or higher toxicities were observed in all patients: leukopenia in 4 patients (12%), neutropenia in 5 (15%), anemia in 2 (6%), thrombocytopenia in 3 (9%), and mucositis in 2 (6%). This study demonstrated that m-RADPLAT yielded VFF improvement and a favorable survival while maintaining laryngeal function not only in patients with T3N0 glottic SCC-L without VFF but also in patients with VFF.

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Orocutaneous Fistula After Oral Cavity Resection and Reconstruction: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Patrick Tassone,Tabitha Galloway,Laura Dooley,Robert Zitsch

Publication date 23-09-2021


Orocutaneous fistula (OCF) after reconstruction for oral cavity resection can lead to prolonged hospitalization and adjuvant treatment delay. Few studies have examined factors leading to OCF after oral cavity resection.
Primary objective: evaluate overall incidence and factors associated with OCF after oral cavity reconstruction. Scopus 1960-database was searched for terms: "orocutaneous fistula," "oro cutaneous fistula," "oral cutaneous fistula," "orocervical fistula," "oral cavity salivary fistula." English language studies with >5 patients undergoing reconstruction after oral cavity cancer resection were included. About 1057 records initially screened; 214 full texts assessed; 78 full-texts included. PRISMA guidelines were followed, and MINORS criteria used to assess risk of bias. Data were pooled using random-effects model. Primary outcome was OCF incidence. Meta-analysis to determine the effect of preoperative radiation on OCF conducted on 12 eligible studies. Pre-collection hypothesis was that prior radiation therapy is associated with increased OCF incidence. Post-collection analyses: free versus pedicled flaps; mandible-sparing versus segmental mandibulectomy. Seventy-eight studies were included in meta-analysis of overall OCF incidence. Pooled effect size showed overall incidence of OCF to be 7.71% (95% CI, 6.28%-9.13%) among 5400 patients. Meta-analysis of preoperative radiation therapy on OCF showed a pooled odds ratio of 1.68 (95% CI, 0.93-3.06). OCF incidence was similar between patients undergoing free versus pedicled reconstruction, or segmental mandibulectomy versus mandible-sparing resection. Orocutaneous fistula after oral cavity resection has significant incidence and clinical impact. Risk of OCF persists despite advances in reconstructive options; there is a trend toward higher risk after prior radiation.

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Downward Trend in Resident Myringotomy and Tympanostomy Tube Experience

Sarah M. Dermody,Stephanie Y. Johng,Mariel O. Watkins,Sonya Malekzadeh,Jaeil Ahn,Earl H. Harley

Publication date 23-09-2021


Historically, myringotomy, and the insertion of tympanostomy tubes has served as one of the initial surgical training experiences for residents. Resident experience with this procedure since the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines has not been well described in the literature. The objective of this study was to identify trends in resident training experience with chronic otitis media-related surgeries, such as myringotomy and tympanostomy tube placement. While multiple factors influence resident experience, we hypothesize that resident experience has decreased since the introduction of the pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13). In a retrospective review of Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) National Data Reports, mean number of myringotomy and tympanostomy tube cases logged in the Resident Case Log System from 2006 to 2019 were collated and plotted against years to identify monotonic trends. Mann-Whitney Since the introduction of PCV13, there is a national decreasing trend in the myringotomy and tympanostomy tube placement by otolaryngology residents ( Otologic surgeries are an important part of resident education and historically have served as one of the initial surgical training experiences for residents. There has been a significant reduction in the number of myringotomy and tympanostomy procedures performed by otolaryngology residents in the past decade. While multiple factors influence resident experience, it is possible that introduction of PCV13 has impacted resident exposure to myringotomy and tympanostomy tube placement. Resident proficiency with this procedure has likely not been affected by introduction of PCV13. Data should be reassessed in 5 years to determine if an impact of the PCV13 vaccine on resident training is evident.

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Videofluoroscopic Swallow Studies and Diagnostic Outcomes in Otherwise Healthy Infants With Dysphagia

Michael C. Shih,Christina Rappazzo,Caroline Hudson,Julina Ongkasuwan

Publication date 23-09-2021


To evaluate videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) findings in infants with dysphagia and without prior diagnoses, and to characterize the outcomes and any diagnoses that follow. A chart review of all pediatric patients who received a VFSS at a tertiary children's hospital from November 2008 to March 2017 was performed. There were 106 infants (57 males and 49 females) with 108 VFSS. VFSS was normal in 18 (16.98%) infants. Regarding airway protection, 50 (47.17%) infants had laryngeal penetration, and 8 (7.55%) had tracheal aspiration; 3 (2.83%, 37.5% of all aspirators) exhibited silent aspiration. Of the 75 infants with minimum 2-year follow-up, 35 (46.67%) had no sequelae of disease and received no diagnoses. The most common diagnoses and pathologic sequelae were gastroesophageal reflux (n = 18, 24.00%), asthma (n = 8, 10.67%), laryngomalacia (n = 6, 8.00%), and tracheomalacia (n = 4, 5.33%), all consistent with United States pediatric data on prevalence. All infants (n = 51) with follow-up for dysphagia had resolution of symptoms within 9 months from VFSS order date. Otherwise healthy infants may show signs of dysphagia and not develop later illness. Parents can thus be counseled on the implications of dysphagia in a previously healthy infant. Our findings provide comparative statistics for future research in pediatric dysphagia.

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Traumatic Pediatric Tracheal Rupture After Blunt Force Sporting Injury: Case Report and Review of the Literature

Alon Taylor,Seema Menon,Peter Grant,Bruce Currie,Marlene Soma

Publication date 20-09-2021


This paper presents the case of a traumatic tracheal rupture in a pediatric patient. The body of literature of the clinical features, evaluation, and management of this uncommon presentation is discussed. A 13-year-old boy sustained an intrathoracic tracheal rupture whilst playing Australian Rules football. He developed hallmark clinical features of air extravasation and was intubated prior to transfer to a tertiary pediatric center for further management. After a short trial of conservative management, his respiratory status deteriorated and he was taken to the operating theater for open surgical repair of the defect. Traumatic rupture of the trachea is a rare injury in children. This case demonstrates the dynamic nature of this serious injury and the need for multidisciplinary care in achieving the optimal outcome.

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Efficacy of Adenoidectomy for the Management of Chronic Rhinosinusitis in Children Older Than 7\u2009Years of Age

Chengetai Mahomva,Samantha Anne,Christopher Roxbury

Publication date 18-09-2021


While adenoidectomy is the first-line surgical management of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) in young children, evidence regarding its utility in older children is lacking. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of adenoidectomy in children 7 to 18 years old with regard to symptom control, postoperative medication use, and the need for additional surgery. Single-institution retrospective chart review of patients ages 7 to 18 undergoing adenoidectomy for CRS from 2009 to 2019. Patients with cystic fibrosis and ciliary disorders were excluded. Comorbidities, preoperative and postoperative symptoms (rhinorrhea, congestion, anosmia, and facial pain), medication use (antibiotics, antihistamines, nasal steroids, and irrigations), and Lund-Mackay scores were extracted. Mc Nemar's or Wilcoxon Rank Sum Tests were used to assess rates of symptom control and medication use. Fisher's exact or Chi-square tests were used to assess for factors associated with symptom persistence. Ninety-seven patients with a mean age of 9 years (range 7-18) were identified. Patients were shown to experience significantly decreased rates of rhinorrhea (64.9% vs 20.6%, <.001), congestion (95.9% vs 26.8%, <.001), facial pain (17.5% vs 3.1%, .001), use of nasal steroids (79.4% vs 36.1%, <.001), antihistamines (47.4% vs 20.6%, <.001), and number of antibiotics (median 1 vs 0, <.001) after adenoidectomy. No patient or disease factors were associated with symptom persistence. Nine patients (9.3%) required additional nasal surgery. In this cohort of older children with CRS with limited follow up, additional surgery is not routinely done following adenoidectomy, the results suggest that adenoidectomy alone may provide adequate symptom control and medication reduction.

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Silent Sinus Syndrome Secondary to Lymphoma: An Unusual Case With Radiological Evidence of Rapid Progression

Praveena Deekonda,Huw A. S. Jones

Publication date 18-09-2021


To describe a case of silent sinus syndrome secondary to malignancy and discuss the pertinent clinical findings. Silent Sinus Syndrome (SSS) refers to a rare, asymptomatic condition whereby occlusion of the maxillary sinus ostium results in gradual resorption of air, creation of negative pressure and collapse of the maxillary walls. Review of medical records and literature review using NCBI/Pub Med. We describe a case of a 54-year-old gentleman presenting solely with enophthalmos. He had been diagnosed with stage IVa small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) 1.5 years prior to this, which was being managed with active surveillance. CT demonstrated severe bowing of the anterior and posterolateral wall, inferior displacement of the floor of the orbit and right enophthalmos, thus supporting a diagnosis of silent sinus syndrome. Compared to previous staging CT at the time of the lymphoma diagnosis these findings were entirely new, and soft tissue in the pterygomaxillary fissure was found to be enlarged. The patient underwent endoscopic sinus surgery and a right maxillary mega-antrostomy was performed to ventilate the maxillary sinus and prevent progression of eye symptoms. A biopsy was taken from the pterygopalatine fossa, which was confirmed to be chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). This case is unique both in being secondary to malignancy, as well as being rapidly progressive given the presence of radiologically normal appearances 1.5 years prior to presentation. Although a rare condition, prompt recognition of SSS is vital to prevent ophthalmological complications. This report highlights malignancy as a potential cause in cases with focal bony remodeling.

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Intermittent Vagal Nerve Stimulation-Associated Vocal Fold Movement Impairment

Jennifer Yan,Julina Ongkasuwan,Elton M. Lambert

Publication date 18-09-2021


Implanted vagal nerve stimulators (VNS) are an accepted therapy for refractory seizures. However, VNS have been shown to affect vocal fold function, leading to voice complaints of hoarseness. We present a case of intermittent VNS-related vocal fold paralysis leading to dysphonia and dysphagia with aspiration in a pediatric patient. This is a case report of a patient at a tertiary hospital evaluated in pediatric swallow and voice clinics. Patient and mother gave verbal consent to be included in this case report. Indirect laryngeal stroboscopy was performed demonstrating full vocal fold mobility with VNS off and left vocal fold paralysis in lateral position and glottic gap with VNS on. Voice measures were performed demonstrating decreased phonation time, lower pitch, and decreased intensity of voice with VNS on. Flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing demonstrated deep penetration alone with VNS off and deep penetration with concern for aspiration with VNS on. While the majority of cases of vocal fold movement impairment associated with VNS have been noted to have a medialized vocal fold with VNS activation, we describe a case of intermittent vocal fold lateralization associated with VNS activation with resultant voice changes and aspiration.

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Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis With Large Posterior Glottic Gap: Is Arytenoid Procedure Necessary?

Taner Yılmaz,Furkan Özer

Publication date 18-09-2021


For unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) with large posterior glottic gap medialization laryngoplasty (ML) + arytenoid adduction (AA), ML + adduction arytenopexy (AApexy), and ML alone using prosthesis with posterior extension are possible solutions. This study was carried out to elucidate the controversy among these solution options. Retrospective cohort. Tertiary referral center. One hundred forty patients with UVFP with large posterior glottic gap. Group 1 had 30 patients with ML + AA; Group 2 had 25 patients with ML + AApexy; Group 3 had 29 patients with ML using Isshiki prosthesis; Group 4 had 26 patients with ML using Montgomery prosthesis; Group 5 had 30 patients with ML using prosthesis with large posterior extension. Glottic closure using videolaryngostroboscopy, GRBAS, VHI-30, EAT-10, acoustic and aerodynamic analysis was carried out pre- and 1-year-postoperatively. Preoperatively there was no significant difference in any parameters studied among all study groups ( In patients with UVFP and large posterior glottic gap, ML + AA and ML + AApexy seem to do better subjectively and objectively, acoustically and aerodynamically, when compared to ML using prosthesis with and without large posterior extension. ML alone does not appear to close posterior glottic gap. Therefore, it is a better and more reasonable option to perform arytenoid procedure when there is large posterior glottic gap in UVFP.

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Sleep Endoscopy Findings in Children With Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Small Tonsils

Adrian Williamson,Steven W. Coutras,Michele M. Carr

Publication date 16-09-2021


Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) in children is treated primarily with adenotonsillectomy (AT). When clinical exam demonstrates small tonsils, the success of AT in resolving OSA is uncertain. The purpose of this study is to determine the utility of Drug induced Sleep Endoscopy (DISE) for children with OSA and small tonsils (Brodsky scale 1+) and to identify what obstructive trends exist in this subset of patients and to determine the utility of DISE-directed surgical intervention in patients with small tonsils. A retrospective chart review was performed for patients who underwent DISE at a tertiary care center over a 2-year period. Inclusion criteria were 1+ tonsils and a positive sleep study. Data collected included DISE findings, BMI, comorbid conditions, and pre-op PSG data. Forty children were included with a mean age of 5.0 years (range 8 months-16 years). Mean preoperative AHI was 5.46 and mean oxygen saturation nadir was 87.1%. The most common contributor to airway obstruction was the adenoid (29 patients, 72.5%), followed by the tongue base or lingual tonsil (21 patients, 52.5%). The palatine tonsils (10 patients, 25.0%), epiglottis (10.0%), or obstruction intrinsic to the larynx (10.0%) were significantly less frequently identified as contributors to OSA when compared to the adenoid ( In this group, small palatine tonsils were infrequently identified as a contributor to airway obstruction and tonsillectomy was avoided in most cases. This study illustrates the utility of DISE as a tool to personalize the surgical management of pediatric patients with OSA and small tonsils on physical exam.

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Long-Term Opioid Use in Post-Surgical Management of Patients With Head and Neck Cancer

Judy J. Wang,Samuel J. Rubin,Anand K. Devaiah,Daniel L. Faden,Andrew R. Salama,Heather A. Edwards

Publication date 15-09-2021


This study aims to identify clinical and socioeconomic factors associated with long-term, post-surgical opioid use in the head and neck cancer population. A single center retrospective study was conducted including patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer between January 1, 2014 and July 1, 2019 who underwent primary surgical management. The primary outcome measure was continued opioid use 6 months after treatment completion. Both demographic and cancer-related variables were recorded to determine what factors were associated with prolonged opioid use. Univariate analysis was performed using chi-squared test for categorical variables and 2-sample A total of 359 patients received primary surgical management. Forty-five patients (12.53%) continued to take opioids 6 months after treatment completion. Using univariate analysis, patients less than 65 years of age ( Long-term postoperative opioid use in head and neck cancer patients is significantly associated with adjuvant chemoradiation, and patients with longer length of hospital stay. Therefore, future research should focus on interventions to better manage opioid use during the acute treatment period to decrease long-term use.

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The efficacy of Tranexamic Acid Administration in Patients Undergoing Tonsillectomy: An Updated Meta-Analysis

Cathleen C. Kuo,Jason C. DeGiovanni,Michele M. Carr

Publication date 13-09-2021


There is controversy regarding the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid (TXA) in reducing tonsillectomy-related hemorrhage. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the prophylactic role of TXA in tonsillectomy. We searched 6 databases to identify studies that directly compare the effect of TXA versus controls in tonsillectomy patients. Standardized mean difference was applied to summate the findings across the studies. Dichotomous data were expressed as relative risk. Ten studies representing a total of 111 898 patients were included. The pooled results showed a significant reduction of intraoperative blood loss by 39.02 ml (SMD = -1.05, 95% CI: -1.91 to -0.20, Overall, this study indicates that TXA may reduce blood loss and frequency of post-operative hemorrhage associated with tonsillectomy. Further large, high-quality clinical trials are still needed to explore TXA's effect on post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage and the safety of its use.

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Pathological Level VI Lymph Node Metastasis in Clinical N3b Pyriform Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Hidetoshi Matsui,Shigemichi Iwae,Yuta Yamamura,Yuto Horichi

Publication date 11-09-2021


The frequency of metastasis to level VI lymph nodes in advanced pyriform sinus squamous cell carcinoma (PSSCC) is unknown. We intended to analyze the clinical features and pathological presence or absence of level VI lymph node metastasis in patients with PSSCC. The data of 270 patients with previously untreated hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma from 2006 to 2016 were obtained. Patients who underwent pharyngolaryngectomy for the pyriform sinus subsite with a curative intent with level VI dissection were included. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical Tumor-Node (TN) status (TNM classification of malignant tumors, eighth edition) and the presence or absence of pathological level VI lymph node metastasis. A total of 34 patients were included. Eight patients (24%) had pathological level VI lymph node metastasis. The rate of pathological level VI lymph node metastasis was directly proportional to the clinical N status ( PSSCC with cN3b is prone to bilateral level VI metastasis. We recommend that patients with PSSCC with cN3b should undergo bilateral level VI lymph node dissection.

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I’m All Ears: A Population-Based Analysis of Consumer Product Foreign Bodies of the Ear

Alexandra H. B. Helbing,Alexander J. Straughan,Luke J. Pasick,Daniel A. Benito,Philip E. Zapanta

Publication date 11-09-2021


The purpose of this study was to assess the nationwide incidence of ear foreign body (FB) presentations to the emergency department (ED) and analyze the most common FB consumer products encountered. The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) was evaluated for ED visits that included "ear foreign bodies" from 2010 through 2019. The most frequent foreign bodies were identified and organized by demographics. A total of 20,545 ear FB cases were found, with an estimated 608,860 ED visits nationwide. Female patients (56%) were more likely to have jewelry and first aid equipment FBs. Males between the ages of 5 and 15 years were significantly ( Ear FBs represent a substantial proportion of healthcare expenditures. Although children are the most commonly affected individuals, all ages require further education and preventive measures.

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Association of Quality of Life Measures and Otolaryngologic Care in Cystic Fibrosis Patients

Stephen Leong,Rahul K. Sharma,Chetan Safi,Emily DiMango,Claire Keating,David A. Gudis,Jonathan B. Overdevest

Publication date 11-09-2021


Appropriate management of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) among patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is important in improving quality of life. Otolaryngologists play a critical role in reducing CRS symptom burden. This study seeks to evaluate the role of patient-reported quality-of-life measures in guiding interventions for CF-related sinus disease. We performed a prospective, cross-sectional study of 105 patients presenting to a CF-accredited clinic between July and September 2018. Demographic data and sinus surgery history were collected, in addition to Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) and Questionnaire of Olfactory Disorders (QOD-NS) scores. Statistical analysis was conducted using correlation and non-parametric Mann-Whitney Baseline well-care visits accounted for 71.4% of all clinical evaluations. Prior otolaryngology intervention was noted in 69 (66%) patients, where the majority of these patients (63/69; 91%) underwent endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Patients with a history of otolaryngology intervention had an average SNOT-22 score of 33.2 (SD = 20.6) compared to 24.9 (SD = 18.5) for patients without prior intervention ( CF patients with symptoms resulting in worse quality-of-life assessments were more likely to have established coordinated care with an otolaryngologist. Further validation of the utility of SNOT-22 and QOD-NS questionnaires as care coordination metrics is necessary in the CF population.

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Is Revision Surgery Necessary for Patients With High Risk of Recurrence After Parotidectomy? A Multicenter Retrospective Study

Médarine Roch,Olivier Mauvais,Sebastien Vergez,Esteban Brenet,Pierre Lindas,Bruno Toussaint,Duc Trung Nguyen,Guillaume Gauchotte,Cécile Rumeau,Patrice Gallet

Publication date 09-09-2021


Close margin is a frequent situation after parotidectomy. The need for systematic prophylactic revision surgery is a question that arises regularly for malignant tumors, as it exposes to a high risk of facial palsy, while oncological benefits are unclear. retrospective study. Multicentric. We included all patients operated for systematic revision surgery in case of close margins after parotidectomy for a malignant tumor and analyzed the rate of tumor residue and its risk factors. A tumor residue was identified in 43.5% of 23 cases, but none in case of initial complete excision with supra-millimetric margins. Invaded lymph nodes were identified in 6 cases, but none in case of low-grade tumors. Systematic revision seems mandatory in case of infra-millimetric margins and high-grade tumors or positive lymph node; further studies are needed to confirm whether it can be spared for T1-T2/N0 low-grade tumors, with close margins but complete initial excision.

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Pulmonary Function Tests May Better Predict Dyspnea-Severity in Patients with Subglottic Stenosis Compared to Clinician-Reported Stenosis

Neel K. Bhatt,Valerie P. Huang,Caitlin Bertelsen,William Z. Gao,Lindsay S. Reder,Michael M. Johns,Karla O’Dell

Publication date 09-09-2021


Patients with subglottic stenosis (SGS) present with varied degree of breathing complaints. The dyspnea index (DI) is a 10-question patient-reported outcome measure designed to measure the severity of upper airway obstruction. We set out to determine whether pulmonary function tests or clinician-reported degree of stenosis best predicted DI scores. Thirty patients with SGS were retrospectively reviewed over a 6-year period. One visit from each patient was included. Data including peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), body-mass index (BMI), clinician-reported degree of stenosis, and DI scores were reviewed. Multiple linear regression was performed to determine how degree of stenosis and PEFR % predicted the variation in DI score. PEFR % better predicted DI scores compared to degree of stenosis (partial correlation -0.32 vs 0.17). After stepwise elimination, PEFR % remained in the regression and was significantly associated with DI scores ( This study suggests that pulmonary function tests may be a better in-office measure to substantiate the severity of symptoms in patients with SGS.

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The Need for Studies on Oral Corticosteroids After Sialendoscopy for Obstructive Salivary Gland Disease: Systematic Review

Gabriella Donaldson,Sandro de Paiva Leite,Tim Hardcastle,Zahoor Ahmad,Randall P. Morton

Publication date 08-09-2021


This qualitative systematic review evaluates the evidence in support of the use of oral corticosteroids in patients undergoing sialendoscopy for the treatment of obstructive sialadenitis. Qualitative systematic review. A literature search was conducted from January 1985 and September 2020. Inclusion criteria embraced peer-reviewed articles in which adult patients undergoing interventional sialendoscopy for obstructive salivary gland disease received oral corticosteroids. The results were initially screened based on title and abstract, and the remaining articles were reviewed for eligibility. About 218 papers were selected by title and abstract, 96 were selected for full-text review, and 9 met the inclusion criteria. Eight published reports were retrospective observational studies and 1 was a prospective comparative study. Overall, the heterogeneity of clinical data stood out in this systematic review. The pooled success rate in the studies was 873/979 (89%). Only 5 studies described a rationale for oral corticosteroid use as part of the post-operative management. In 4 studies, a prednisone total daily dose of 40 to 50 mg was used. One study clearly showed a lower recurrence rate in patients who received oral steroids for more than 7 days in addition to sialendoscopy for management of ductal stenoses. This systematic review showed that most centers that prescribe oral corticosteroids after sialendoscopy are unaware of the specific results with this treatment. For ductal stenoses, only 1 paper clearly showed the benefits of oral corticosteroids after sialendoscopy but more high-quality evidence is required in the form of a comparative study or randomized controlled trial, with appropriate long-term follow up.

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Insurance Status Effect on Laryngeal Cancer Survival: A Population Based Study

Nicholas B. Abt,Lauren E. Miller,Anuraag Parikh,Neil Bhattacharyya

Publication date 04-09-2021


To analyze insurance status effect on overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) in laryngeal cancer. Cross-sectional population analysis. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Laryngeal cancer patients from 2007 to 2016. Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank statistic analyzed OS and DSS by insurance status. Multivariable cox proportional hazard modeling generated survival prognostic factors. Of 19 667 laryngeal cancer cases, initial disease presentation was stage I: 7770 patients (39.5%), stage II: 3337 patients (17.0%), stage III: 3289 patients (16.7%), and stage IV: 5226 patients (26.6%). Patients had non-Medicaid insurance (15 523, 78.9%), had Medicaid (3306, 16.8%), or were uninsured (891, 4.5%). Mean and median OS for insured, Medicaid, and uninsured patients were 60.5, 49.6, and 56.6 and 74.0, 40.0, and 65.0 months, respectively. Following multivariable analysis, OS for insured, Medicaid, and uninsured patients was stage I: 87.9, 82.8, and 88.4 ( Insured laryngeal cancer patients had prolonged OS and DSS compared to Medicaid and uninsured patients. Medicaid patients had equivalent survival outcomes to uninsured patients. 2c.

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Iatrogenic Vocal Fold Paralysis: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan

Ying-Ta Lai,Pin-Zhir Chao,Yu-Kang Chang,Yu-Chun Yen,Yu-Ting Shen,Tzu-Yun Yu,Seth Dailey,Yuan-Hung Wang

Publication date 02-09-2021


Iatrogenic vocal fold paralysis is an important issue in laryngology, yet there are few population-based studies regarding the epidemiology. This study used a nationwide population-based claims database (the National Health Insurance Research Database) to investigate the epidemiology of iatrogenic unilateral and bilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP/BVFP) among the general adult population in Taiwan. This study analyzed patients (20-90 years old) who underwent thyroid, parathyroid, thoracic, cardiac, or anterior cervical spine operations with vocal fold paralysis among adults in Taiwan from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2013. The codes for vocal fold paralysis were defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM). Claims data in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database were used. The most commonly performed operations which were related to vocal fold paralysis in Taiwan were, in descending order of frequency, thyroid, cervical spine, cardiac, thoracic (esophagectomy), and parathyroid operations. The operations that put laryngeal nerves at risk (ONRs) most commonly associated with a diagnosis of UVFP were, in descending order of frequency, thoracic, thyroid, parathyroid, cardiac, and cervical spine. For both UVFP and BVFP, the most commonly associated age group was 51 to 60. For both UVFP and BVFP, the more commonly associated sex was women. Increased length of stay was associated with a higher incidence of UVFP and BVFP. Charlson medical co-morbidity index (CCI) was not associated with UVFP but BVFP was associated with higher Charlson medical co-morbidity scores. Thyroid operations, age 51 to 60, longer hospital stays are associated with vocal fold paralysis. Overall women are more surgically affected than men. This is the first population-based study of iatrogenic vocal fold paralysis.

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Sport and Recreational Causes of Nasal Bone Fractures

Christopher C. Xiao,Rijul S. Kshirsagar,Jacob E. Hoerter,Alexander Rivero

Publication date 01-09-2021


Nasal bone fractures are the most common facial bone fractures. However, there is limited literature on the etiology of these fractures, particularly distribution across sports and other recreational activities. The Nationwide Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) national injury database was queried for emergency department visits involving the diagnosis of nasal or nose fractures associated with sports and recreation activities over the most recent 10 year span available. Demographic, disposition, and weighted incidence were analyzed. Total incidence of nasal fractures across 10 years was 158 979. The mean age of nasal bone fractures was 20.4 years old. Nasal fractures were more common in males (74.6%) and white patients (54.1%). National estimated incidence of nasal fractures decreased from 21 028 in 2009 to 11 108 in 2018, a reduction of 47.2%. The most common causes among all patients were basketball (23.2%), baseball (17.1%), softball (9.8%), soccer (7.4%), and football (7%). In pediatric patients, the most common cause was baseball (25.1%). The majority (98.1%) of patients were discharged from the emergency department, while 0.9% of patients were admitted. The most common recreational causes of nasal fractures are sports, with the most common being non-contact sports like basketball and baseball. However, the incidence of nasal bone fractures due to recreational causes nationwide has decreased significantly over the past 10 years. This may reflect improved safety protocols among athletes.

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Characterizing Medicare Reimbursements and Clinical Activity Among Female Otolaryngologists

Neelima Panth,Sina J. Torabi,David A. Kasle,Emily L. Savoca,Cheryl K. Zogg,Erin K. O’Brien,R. Peter Manes

Publication date 01-09-2021


To evaluate geographic and temporal trends in Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) billing and reimbursements across female otolaryngologists (ORL). We performed a cross-sectional, retrospective analysis of the 2017 Medicare Physician and Other Suppliers Aggregate File. We analyzed differences in the number of services, patients, reimbursements, unique Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes used, and services billed per patient among female ORLs. Female ORLs accounted for 15.2% of the 8453 Medicare-reimbursed ORLs. Female ORLs who graduated between 2000 and 2010 were reimbursed a median of $58 031.9 (IQR: $32 286.5-$91 512.2) and performed a median of 702 (IQR: 359.5-1221.5) services, significantly less than those who graduated between 1990 and 1999 (median: $67 508.9; IQR: 37 018.0-110 471.5; Medicare reimbursements and billing patterns across female ORLs varied by graduation decade and geography. Female ORLs further along in their careers may be reimbursed more with greater clinical volume and productivity. Those practicing in urban settings may have practices with decreased procedural diversity and lower clinical volume compared to their counterparts in rural areas.

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Endoscope-Assisted Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence Repair: Single Institution Outcomes

Douglas J. Totten,Miriam R. Smetak,Nauman F. Manzoor,Elizabeth L. Perkins,Nathan D. Cass,Kelsey Hatton,Pooja Santapuram,Matthew R. O’Malley,David S. Haynes,Marc L. Bennett,Alejandro Rivas

Publication date 30-08-2021


To compare outcomes of endoscope-assisted middle cranial fossa MCF) repair of superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) compared to microscopic MCF repair. Retrospective cohort. Tertiary medical center neurotology practice. Retrospective chart review and cohort study of patients who underwent surgical repair of SSCD via MCF approach from 2010 to 2019 at our institution. Patients were categorized according to use of endoscope intraoperatively. Pre- and post-operative symptom number was calculated from 8 patient-reported symptoms. Pre- and post-operative changes in symptom number were assessed using paired Forty-six patients received surgical management for SSCD. Of these, 27 (59%) were male and 19 (41%) were female. Bilateral SSCD was present in 14 cases (29%), of which 3 underwent surgical management bilaterally, for a total of 49 surgical ears. Surgery was performed on the right ear in 19 cases (39%) and on the left in 30 cases (61%). Forty ears (82%) underwent microscopic repair while 9 (18%) underwent endoscope-assisted repair. Microscopic and endoscope-assisted MCF repair both demonstrated significantly improved symptom number postoperatively ( While endoscopic-assisted MCF repair has the potential to provide better visualization of medial and downslope defects, repair via this technique yields similar results and is equivalent to MCF repair utilizing the microscope alone.

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Does Prolonged Use of N95 Masks Affect Nasal Mucociliary Clearance? A Single Group Pre-Post Study

Nikhil Rajan,Bikram Choudhury,Dipika Prakash,Kapil Soni,Darwin Kaushal,Neha Shakrawal,Nithin Prakasan Nair,Amit Goyal

Publication date 28-08-2021


It has been shown that prolonged use of face masks results in physiological changes in the nasal cavity. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of prolonged use of face masks on nasal mucociliary clearance (NMC). A single group pre-post study was conducted to determine the effects of prolonged use of N95 face mask (≥4 hours) on the NMC rates in health care workers. Saccharin transit time (STT) was used to measure the NMC. STT before and after using an N95 mask for at least 4 hours was measured for all participants in controlled conditions of temperature and humidity. Forty-eight volunteers (20 female and 28 male) completed the study after the enrollment of 57 volunteers. The mean STT before mask use was 580.27 ± 193.93 seconds (95% CI; 523.95-636.58 seconds) and after mask use was 667.47 ± 237.42 seconds (95% CI; 598.53-736.42 seconds). There was significant prolongation of the NMC after prolonged use of N95 mask on performing the paired Use of the N95 face masks for 4 hours results in prolongation of the nasal mucociliary clearance as measured by STT. Susceptibility to any respiratory infection may be increased following doffing of the personal protective equipment, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) itself.

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Laryngotracheobronchial Amyloidosis: Patterns of Presentation and Management

Sarah M. Dermody,Erica L. Campagnaro,Robbi A. Kupfer,Norman D. Hogikyan,Robert J. Morrison

Publication date 28-08-2021


To evaluate the pattern of presentation and management of laryngotracheobronchial amyloidosis at a tertiary care academic center over a 27 year period. In a retrospective review, the electronic medical record at a tertiary care academic center was queried for encounters with 3 laryngologists between 1996 and 2019 which included the ICD-9 or ICD-10 diagnosis of amyloidosis. Demographics, clinical presentation, referral diagnoses, medical history, family history, laboratory values, radiology studies, and treatment modalities of subjects were collated. Results were analyzed using standard univariate descriptive statistics. Seventeen subjects were identified with an average age at diagnosis of 58 years (range 26-76 years). The most common amyloid type on biopsy was immunoglobulin light chain (AL) subtype. The most common location of laryngeal amyloid at diagnosis was the glottis and disease was more likely to be bilateral at the time of diagnosis in this location. Supraglottic disease more often had a unilateral presentation and had a tendency to spread to additional laryngeal subsites. Nearly 25% of subjects had associated systemic disease, including multiple myeloma, auto-immune disease, and familial ATTR mutation. The overall rate of associated systemic disease was low in our study cohort; however, it is higher than typically referenced in extant literature. Our cohort demonstrates that while laryngeal amyloidosis is a chronic condition, the behavior is generally indolent with a low treatment burden.

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Correlations of Radiographic and Endoscopic Observations in Subglottic Stenosis

Alexandra T. Bourdillon,Michael A. Hajek,Mitchel Wride,Mike Lee,Michael Lerner,Nikita Kohli

Publication date 28-08-2021


Subglottic stenosis (SGS) represents a constellation of diverse pathologic processes that ultimately lead to narrowing of the subglottic region and can produce significant morbidity. Existing endoscopic and radiographic assessments may not be consistent in practice. Severity of stenosis was evaluated and reported using the Cotton-Myer classification system from 33 endoscopic procedures from 32 unique subjects. Radiographic imaging within the preceding 3 month period was subsequently reviewed and narrowing was measured by a blinded radiologist. Degree of stenosis was reported as a percentage in 30 out of 33 endoscopic evaluations and subsequently compared to radiographically determined percentage of stenosis. Statistical analyzes were conducted to evaluate concordance between endoscopic and radiographic assessments. About 45.5% (15/33) of the evaluations were in agreement using Cotton-Myer scoring, while 27.3% (9/33) were discrepant by 1 grade and 27.3% (9/33) by 2 grades. Correlation of degree of stenosis as a percentage using Spearman (coefficient: 0.233, Radiographic and endoscopic grading of subglottic stenosis may not be reliably concordant in practice.

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Ototoxicity and Teprotumumab

Julie Highland,Steven Gordon,Deepika Reddy,Neil Patel

Publication date 27-08-2021


Teprotumumab, a novel monoclonal antibody, targets the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor. IGF-1 receptors, found in muscle and fat adjacent to the eye and implicated in Graves Ophthalmopathy, are also in the cochlea. In clinical trials, 5 participants reported self-limited audiologic symptoms but there are no objective data in the literature. The aim of this report is to describe one of the first known cases of teprotumumab-induced irreversible sensorineural hearing loss. Case report at a tertiary referral center. A 61 year old female with Graves ophthalmopathy presented with bilateral hearing loss, sound distortion, and tinnitus following treatment with teprotumumab. Audiogram showed mild sloping to moderately-severe sensorineural hearing loss. Repeat audiometry obtained 4 months after cessation of teprotumumab and treatment with oral corticosteroids was unchanged. This is one of the first descriptive cases of ototoxicity resulting in irreversible sensorineural hearing loss in the setting of treatment with teprotumumab. Periodic audiologic evaluations should be recommended to patients on teprotumumab.

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Use of 532\u2009nm Potassium Titanyl Phosphate Laser on Vocal Fold Scars Under Topical Anesthesia: A Pilot Study

Jiajia Wang,Wenjing Mao,Rui Fang,Chunsheng Wei,Peijie He

Publication date 23-08-2021


This pilot study aims to evaluate the efficacy of 532 nm potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser under topical anesthesia in patients with vocal fold scars. A series of 18 patients with vocal fold scars of varying degrees were treated. The KTP laser was used under local anesthesia in the outpatient clinic. It was set to deliver 6 W of power using a continuous output mode. Close-to-contact mode was used for laser irradiation, and contact mode was used for ablation and excision of the lesions. Some of the patients received laser scar ablation on both vocal folds; the scarred vocal fold on one side and the hypertrophic vocal fold on the other. Parameters include glottic closure, amplitude, and mucosal wave pattern were measured using laryngeal stroboscopic examination. Aerodynamic and voice evaluations were carried out using maximum phonation time (MPT), jitter, shimmer, Voice Handicap Index questionnaire (VHI-30), and GRBAS scale. In total, 21 surgeries were performed on 18 patients. Glottic closure, amplitude, and mucosal wave pattern showed improvement 2 months postoperatively ( The 532 nm KTP laser is an effective tool for the treatment of vocal fold scars. Further research is required to determine if serial laser applications could improve outcomes for this challenging condition. Level IV.

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Outcome of Eustachian Tube Balloon Dilation in Children: A Systematic Review

Jeyasakthy Saniasiaya,Jeyanthi Kulasegarah,Prepageran Narayanan

Publication date 23-08-2021


Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) is a chronic entity that has been historically managed with adenoidectomy and ventilation tube insertion. Recently, balloon dilation of the eustachian tube has shown promising results in recalcitrant eustachian tube dysfunction. We reviewed the literature to determine the outcome of eustachian tube balloon dilation in children. A literature search was conducted for the period from 1990 to 2020 by searching several databases over a 1-month period (January 2021) according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews for Interventions. Primary outcome was defined as the success of the intervention determined by the resolution of symptoms, and secondary outcome was determined by revisions surgery and presence of complications. Only 7 articles were identified based on our objectives and selection criteria. All studies included are retrospective cohort case series (Level IV) and 1 cohort of matched controls (Level III). A total of 284 patients were included in this review, with a mean age of 7.8 years. A total of 463 balloon dilation were performed either bilaterally or unilaterally. The most common finding of ETD is middle ear effusion in 5 studies. Balloon dilation of eustachian tube was second-line treatment in 6 studies and first-line treatment in 1 study. Improvement of symptoms was identified in all studies through various assessments performed. Revision surgery was performed in 1 study with no major complications reported. Balloon dilation of the eustachian tube may be considered as an alternative procedure following failed standard treatment in children. The quality of evidence is inadequate to recommend widespread use of the technique until a better-quality study has been completed. Future randomized controlled studies with a large sample size are warranted to determine the efficacy of this procedure amongst children.

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Above and Beyond Age: Prediction of Major Postoperative Adverse Events in Head and Neck Surgery

Marco A. Mascarella,Nikesh Muthukrishnan,Farhad Maleki,Marie-Jeanne Kergoat,Keith Richardson,Alex Mlynarek,Veronique-Isabelle Forest,Caroline Reinhold,Diego R. Martin,Michael Hier,Nader Sadeghi,Reza Forghani

Publication date 21-08-2021


Major postoperative adverse events (MPAEs) following head and neck surgery are not infrequent and lead to significant morbidity. The objective of this study was to ascertain which factors are most predictive of MPAEs in patients undergoing head and neck surgery. A cohort study was carried out based on data from patients registered in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) from 2006 to 2018. All patients undergoing non-ambulatory head and neck surgery based on Current Procedural Terminology codes were included. Perioperative factors were evaluated to predict MPAEs within 30-days of surgery. Age was classified as both a continuous and categorical variable. Retained factors were classified by attributable fraction and C-statistic. Multivariate regression and supervised machine learning models were used to quantify the contribution of age as a predictor of MPAEs. A total of 43 701 operations were analyzed with 5106 (11.7%) MPAEs. The results of supervised machine learning indicated that prolonged surgeries, anemia, free tissue transfer, weight loss, wound classification, hypoalbuminemia, wound infection, tracheotomy (concurrent with index head and neck surgery), American Society of Anesthesia (ASA) class, and sex as most predictive of MPAEs. On multivariate regression, ASA class (21.3%), hypertension on medication (15.8%), prolonged operative time (15.3%), sex (13.1%), preoperative anemia (12.8%), and free tissue transfer (9%) had the largest attributable fractions associated with MPAEs. Age was independently associated with MPAEs with an attributable fraction ranging from 0.6% to 4.3% with poor predictive ability (C-statistic 0.60). Surgical, comorbid, and frailty-related factors were most predictive of short-term MPAEs following head and neck surgery. Age alone contributed a small attributable fraction and poor prediction of MPAEs. 3.

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Evaluating the Effect of Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis on Work Productivity

Thomas K. Chung,Amanda Hu,Maya G. Sardesai,Haley Wilcox,Lan Jiang,Tanya K. Meyer

Publication date 21-08-2021


Patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) have significant vocal dysfunction which affects their performance at work. This study aimed to evaluate voice-related work productivity before and after ablative treatment for RRP. This is a prospective case series conducted at 2 academic laryngology outpatient clinics. Adult employed patients with RRP completed the Work Productivity & Activity Impairment instrument (WPAI), Voice Handicap Index (VHI-10), Work Hoarse, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and a demographics questionnaire immediately before and 1 month after ablative treatment of papilloma. The primary outcome measure was the change in work productivity impairment domain of the WPAI, and changes in ratings before and after ablation were compared using a Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test. The 32 participants (mean age 45, 84% male) had a median (interquartile range) voice-related work productivity impairment score of 48.8% (30.0) at baseline which was improved to 5.0% (10.0) at 1 month after surgical ablation of papillomata (difference 30.0% (30.0) improvement). For the secondary outcome measures, there were significant improvements in VHI-10 ( Patients with RRP experience significant voice-related work productivity impairment, and ablation of papillomata significantly improves work productivity.

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The Relationship Between Open Access Article Publishing and Short-Term Citations in Otolaryngology

David W. Wassef,Gregory L. Barinsky,Sara Behbahani,Sudeep Peddireddy,Jordon G. Grube,Christina H. Fang,Soly Baredes,Jean Anderson Eloy

Publication date 20-08-2021


The purpose of this study is to compare the number of citations received by open access articles versus subscription access articles in subscription journals in the Otolaryngology literature. Using the Dimensions research database, we examined articles indexed to Pub Med with at least 5 citations published in 2018. Articles were included from 137 open access articles and 337 subscription access articles meeting inclusion criteria were identified, with a median citation number of 8 (IQR 6-11). The most common article type was original investigation (82.5%), and the most common study topic was head and neck (28.9%). Open access articles had a higher median number of citations at 9 (IQR 6-13) when compared to subscription access articles at 7 (IQR 6-10) ( Although comprising a minority of articles examined in this study of subscription journals, open access articles were associated with a higher number of citations than subscription access articles. Open access publishing may facilitate the spread of novel findings in Otolaryngology.

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Decreased Facial Emotion Recognition in Elderly Patients With Hearing Loss Reflects Diminished Social Cognition

Özlem Saatci,Hakan Geden,Halide Güneş Çiftçi,Zafer Çiftçi,Özge Arıcı Düz,Burak Yulug

Publication date 18-08-2021


The main objective of this research was to evaluate the correlation between the severity of hearing loss and the facial emotional recognition as a critical part of social cognition in elderly patients. The prospective study was comprised of 85 individuals. The participants were divided into 3 groups. The first group consisted of 30 subjects older than 65 years with a bilateral pure-tone average mean >30 dB HL. The second group consisted of 30 subjects older than 65 years with a PTA mean ≤30 dB HL. The third group consisted of 25 healthy subjects with ages ranging between 18 and 45 years and a PTA mean ≤25 dB HL. A Facial Emotion Identification Test and a Facial Emotion Discrimination Test were administered to all groups. Elderly subjects with hearing loss performed significantly worse than the other 2 groups on the facial emotion identification and discrimination tests ( Our results suggest that increased age might be associated with decreased facial emotion identification and discrimination scores, which could be deteriorated in the presence of significant hearing loss.

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Response of Laryngopharyngeal Symptoms to Transoral Incisionless Fundoplication in Patients with Refractory Proven Gastroesophageal Reflux

Grace E. Snow,Mohamad Dbouk,Lee M. Akst,Glenn Ihde,Rasa Zarnegar,Peter Janu,Michael Murray,Hany Eskarous,Amit Sohagia,Shumon I. Dhar,Marcia Irene Canto

Publication date 11-08-2021


Patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) symptoms may not respond to proton pump inhibitors (PPI) if they have an alternative laryngeal diagnosis or high-volume reflux. Transoral incisionless fundoplication (TIF) or TIF with concomitant hiatal hernia repair (cTIF) are effective in decreasing symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) but are not well studied in patients with LPR symptoms. This prospective multicenter study assessed the patient-reported and clinical outcomes after TIF/cTIF in patients with LPR symptoms and proven GERD. Patients with refractory LPR symptoms (reflux symptom index [RSI] > 13) and with erosive esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, and/or pathologic acid reflux by distal esophageal pH testing were evaluated before and after a minimum of 6 months after TIF/cTIF. The primary outcome was normalization of RSI. Secondary outcomes were >50% improvement in GERD-Health-Related Quality of Life (GERD-HRQL), normalization of esophageal acid exposure time, discontinuation of PPI, and patient satisfaction. Forty-nine patients had TIF (n = 26) or cTIF (n = 23) with at least 6 months follow-up. Mean pre- and post TIF/cTIF RSI were 23.6 and 5.9 (mean difference: 17.7, In patients with objective evidence of GERD, TIF, or cTIF are safe and effective in controlling LPR symptoms as measured by normalization of RSI and improvement in patient satisfaction after TIF/cTIF. Level 4.

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Radial Forearm Free Flap Reconstruction of Glossectomy Defects Without Tracheostomy

Tara J. Wu,Satvir Saggi,Karam W. Badran,Albert Y. Han,Jordan P. Sand,Keith E. Blackwell

Publication date 09-08-2021


To assess the feasibility of radial forearm free flap (RFFF) reconstruction of glossectomy defects without tracheostomy tube (TT). Retrospective review of patients with at least oral tongue defects who underwent RFFF reconstruction. Pre- and intra-operative factors were documented. Post-operative respiratory complications included inability to extubate, pneumonia, or need for re-intubation or TT within 30 days. Twenty-one patients underwent RFFF reconstruction without TT, and 36 patients with TT. The average hospital length of stay was 1.5 days shorter in those without TT ( In our experience, RFFF reconstruction of glossectomy defects is feasible without TT among selected patients with small tongue base defects (≤25% resection) and unilateral neck dissection.

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Phosphaturic Mesenchymal Tumors of the Sinonasal Area and Skull Base: Experience at a Single Institution

Davis P. Argersinger,Catherine T. Haring,John E. Hanks,Kevin J. Kovatch,S. Ahmed Ali,Jonathan B. McHugh,Melissa A. Pynnonen,Erin L. McKean

Publication date 09-08-2021


Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor (PMT) is a rare, polymorphous neoplasm with a highly variable presentation and natural history and unpredictable clinical course. The primary objective was to describe our clinical experience with and management of 4 markedly different cases of sinonasal and skull base PMT. A retrospective case series with chart review, and relevant literature review, was performed at a tertiary academic medical center between 1998 and 2020. Adult patients treated for PMTs of the sinonasal area and skull base were included. Our main outcome measures included postoperative laboratory findings and radiological evidence of disease remission. Four patients (2 Males, 2 Females; Mean Age: 63.5 years) with PMTs of the skull base have been managed at our institution since 1998. Patient presentations varied, ranging from severe phosphorus wasting and osteoporosis to symptoms secondary to mass effect, including nasal obstruction and rhinorrhea. All 4 patients were eventually found to have elevated levels of fibroblast growth factor 23. Tumors were located in the sinonasal area (right frontal sinus, right ethmoid sinus, and right nasal cavity, respectively) in 3 patients and in the lateral skull base (right jugular foramen) in 1 patient. All 4 patients underwent complete surgical resection of their tumors. PMT tissue pathology was confirmed in all cases. Gross total resection was achieved in all patients. There was no chemical or radiological evidence of disease recurrence in any patients at follow-up. The presentation of skull base PMT is variable, and it may mimic other mass pathologies of the head and neck. Complete surgical resection with negative margins is potentially curative.

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Parental Views on the Role of Social Media in Pediatric Otolaryngology

Libby M. Ward,Chelsea A. Sykora,Yash Prakash,Michael B. Cohen,Jessica R. Levi

Publication date 09-08-2021


Social media is playing an increasingly important role in medicine as a tool for patients and their families to find information and connect with others. The goal of this study is to understand parental views on if and how social media should be incorporated into pediatric otolaryngology by physicians and hospitals. A survey was distributed to parents of pediatric otolaryngologic patients to assess views on professional social media use by physicians and hospitals. The proportion of parents who answered with specific responses in the survey was computed using the SPSS frequency analysis function. One hundred five parents completed the survey. Ninety-six percent of respondents use social media, of which 92% use social media at least once a day (n = 93). Eighty-five percent of respondents said they definitely or probably would visit their physician's professional social media page (n = 90). Seventy-four percent would be interested in obtaining more information about the physician (n = 76). Forty-one percent would be interested in patient stories (n = 76). Twenty-eight percent would visit out of curiosity (n = 76). Twenty-six percent would want to gather more information about the hospital (n = 76). Seventeen percent would want to connect with other patients and their family members (n = 76). Sixty-seven percent of respondents believe it is important for physicians to have a professional social media page, and 79% of respondents believe it is important for hospitals to have a public social media page (n = 93). The vast majority of parents of pediatric otolaryngologic patients use social media regularly and would want to gather information about their physician and hospital through social media. Therefore, physicians and hospitals should consider using social media as a valuable tool to connect with and relay information to patients and their family members.

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A Consideration for Surgical Management in Select T4b Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Michelle M. Chen,Clifford M. Chang,Sarah Dermody,Andrew J. Rosko,Michelle L. Mierzwa,Paul L. Swiecicki,Matthew E. Spector,Francis P. Worden,Mark E. P. Prince,Steven B. Chinn

Publication date 07-08-2021


The role of surgery for conventionally "unresectable" (cT4b) oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma is unclear. We analyzed factors associated with overall survival in cT4b relative to cT4a oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. We identified 6830 cT4a and 522 cT4b oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma chemoradiation or surgery + adjuvant therapy patients in the National Cancer Data Base from 2004 to 2016. The main outcome was overall survival. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-squared tests, univariable and multivariable regression analysis. The cT4b group had a higher rate of positive margins (30.4% vs 21.3%, Clinical T4b staging is a poor predictor of pathologic staging given a high rate of downstaging on final pathology. Surgical resection with adjuvant chemoradiation is an option in select cT4b oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma patients.

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Otolaryngology Resident Education and Perceptions of e-cigarettes

Elliot Y. Koo,Vivian Jin,Heather M. Weinreich,Barry L. Wenig

Publication date 07-08-2021


To date, there are no reports of otolaryngology residents' knowledge and confidence in discussing e-cigarette use. The purpose of this study was to evaluate otolaryngology resident e-cigarette knowledge and confidence in counseling patients on e-cigarette use. Cross-sectional national survey. Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education otolaryngology residents in the United States. US otolaryngology residents were distributed surveys electronically in September 2020. A total of 150 participants replied for a response rate of 8.88%. The majority, 93.10% have not received formal education on e-cigarettes during their residency training. The most common resource of e-cigarette information overall was social media (78.46%). Within academia, the most common resources of e-cigarette education were patient interactions (63.16%) and colleagues (54.74%). Patients commonly inquire residents about e-cigarettes for smoking cessation (85.07%) and their long-term health effects (83.58%). Almost 67% of residents rarely or never ask patients about e-cigarette use. Only 4.35% of residents are not confident discussing traditional cigarette use, while 58.70% are not confident discussing e-cigarettes. Otolaryngology residents have not received formal education in e-cigarettes and are not confident discussing e-cigarettes with their patients. This highlights the need for e-cigarette education during otolaryngology residency to improve patient e-cigarette counseling.

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Trends in Cancer Treatment for Oral Cavity, Oropharynx, and Larynx in 2016 Versus 2009: SEER Patterns of Care Studies

Kristin S. Weeks,Charles F. Lynch,Nitin Pagedar

Publication date 07-08-2021


To determine if there was a higher percentage of patients treated surgically and with advanced radiotherapy in 2016 (N = 897) versus 2009 (N = 1136), the patient and tumor characteristics associated with surgical care and advanced radiotherapy, and if chemotherapy or targeted agent use varied over time for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. We utilized Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Patterns of Care datasets. Rao-Scott Chi-square tests and logistic regressions were applied to determine differences in surgery, advanced radiotherapy (RT), and chemotherapy by year. There was a lower prevalence of surgery only treatment in 2016 versus 2009 with exception of oral cavity stages IVB/IVC and unknown, and larynx stage unknown. Advanced RT was more common in 2016 for patients receiving definitive RT among all sites, excluding stages I/II glottic larynx. Among each site (oral cavity, oropharynx, and larynx) lower stage was associated with increased odds of surgery. Among each site, advanced RT was more common in patients receiving definitive versus postoperative RT. For the larynx site, 2016 versus 2009 was associated with greater odds of advanced RT. Systemic treatment with fluorouracil, taxanes, or cetuximab was less prevalent in 2016. In 2016 versus 2009, there was largely not a higher percentage of patients treated surgically. There was a higher prevalence of advanced RT for definitive care. Further investigations of these patterns are needed, including trend analysis.

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Development of a Decision Aid for Parents Who Elect Tonsillectomy for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Adrian Williamson,Maxwell Newby,Drew Phillips,Michele Carr

Publication date 07-08-2021


To develop a novel patient decision aid (PtDA) for parents considering tonsillectomy for their children diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and compare it to validated scales related to decision making in this context. These included scales for decisional conflict (DC) and shared decision making (SDM). A parental survey during 2017 to 2018 in a tertiary care pediatric otolaryngology clinic was conducted comparing a validated Decisional Conflict Scale (DCS) with a new PtDA that included an SDM scale, parental treatment goals, and knowledge about adenotonsillectomy and OSA. DCS scores range from 0 to 100 with values less than 25 considered to be low DC. The DQ was determined by a score on the PtDA. The PtDA was composed of a knowledge score, SDM score and 5 related values scored along a continuum (these were: resolution of symptoms, avoiding anesthesia, avoiding surgery, avoiding pain/bleeding, and resumption of normal behavior). A high score meant that all answers were consistent with choosing tonsillectomy and imply better DQ. A total of 89 parents or guardians participated in the study. The mean DC score was 4.32 (95% CI: 2.57-6.07). The mean DQ score was 22.69 (95% CI: 21.86-23.51). Mean values score was 5.35 (95% CI: 5.05-5.65). The mean knowledge score was 9.00 (95% CI: 8.60-9.40). SDM score mean was 8.38 (95% CI: 7.85-8.91). Using Spearman's rho, DC versus DQ inversely correlated with a coefficient -.209 via a 2-tailed test ( DC scores overall were low for the group. DQ, as measured with the novel PtDA, had an inverse correlation with DC scores, suggesting validity of the proposed PtDA. Our instrument has potential use as a PtDA for parents who are offered tonsillectomy for their children.

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Pulmonary Embolism and Sigmoid Sinus Thrombosis After Translabyrinthine Vestibular Schwannoma Resection: A Retrospective Case Series

Yohan Song,Noel Ayoub,Jenny X. Chen,Jennifer C. Alyono,D. Bradley Welling

Publication date 06-08-2021


To describe the presentation and treatment of patients developing pulmonary embolism following translabyrinthine approach for vestibular schwannoma resection. This was a retrospective case series of patients at 2 academic tertiary medical centers who developed symptomatic pulmonary embolism post-operatively following translabyrinthine approach for vestibular schwannoma resection and were found to have evidence of sigmoid sinus thrombosis. Three patients were identified to have post-operative pulmonary emboli after translabyrinthine approach for vestibular schwannoma resection with sigmoid sinus or internal jugular vein clots in the absence of lower extremity deep vein thrombosis. Caprini scores for these patients were 5 or lower. All patients underwent CT pulmonary angiography and were confirmed to have pulmonary emboli. Two were promptly anticoagulated with heparin drips and transitioned to long-term oral anticoagulation therapy and 1 had delayed anticoagulation. None of these patients suffered from intracranial hemorrhage post-operatively. Patients undergoing translabyrinthine approach for vestibular schwannoma can develop pulmonary embolism from sigmoid sinus entry or thrombosis. No clear guidelines exist for the management of this complication in the setting of recent craniotomy and the risk of intracranial hemorrhage must be considered prior to initiating anticoagulation.

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Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Post-Treatment PET/CT in HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancer

Fasil Mathews,Rachel Irizarry,Richard Rosenfeld,Krishnamurthi Sundaram

Publication date 06-08-2021


To perform a systematic review with meta-analysis to investigate the utility of post-treatment PET/CT specifically in HPV-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma following curative intent treatment. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to pool data from 7 observational studies (2013-2019) obtained from a database search of Pub Med, Web of Science, and EMBASE using an a priori protocol with dual independent evaluation for inclusion, risk of bias assessment for acceptable methodology, and extraction of data for analysis. PET/CT results, treatment failure, imaging and interventions subsequent to PET/CT findings, and efficacy of salvage therapy were extracted. Of the 907 post-treatment scans, PET/CT results were largely negative (76.2%; 95% CI, 63.4-85.6) and least often positive (11.3%; 95% CI, 8.8-14.4). PET/CT results were equivocal for 22.5% (95% CI, 12.5-36.9) and equivocal/positive for 34.2% of patients (95% CI, 25.1-44.5). Patients with an initial positive scan had the highest treatment failure rates (43.1%; 95% CI, 21.4-67.7) and those with an initial negative scan had the lowest rates (7.4%; 95% CI, 5.7-9.7). The equivocal and equivocal/positive scans had intermediate prevalence of 16.5% (95% CI, 9.4-27.6) and 16.7% (95% CI, 9.1-28.7), respectively. The low treatment failure rate following a negative PET/CT scan is reassuring, but the data are consistent with treatment failure rates up to 9.7% suggesting follow-up of these patients is prudent. Additionally, the low positive predictive value for treatment failure observed alludes to use of post-treatment PET/CT in HPV-associated disease frequently leading to unnecessary subsequent imaging and intervention.

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Vascular Loops: The Innocent Bystander for Vestibular Paroxysmia

Carren Sui-Lin Teh,Siti Hajar Noordiana,Shanmugalingam Shamini,Narayanan Prepageran

Publication date 06-08-2021


Vestibular paroxysmia (VP) is a condition with recurrent short bouts of vertigo and is thought to be part of a neurovascular compression syndrome caused by the vascular loop. However, this is still being debated as vascular loops are considered as normal variants with limited studies involving vertiginous patients. The aim of this paper is to study the association between audiovestibular symptoms and the presence of vascular loops and to study the association between vestibular paroxysmia and vascular loops. This is a retrospective analysis of clinical, audiological and MRI findings of patients with and without vascular loops and vestibular paroxysmia from 2000 to 2020. A total of 470 MRI Internal Auditory Meatus scans were performed during the study period of which, 71 (15.1%) had vascular loops and 162 (34.5%) had normal MRI which were used as controls. From the 233 subjects recruited, there were 37 subjects with VP and 196 non VP subjects were used as controls. There was no association between the vascular loop and control groups in terms of co-morbidity and audiovestibular symptoms. The VP group had a significantly older mean age of 51.8 (SD ± 10.3) as compared to the non VP group with the mean age of 45.6 (SD ± 15.5). The VP group had higher number of patients presenting with hearing loss at 97.3% when compared with those without VP (80.1%) ( The vascular loop is a normal variant which may or may not give rise to audiovestibular symptoms or vestibular paroxysmia. Clinical assessment is still most important tool in deriving a diagnosis of VP and MRI may be useful to rule out other central causes.

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Flipping the Classroom: An Evaluation of Teaching and Learning Strategies in the Operating Room

Jared Johnson,Emily Misch,Michael T. Chung,Jeffrey Hotaling,Adam Folbe,Peter F. Svider,Cristina Cabrera-Muffly,Andrew P. Johnson

Publication date 05-08-2021


With increasing restraints on resident's experiences in the operating room, with causes ranging from decreased time available to increasing operating room costs, focus has been placed on how to improve resident's education. The objectives of our study are to (1) determine barriers in education in the operating room, (2) identify effective learning and teaching strategies for residents in the operating room with a focus on the tonsillectomy procedure. An online survey was sent to all otolaryngology residents and residency programs for which contact information was available from January 2016 to March 2016 with 139 respondents. The 12-question survey focused on information regarding limitations to learning how to perform tonsillectomies as well as difficulties with teaching the same procedure. Resident responses were separated based on PGY level, and analysis was performed using Common themes emerged from responses for both teaching and learning how to perform tonsillectomies. A significant limitation in learning the procedure was lack of visualization during the surgery (57% learning vs 60% teaching). For both learners and teachers, the monopolar cautery instrument was found to be the most preferred instrument to use during tonsillectomy (80% each). The majority of resident respondents (93%) felt that an instructional video would be beneficial for both learning and teaching the procedure. Significant limitations for learning and teaching in the operating room were identified for performing tonsillectomies. Future endeavors will focus on resolving these limitations to improve surgical education. Level IV.

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Non-invasive Fungal Sinusitis as a Complication of a Steroid-Eluting Stent Following Endoscopic Sinus Surgery: A Case Report

Paige Shipman,Julie Highland,Benjamin Witt,Jeremiah Alt

Publication date 05-08-2021


Steroid eluting stents have proven to be a highly useful adjunctive therapy for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and play an important role in the treatment of many inflammatory diseases of the sinuses. Few reports of adverse events were reported in clinical trials and are described in the literature. However, we describe the first known case of an immunocompetent patient developing non-invasive fungal tissue infection as a sequelae of stent-related tissue necrosis requiring surgical debridement. A 69-year-old immunocompetent male with CRS had Propel™ stents placed in the bilateral frontal sinus outflow tracts during revision endoscopic sinus surgery. He presented 2 weeks post-operatively with severe facial pain without vision changes, fevers, mental status changes, or evidence of cranial neuropathies. On rigid nasal endoscopy, necrotic tissue and gross fungal elements were visualized in the left frontal sinus outflow tract at the area of previous steroid stent position. The patient was taken for urgent endoscopic sinus surgery and debridement given significant symptoms and concern for invasive fungal infection. A revision left maxillectomy, ethmoidectomy, and draf 2b frontal sinus drillout were performed, with healthy bleeding tissue encountered beneath necrotic tissue. Pathology revealed tissue necrosis, exudative lumenal debris, and extensive fungal elements with no evidence of tissue invasion, and cultures yielded growth of aspergillus niger. The patient's symptoms improved significantly on post-operative day 1, he had normal post-operative changes at 2 weeks following debridement, and had no recurrence of fungal infection with complete healing at 4 months. While likely rare, steroid-eluting stents may pose a risk of saprophytic tissue infection as a result of tissue necrosis and local immunosuppression. Caution should be taken in using these devices in immunocompromised patients.

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Recovery of Vocal Cord Motion Among Pediatric Patients

Courtney Ann Prestwood,Ashley F. Brown,Romaine F. Johnson

Publication date 20-07-2021


Patients with vocal cord paralysis can experience feeding, respiratory, and vocal problems leading to disability and decreased quality of life. Current evidence suggests waiting a period of 12 months for spontaneous recovery before permanent interventions. This study aims to determine the time to recover spontaneously and vocal cord movement in a pediatric population and create a model for evidence-based patient counseling. Retrospective longitudinal cohort study. The report is a single institution longitudinal study on vocal cord paralysis recovery. Patients were categorized based on spontaneous recovery with vocal cord movement or no recovery. Recovery rates were determined using the Kaplan-Meier method. Of 158 cases of vocal cord paralysis over a 4-year period, 36 had spontaneous recovery with symptom improvement and motion return. The average recovery was 8.8 months for those who recovered, and 78% recovered within 9 months.
Two groups emerged from the data: an early recovery group with spontaneous recovery before 12 months and a late recovery group after 12 months. Children with dysphonia and paralysis due to cardiac surgery were less likely to recover, and children with aspiration were more likely to recover. Children with gastrointestinal comorbidities were less likely to recover; however, those who did recover were more likely to have recovered after 12 months. Based on our model, there is about a 3% chance of recovery between 9 and 12 months. Patients should be counseled about earlier interventions. Waiting the conventional 12 months for only a 3% chance of spontaneous recovery without intervention or laryngeal EMG may not be the preferred option for some patients and their families.

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Determining Medical Urgency of Voice Disorders Using Auditory-Perceptual Voice Assessments Performed by Speech-Language Pathologists

Robert Brinton Fujiki,Peter W. Sanders,M. Preeti Sivasankar,Stacey Halum

Publication date 20-07-2021


This study examined whether speech-language pathologist auditory-perceptual voice assessments can predict the medical urgency of voice disorders. Twenty speech-language pathologists (SLPs) evaluated 25 voice samples recorded during initial voice evaluations. Voice samples represented a range of dysphonia severity (mild-severe) balanced across patient diagnoses.
Diagnoses included: benign lesions, laryngeal cancer, non-organic voice disorders, laryngeal edema (associated with LPR), and laryngeal paralysis or paresis. Laryngeal cancer and severe unilateral laryngeal paralysis were considered urgent disorders. While blinded to patient information, SLPs rated severity of voice quality, predicted patient diagnosis, and determined whether the patient should be seen urgently by a laryngologist. SLPs were then given basic medical history information and rated medical urgency of voice disorder a second time. On average, SLPs correctly identified 65% of urgent voices and 87% of nonurgent voices when blinded to patient information. Accuracy improved significantly to 86% for urgent voices with medical history information ( SLPs identified 86% of medically urgent voice disorders when auditory perceptual assessments were combined with medical history information. Further work is needed to determine what medical history information is most crucial to rating accuracy and what speech tasks might best separate urgent and nonurgent patients.

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Airway Management of the Deformed Trachea Using T-Tube Stents in Patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis Type IVA

Yi-Hao Lee,Li-Chun Hsieh,Chin-Hui Su,Hsiang-Yu Lin,Shuan-Pei Lin,Kuo-Sheng Lee

Publication date 20-07-2021


Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type IVA usually results in airway obstruction due to thoracic cage deformity and crowding of intrathoracic structures, causing tracheal compression by the tortuous innominate artery. To offer an alternative and effective method in dealing with the challenged deformity of the airway in patients with MPS type IVA. We present 3 patients with MPS type IVA who underwent airway stenting using Montgomery All 3 patients had good outcomes during the follow-ups until present, despite the complication of granulation formation, which was resolved by revising the limbs of the T-tube. T-tube stents placed below the vocal cord may restore airway patency and preserve laryngeal function, including respiration, phonation, and swallowing, in patients with MPS type IVA.

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Tumor-Related and Patient-Related Variables Affecting Length of Hospital Stay Following Vestibular Schwannoma Microsurgery

Galit Almosnino,Matt J. Sikora,Farrokh R. Farrokhi,Seth R. Schwartz,Daniel M. Zeitler

Publication date 02-07-2021


Review a single institution's vestibular schwannoma (VS) microsurgery experience to determine (1) correlations between demographics, comorbidities, and/or surgical approach on hospital length of stay (LOS) and discharge disposition and (2) trends in surgical approach over time. Retrospective case series from a multidisciplinary skull base program at a tertiary care, academic hospital. All adult (>18 years) patients undergoing primary microsurgery for VS between 2008 and 2018 were included. A total of 147 subjects were identified. Surgical approach was split between middle fossa (MF) (16%), retrosigmoid (RS) (35%), and translabyrinthine (TL) (49%) craniotomies. For the 8% of patients had other than routine (OTR) discharge. Mean LOS was significantly longer for patients undergoing RS than either MF or TL. Brainstem compression by the tumor was associated with longer LOS as were diagnoses of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and peripheral vascular disease (PVD). For all discharges, the 40 to 50- and 50 to 60-year-old subgroups had significantly shorter LOS than the 70-years-and-older patients. For the 92% of patients routinely discharged, there was a significantly shorter LOS in the 40 to 50-year-olds compared to the 70-years-and-older patients. There was a significant shift in surgical approach from RS to TL over the study period. Over 90% of VS microsurgery patients were routinely discharged with a median hospital LOS of 3.2 days, both of which are consistent with published data. There is an inverse relationship between age and LOS with patients older than 70 years having significantly longer LOS. Brainstem compression, COPD, PVD, and the RS approach negatively affect LOS. 4.

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Three-Dimensional Measurements in Assessing the Results of Inferior Turbinate Surgery

Olli Valtonen,Jaakko Ormiskangas,Teemu Harju,Markus Rautiainen,Ilkka Kivekäs

Publication date 01-07-2021


Acoustic rhinometry is widely used in evaluating patients with nasal congestion, but it only has a partial correlation with patient symptoms. The use and focus of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans are mainly on the paranasal sinuses and less on the nasal cavities. Therefore, information acquired from CBCT scans is not used to its full extent. In our present study, we have studied patients with enlarged inferior turbinates. Our aim was to investigate and compare the use of 3D volumetric measurements and cross-sectional area measurements taken from CBCT scans to results obtained from acoustic rhinometry. In total, 25 patients with enlarged inferior turbinates were studied. CBCT scans were obtained preoperatively and at twelve months postoperatively. 3D volumetric and cross-sectional area measurements were compared to results from acoustic rhinometry, the visual analogue scale (VAS) and Glasgow Health Status Inventory (GHSI) questionnaires. A statistically significant change in 3D volume and cross-sectional area was measured in the anterior part of the inferior turbinate and surrounding air space after inferior turbinate surgery. VAS and GHSI results had mild correlations with the 3D volume and cross-sectional area measurements of the anterior part of the inferior turbinate. Acoustic rhinometry correlated with the air space 3D volume measurements in the anterior part. Fully utilized CBCT scans provide more comprehensive and accurate information. Furthermore, 3D analysis of the inferior turbinates provides valuable information and more precise measurements compared to acoustic rhinometry.

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Cost-Effectiveness of Open vs. Endoscopic Repair of Zenker’s Diverticulum

Paul B. Lee,Houmehr Hojjat,Jordyn Lucas,Michael T. Chung,Aviv Spillinger,Joseph B. Meleca,Peter Svider,Mahdi Shkoukani,Andrew Johnson,Adam Folbe

Publication date 01-07-2021


To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of open versus endoscopic surgical repair of Zenker's diverticulum. In this study, an economic decision tree was utilized to compare the cost-effectiveness of open surgery compared to endoscopic surgery. The primary outcome in this analysis was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) that was calculated based on the economic decision tree. The probability of post-operative esophageal perforation complications, revision rates, and effectiveness of each procedure along with associated costs were extracted to construct the decision tree. Univariate sensitivity analysis was then utilized to determine how changes in esophageal perforation rate affect the cost-effectiveness of each surgical approach. The ICER of open surgery for Zenker's diverticulum was $67 877, above most acceptable willingness to pay (WTP) thresholds. Additionally, if the probability of esophageal perforation with endoscopic surgery is above 5%, then open surgery becomes a more cost-effective option. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo simulations also showed that at the WTP thresholds of $30 000 and $50 000, endoscopic surgery is the most cost-effective method with 83.9% and 67.6% certainty, respectively. Open surgery and endoscopic surgery are 2 treatment strategies for Zenker's diverticulum that each have their own advantages and disadvantages that can complicate the decision-making process. With no previous cost-effectiveness analysis of open versus endoscopic surgery for Zenker's diverticulum, our results support the endoscopic approach at most common WTP thresholds. Particularly with the current focus on rising healthcare costs, our results can serve as an important adjunct to medical decision-making for patients undergoing treatment for Zenker's diverticulum.

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Preliminary Investigation of In vitro, Bidirectional Vocal Fold Muscle-Mucosa Interactions

Rysouke Nakamura,Carina Doyle,Renjie Bing,Aaron M. Johnson,Ryan C. Branski

Publication date 01-07-2021


Oversimplified clinical dogma suggests that laryngeal diseases fall into two broad, mutually exclusive diagnostic categories-mucosal injury or neuromuscular/functional disorders. Extensive investigation in the lower airway as well as other organ systems suggest complex interactions between tissue types underlying both tissue health and pathological states. To date, no such relationship has been described in the vocal folds, likely the most bioactive organ in the body. We hypothesize interactions between the vocal fold muscle and mucosa likely contribute to aberrant phonatory physiology and warrant further investigation to ultimately develop novel therapeutic strategies. Primary culture of myoblasts from rat thyroarytenoid muscle and fibroblasts from the vocal fold mucosa were established. Co-culture and conditioned media experiments were performed to established bidirectional interactions between cell types. Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-β was employed to stimulate a fibrotic phenotype in culture. In addition to quantitative PCR, standard migration and proliferation assays were performed as well as immunocytochemistry. Bidirectional cell-cell interactions were observed. Without TGF-β stimulation, myoblast conditioned media inhibited fibroblast migration, but enhanced proliferation. Conversely, fibroblast conditioned media increased both myoblast proliferation and migration. Myoblast conditioned media decreased TGF-β-mediated gene expression and of particular interest, ACTA2 mRNA expression. In both co-culture and in response to fibroblast conditioned media, myosin heavy chain (Myh2) mRNA expression decreased in myoblasts. These data are the first to describe interactions between cell types within the vocal fold. The implications for these interactions in vivo warrant further investigation to develop and refine optimal treatment strategies.

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The Relationship Between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Pediatric Obesity: A Nationwide Analysis

Kevin Bachrach,David O’Neil Danis,Michael B. Cohen,Jessica R. Levi

Publication date 01-07-2021


Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can have both acute and chronic consequences when untreated. We hypothesize that a link exists between childhood obesity and OSA at nationwide level, with race, gender, and socioeconomic status conferring their own risk for pediatric OSA. This study examined nationwide discharges in 2016 using the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID). The International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) codes for obesity (E66.0) and OSA (G47.33) were used. Prevalence rates and odds ratios (ORs) were used to quantify associations between the obesity and OSA groups in the general pediatric inpatient population. Multiple binary logistic regression was utilized to compare cohorts of pediatric inpatient admissions. There were 36 266 285 weighted discharges in the 2016 KID. Among patients included in our dataset, 0.426% (26 684) were diagnosed with obesity and 0.562% (35 242) had OSA. Obesity was independently associated with a significantly increased risk of OSA (OR = 22.89; 95% C.
I. = 21.99-23.84). Within the OSA inpatient population, obesity was associated with non-Hispanic black race, Hispanic ethnicity, and Native American race/ethnicity (OR = 1.45, 1.32, 2.51; 95% C.
I. = 1.33-1.58, 1.21-1.44, 1.73-3.63). Obesity is independently associated with OSA in children after controlling for adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Non-Hispanic black race and Hispanic ethnicity are independent risk factors for OSA and are associated with obesity in the OSA inpatient population, which suggests that obesity may play a role in the increased risk of OSA within these groups.

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Laceration of Aberrant Internal Carotid Artery Following Myringotomy: A Case Report and Review of Literature

Neha Wadhavkar,David Y. Goldrich,Sudipta Roychowdhury,Kelvin Kwong

Publication date 01-07-2021


The presence of an aberrant internal carotid artery (ICA) in the middle ear is rare. Patients may be asymptomatic or complain of conductive hearing loss, otalgia, pulsatile tinnitus, or aural fullness. Otoscopic exam findings can include a pulsating erythematous lesion on the tympanic membrane (TM). It may be misdiagnosed as a glomus tumor, hemangioma, or serous otitis media, or go unrecognized until surgical exploration. Early recognition is important as intraoperative discovery carries risk of iatrogenic injury, hemorrhage and subsequent neurologic sequelae. Prevention requires adequate preoperative suspicion and can be confirmed with radiologic examination via computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Management of iatrogenic injury of an aberrant ICA can include packing, vessel embolization and/or surgical ligation. We report the case of an aberrant ICA injury in a pediatric patient undergoing a myringotomy with tube placement, who sustained neurologic deficits that eventually resolved following treatment with packing and coil embolization. An aberrant ICA can cause life-threatening complications without prior diagnosis in a routine myringotomy. Suspicious exam findings should prompt temporal bone CT to rule out aberrant ICA or other vascular pathology of the middle ear prior to surgery. In the case of iatrogenic injury of an aberrant ICA, there is no consensus in existing literature on optimal management. We reviewed 37 studies to compare therapeutic options and subsequent outcomes. Though complications are rare regardless of management, cases in which solely packing was utilized demonstrated an increased incidence of hemiparesis, aphasia, hearing loss, re-bleeding, and delayed pseudoaneurysm, as compared to an approach coupling packing with embolization or ligation, both of which have comparable outcomes.

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Perceived Impact of USMLE Step 1 Score Reporting to Pass/Fail on Otolaryngology Applicant Selection

Ishwarya S. Mamidi,Alex Gu,Collin F. Mulcahy,Chapman Wei,Philip E. Zapanta

Publication date 01-07-2021


Recently, the decision was made to transition the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 score from a three-digit numerical score to a pass/fail system. Historically, Step 1 scores have been important for otolaryngology resident applicant selection. The purpose of this study was to understand and evaluate otolaryngology residency program directors' (OPDs) opinions on the impact following the change in Step 1 score reporting. A 22-question survey administered through Qualtrics was sent to 113 academic otolaryngology residency program directors in April 2020. Information about demographics, impressions on the new Step 1 score format, anticipated changes in applicant selection, impact on mental health, and importance of various other factors in selecting applicants were queried. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze survey results. A total of 41 out of 113 (36.3%) OPDs completed this survey. A majority of surveyed OPDs (80.5%) do not support the decision to change Step 1 to a pass/fail system. In the absence of a three digit numeric USMLE Step 1 score, OPDs indicated prioritization of away rotations, letters of recommendation (LORs), personal prior knowledge of the applicant, grades in required clerkship, and class ranking or quartile. 53.7% of OPDs anticipate requiring USMLE Step 2 Clinical Knowledge for interview consideration following this change. OPDs believe a pass/fail Step 1 score will decrease the importance of this exam and that this change will lead to the implementation and evaluation of additional metrics such as a required Step 2 CK score.

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Dysphagia Severity and Outcomes Following Iatrogenic High Vagal Nerve Injury

Ethan R. Miles,Priya D. Krishna,Jared C. Inman,Steve C. Lee,Paul C. Walker,Alfred A. Simental,Brianna K. Crawley

Publication date 23-06-2021


To examine severity of dysphagia and outcomes following iatrogenic high vagal nerve injury. Retrospective chart review of all patients with iatrogenic high vagal nerve injury that were seen at a tertiary referral center from 2012 to 2020. Of 1304 patients who met criteria for initial screening, 18 met all inclusion criteria. All 18 required intervention to address postoperative dysphagia. Eleven required enteral feeding tubes with 7 eventually able to advance to exclusively per oral diets. Fourteen underwent vocal fold injection and 6 underwent laryngeal framework surgery. Sixteen pursued swallowing therapy with speech language pathology. Patients lost a mean of 8.6 kg of weight in the 6 months following the injury. Swallowing function on the Functional Outcome Swallowing Scale (FOSS) and Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS) was 4.4 and 2.4 respectively immediately following the injury and improved to 1.9 and 5.3 at the last follow-up. No patients had complete return of normal swallowing function at last follow up. Iatrogenic high vagal injury causes significant lasting dysphagia which improves with intervention but does not completely resolve. Interventions such as vocal fold injection, medialization laryngoplasty, cricopharyngeal myotomy, or swallowing therapy may be required to reestablish safe swallowing in these patients.

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Does Medical School Geography and Ranking Influence Residency Match in Otolaryngology?

Khodayar Goshtasbi,Kotaro Tsutsumi,Catherine Merna,Edward C. Kuan,Yarah M. Haidar,Tjoson Tjoa

Publication date 23-06-2021


To elucidate the associations between geographic locations, rankings, and size/funding of medical schools and residency programs among the current otolaryngology residents. This retrospective cross-sectional study queried otolaryngology residency program websites for relevant publicly accessible information. Location was categorized as Midwest, Northeast, South, and West. Ranking was according to Doximity (residency) and US News and World Report (medical school). Medical school and residency programs were labeled large if they had >704 students or >15 residents, respectively. A total of 1413 residents from 98 (89%) otolaryngology residency programs were included. Residents attending their home medical schools (18%) were equally distributed among regions ( There exist significant associations between otolaryngology residents' medical school location, ranking, size, and funding source and their residency destination. More than half of the current otolaryngology residents attended medical school in the same geographic region, and about one-fifth have attended medical school and residency at the same institution. Future studies are warranted to evaluate how these results change as the match process evolves in the future. N/A.

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Videofluoroscopic Swallow Study Findings and Correlations in Infancy of Children with Cerebral Palsy

Amit Narawane,Christina Rappazzo,Jean Hawney,James Eng,Julina Ongkasuwan

Publication date 21-06-2021


Cerebral palsy (CP) in infants can affect global motor function and lead to swallowing difficulties. This study aims to characterize oral and pharyngeal swallowing dynamics in infancy of patients later diagnosed with CP and to determine if swallow study performance in early infancy is associated with later CP severity and characteristics. This is a retrospective chart review of infants who underwent videofluoroscopic swallow studies (VFSS) between 6/2008 and 10/2018 at a tertiary children's hospital, and were later diagnosed with CP. Demographic data, CP characteristics and metrics, and VFSS findings were collected and analyzed. There were 66 patients included in this study. The average age at the time of VFSS was 4 months (range: 0.3-12 months), 42% of patients were female, and 50% of patients were born premature. In our sample, 86% of patients presented with oral dysphagia, and 76% with pharyngeal dysphagia. Laryngeal penetration in isolation was seen in 39% of patients, and tracheal aspiration was seen in 38% of patients. Of these tracheal aspiration events, 64% were silent. At the time of VFSS, 58% of patients had a nasogastric tube, 12% had a gastrostomy tube, and 3% had a prior hospitalization for pneumonia. Rates of penetration and aspiration in early infancy did not consistently correlate with prematurity, type of CP (spastic, non-spastic, or mixed), degree of paralysis (quadriplegic, hemiplegic, or diplegic), or severity of Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) score. While there was not a consistent correlation of swallowing dynamics in infancy with later gross motor categorizations of CP, the results of this retrospective review highlight the essential role of early clinical and videofluoroscopic swallowing evaluations to identify oral and pharyngeal swallowing dysfunction in this patient population.

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The Efficiency of (videolaryngo)stroboscopy in Detecting T1a Glottic Carcinoma and Its Preliminary Stages

Adrienne Heyduck,Sibylle Brosch,Anja Pickhard,Thomas K. Hoffmann,Rudolf Reiter

Publication date 21-06-2021


The efficiency of We included 159 patients with a leukoplakia of the vocal folds and 50 healthy controls. Clinicopathological data and Absent or greatly reduced mucosal waves were found in all patients with an invasive carcinoma, in 94% with a severe intraepithelial neoplasia (SIN III), in 38% with a moderate squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (SIN II), in 32% with a mild squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (SIN I), and in 23% with a hyperkeratosis without dysplasia. The sensitivity and specificity of is a valid tool to identify early glottic carcinoma and its high risk premalignancy carcinoma in situ (CIS). Even when there is no definitive differentiation between SIN I and II, the invasive character of a CIS and an invasive glottic carcinoma can be identified.

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Medicolegal Considerations Regarding Steroid Use in Otolaryngology: A Review of the Literature

Kurtis Young,Elliott J. Koshi,Joshua C. Mostales,Bibek Saha,Lawrence P. Burgess

Publication date 19-06-2021


To review the literature on corticosteroid use and provide recommendations on patient counseling and/or consent to promote judicious prescribing and reduce the incidence of corticosteroid-related lawsuits. A conventional literature search of Pub Med on corticosteroid-related medicolegal cases was undertaken. Search terms included "medicolegal," "otolaryngology," and "adrenocorticosteroids." A medical subjects headings search with the keywords "adrenal cortex hormones" and "jurisprudence" was also performed. Corticosteroids have been reported as the third most frequent medication involved in malpractice claims, oftentimes leading to disproportionately costly payments. The most common specialties found to be involved in corticosteroid related medicolegal cases included dermatology (12%), primary care (10%), and neurologists or neurosurgeons (6%). The most common complications encountered were avascular necrosis (39%), changes in mood (16%), infection (14%), and vision changes (14%). Only a few cases corticosteroid-related litigation regarding otolaryngologists were identified. More frequent causes for otolaryngology claims were intraoperative complications, deficits in diagnoses, and failures or delays in treatment.
Three medicolegal pitfalls regarding corticosteroid use were identified from this review included: (1) insufficient advising, (2) lack of or incomplete informed consent, and (3) the significance of the patient-physician relationship. Despite the scarcity of corticosteroid-related medicolegal literature pertaining to otolaryngologists, corticosteroids are one of the most widely prescribed medications in the field of otolaryngology and have been shown to have a high rate of medical malpractice claims in medicine. Counseling and consenting the patient, as well as developing a strong physician-patient relationship, are integral processes in addressing any adverse effects occurring during therapy, and may also help to decrease the incidence and success of litigation against otolaryngologists.

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Tympanic Membrane Pneumatocele from Auto-insufflation

Robert J. Macielak,Andrew J. Goates,John I. Lane,Matthew L. Carlson

Publication date 18-06-2021


The differential of an external auditory canal mass is broad. One rare potential cause is a pneumatocele of the tympanic membrane, which has only been described 1 other time in the literature. This report serves to describe the second case of this pathology, including its unique presentation, and benign clinical course. Case report. A case is discussed in which a pneumatocele of the tympanic membrane was incidentally identified during evaluation of contralateral otologic pathology. The etiology was suspected to be habitual auto-insufflation. After cessation of this practice, the pneumatocele was noted to resolve without further intervention. A tympanic membrane pneumatocele represents a rare cause of an external auditory canal mass. The diagnosis can be made clinically via history, palpation, and otoscopy during auto-insufflation, potentially avoiding further diagnostic testing. Depending on the etiology, resolution can occur after lifestyle modification; however, further interventions may definitively treat the condition if so required.

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Dysphagia in Pediatric Patients with Tracheostomy

Kimberly Luu,Michael A. Belsky,Harish Dharmarajan,Thomas Kaffenberger,Jennifer L. McCoy,Kristin Cangilla,Allison B. J. Tobey,Jeffrey P. Simons,Raymond Maguire,Reema Padia

Publication date 18-06-2021


Post-tracheotomy swallowing function has not been well described in the pediatric population. This study aims to (1) determine differences in swallowing functioning pre- and post-tracheotomy and (2) examine the association between postoperative dysphagia and indication for tracheotomy, age at the time of tracheotomy, and time between tracheotomy and modified barium swallow (MBS). A retrospective chart review was performed on 752 patients who underwent a tracheotomy from 2003 to 2018 and had adequate documentation for review. Patients were included if they received a post-operative MBS. Descriptive statistics, logistic regression, and Fisher's exact test were used to analyze the data. The cohort included 233 patients. The mean age at the time of tracheotomy was 25 months (±50.5). The indications for the tracheotomy were upper airway obstruction (110/233, 47.2%), chronic respiratory failure (104/233, 44.6%), and neurologic disease (19/233, 8.2%). The mean time from tracheotomy to post-operative MBS was 224 days (±297.7). Of the patients who had documented pre- and post-tracheotomy diets, nearly half of patients had improvement in their swallowing function after tracheotomy placement (82/195; 42.1%). Post-tracheotomy MBS recommended thickened liquids in 30.9% of the patients (72/233) and 42.5% (99/233) were recommended thin liquids. The remainder (62/233, 26.6%) remained nothing by mouth (NPO). Patients with neurological disease as the indication for the tracheotomy were more likely to remain NPO ( A tracheotomy can functionally and anatomically affect swallowing in pediatric patients. The majority of our studied cohort was able to resume some form of an oral diet postoperatively based on MBS. This study highlights the need for objective measurements of swallowing in the postoperative tracheotomy patient to allow for safe and timely commencement of an oral diet. Level 3.

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Head and Neck Injury Patterns among American Football Players

Neil K. Mehta,Justin Siegel,Brandon Cowan,Jared Johnson,Houmehr Hojjat,Michael T. Chung,Michael A. Carron

Publication date 18-06-2021


American football is a popular high-impact sport, leading to 2.7 million injuries in the United States annually. Recent evidence in football-related neurological damage has spurred national interest in player-safety. Football players injure their head and neck in up to 26% of total injuries. Variation in injury patterns between age groups and correlated hospitalizations for football-related head and neck injury has yet to be characterized. Our aim is to evaluate injury patterns among American-football related head and neck trauma. A retrospective cohort study of patients with football-related head and neck injury in the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). Nearly 100 000 ED visits for football-related head and neck injuries occur annually. Males comprised 95% of patients, with a median age of 13. The head comprised 70% of injuries followed by the face (13%). The most common diagnoses were concussions (39%), internal organ injury (26%), and lacerations (11%). Pediatric patients were more likely to sustain concussions while adults experienced more lacerations ( Pediatric males are most likely to present for emergency care from football-related injury to the head and neck. Evaluating physicians can anticipate concussions, internal organ injury, and lacerations among presenting patients. Concussions, facial fractures, and nerve damage are injuries most likely to lead to hospitalization.

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Comparison of Isotonic Seawater Nasal Spray Containing Chamomile Liquid Extract and Other Isotonic Seawater Nasal Washing Solutions for Allergic Rhinitis

Yavuz Atar,Semih Karaketir,Imran Aydogdu,Hüseyin Sari,Hasan Sami Bircan,Yavuz Uyar,Enis Ekincioglu,Seyma Görcin Karaketir,Enes Atac,Güler Berkiten

Publication date 18-06-2021


We aim to demonstrate the effect of an isotonic seawater spray containing chamomile liquid extract on symptoms and nasal mucociliary clearance in patients with allergic rhinitis by comparing it with other isotonic seawater nasal washing solutions. The study included 123 patients. Based on Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma guidelines, mometasone furoate intranasal spray treatment was started for all patients in the group diagnosed with allergic rhinitis. In addition to this treatment, isotonic seawater spray with chamomile liquid extract was added to Group A, isotonic seawater spray to Group B, and isotonic seawater nasal irrigation to Group C. The fourth group (Group D) was given only nasal steroid spray without nasal washing treatment. Before and after treatment in all patients, the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-22 was performed, and nasal mucociliary clearance times were measured by the saccharin test. The differences in duration of nasal mucociliary clearance and Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-22 values were taken before and after treatment. In Group A, B, C, and D the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-22 differences were statistically significant ( Isotonic seawater spray containing chamomile liquid extract is seen as a good alternative treatment option for allergic rhinitis patients.

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Presentation and Outcomes of Non-Squamous Cell Carcinoma Sinonasal Malignancies: A National Perspective

Zaid Al-Qurayshi,Andrew Liu,Jarrett E. Walsh

Publication date 17-06-2021


Non-squamous cell carcinoma sinonasal malignancies (NSCCSM) are relatively rare. Neoadjuvant radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy (NTx) have been proposed to improve outcomes compared to surgery alone. In this study, we aim to examine the prevalence of NTx utilization and associated outcomes. A retrospective study utilizing the National Cancer Database, 2004 to 2015. The study population included adult patients diagnosed with primary NSCCSM. A total of 574 patients were included. The mean age of the study population was 61.7 ± 16.5 years. The median follow-up time was 40.4 months (interquartile range: 15.3-81.3 months).
The histopathological diagnoses identified included: (i) 37.0% adenocarcinoma, (ii) 22.8% adenoid cystic carcinoma, (iii) 20.0% mucosal melanoma, (iv) 11.9% esthesioneuroblastoma, and (v) 8.2% sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC). NTx was utilized in 70 (12.20%) of the study population. Patients who received NTx were more likely to have SNUC or esthesioneuroblastoma ( This study provides an epidemiological perspective regarding NSCCSM and related practice patterns and survival outcomes. Neoadjuvant radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy is likely to decrease the risk of positive margin which ultimately could improve survival in this population.

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A Systematic Literature Review to Compare Clinical Outcomes of Different Surgical Techniques for Second Branchial Cyst Removal

Sebastiaan Meijers,Rutger Meijers,Erwin van der Veen,Maaike van den Aardweg,Hanneke Bruijnzeel

Publication date 17-06-2021


During the last 2 decades, new treatment methods have been developed for the surgical removal of second branchial cysts which result in less visible scars. The aim of this systematic review is to assess which surgical technique for second branchial arch cyst removal results in the lowest complication and recurrence rates with the highest scar satisfaction. Two authors systematically reviewed the literature in the Cochrane, Pub Med, and EMBASE databases (search date: 1975 to December 2nd, 2020) to identify studies comparing surgical outcomes of second branchial arch cyst removal. Authors appraised selected studies on directness of evidence and risk of bias. Results are reported according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Out of the 2442 retrieved articles, 4 articles were included in the current review including a total of 140 operated cysts. Only 2 studies included pre-operatively infected cysts. Follow up ranged from 3 to 24 months. Complication rates ranged from 0 to 27.3% (conventional: [0-10.4%]; endoscopic/retro-auricular: [0-27.3%]). None of the patients presented with postoperative recurrence. Significantly higher scar satisfaction was found in adult patients who underwent endoscopic or retro-auricular hairline incision cyst removal. No recurrence of disease occurred during (at least) 3 months of follow up using either conventional surgery or endoscopic/retro-auricular techniques. Although more (temporary) complications occur using endoscopic and retro-auricular techniques, patients report a significantly higher scar satisfaction 3 to 6 months after surgery in comparison to the conventional technique. Future studies are needed to support these findings.

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Extranodal Head and Neck Mantle Cell Lymphoma: Characteristics, Treatment, and Survival

Christopher T. Breen,Janet Chao,Saral Mehra,Nikita Kohli

Publication date 17-06-2021


To describe disease characteristics and treatment and to analyze survival and mortality for extranodal mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) of the head and neck. Patients with extranodal MCL-excluding primary sites in the salivary glands, eye, and adnexa-were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 Registries (2000-2015). Overall survival (OS) and cumulative incidence of MCL and non-MCL mortality were calculated. Factors associated with MCL and non-MCL mortality were analyzed with cause-specific hazard models. Five hundred nine patients met criteria for descriptive analysis and 294 patients met criteria for survival analysis, with a median follow-up of 58 months. The most common sites for MCL were the oropharynx (66.0%), nasopharynx (19.1%), and oral cavity (8.4%). The most common treatment received was chemotherapy alone (48.9%), followed by chemoradiation therapy (16.9%), and radiation therapy alone (10.4%). The proportion of cases diagnosed as early-stage disease ranged from 31% of sinonasal MCLs to 83% of laryngeal MCLs. At 5 years, OS was 63% (95% CI: 57%-69%). There was no significant difference in OS ( The oropharynx is the most common subsite of head and neck MCLs, followed by the nasopharynx. Primary head and neck MCLs appear to present at an earlier stage than MCLs of other regions. In particular, laryngeal and hypopharyngeal MCLs may present as stage I or II disease.

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Episodic versus Chronic Dizziness: An Analysis of Predictive Factors

Eric J. Formeister,Ricky Chae,Emily Wong,Whitney Chiao,Lauren Pasquesi,Jeffrey D. Sharon

Publication date 14-06-2021


To elucidate differences in demographic and clinical characteristics between patients with episodic and chronic dizziness. A cross-sectional, observational study of 217 adults referred for dizziness at 1 tertiary center was undertaken. Subjects were split into a chronic dizziness group (>15 dizzy days per month) and an episodic dizziness group (<15 dizzy days per month). 217 adults (average age, 53.7 years; 56.7% female) participated. One-third (n = 74) met criteria for chronic dizziness. Dizziness handicap inventory (DHI) scores were significantly higher in those with chronic dizziness compared to those with episodic dizziness (53.9 vs 40.7; Those who suffer from chronic dizziness have significantly higher DHI and high comorbid rates of depression and anxiety than those with episodic dizziness. Our findings show that factors other than diagnosis alone are important in the chronification of dizziness, an observation that could help improve on multimodal treatment options for this group of patients.

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Contour Map Point Distribution and Surgeon Experience Level Affect Accuracy of Surgical Navigation in a Pilot Study

Jason Talmadge,Zi Yang Jiang,Denna A. Zebda,William C. Yao,Amber U. Luong,Martin J. Citardi

Publication date 14-06-2021


Reliable use of surgical navigation depends upon the registration process. The gold standard is paired-point registration with bone-anchored fiducials, but contour-map registration is more practical. Surgeons may employ variable contour maps and less experienced team members often perform this critical step. The impact of these practices on target registration error (TRE) is not well-studied. A dry lab set-up consisting of a navigation system (Fusion ENT, Medtronic, Jacksonville, FL) and a sinus phantom with 2 mm radiopaque spheres in the sphenoid and ethmoid regions was developed. A CT (0.625 mm slice thickness) was obtained. Registration was performed with a contour-based protocol. Accuracy was determined using the software's distance measurement tool. Registration was performed with narrow-field (NF; forehead points medial to the mid-pupillary line) and wide field (WF; entire forehead) contour maps. An experienced rhinologist and a resident surgeon performed each registration in triplicate and TRE at the sphenoid and ethmoid markers was measured in triplicate. WF mapping had a lower TRE than NF (1.09 mm [95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.96-1.22] vs 1.68 mm [95% CI 1.50-1.86]). The experienced surgeon had a lower TRE compared to the resident (1.21 mm [95% CI 1.08-1.34] vs 1.54 mm [95% CI 1.35-1.74]). In this navigation model, wide field mapping offers better accuracy than narrow-field mapping, and an experienced surgeon seemed to achieve better accuracy than a resident surgeon. These observations have potential implications for the use of this technology in the operating room.

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Congenital Anomalies of the Ossicular Chain: Surgical and Audiological Outcomes

Sara E. Henkemans,Adriana L. Smit,Robert J. Stokroos,Hans G.X.M. Thomeer

Publication date 12-06-2021


In this study, we aim to analyze audiometric outcomes of middle ear surgery in patients with congenital middle ear anomalies. In this single center retrospective cohort study, audiological outcomes were extracted from patient files. Patients with a congenital middle ear anomaly treated surgically in a tertiary referral center between June 2015 and December 2020 were included. Pre- and postoperative short- and long-term audiometric data (at ≥3 and ≥10 months respectively) were compared to analyze hearing outcomes. Eighteen ears (15 patients) were treated surgically with an exploratory tympanotomy. At short term follow up statistically significant improvements in air conduction thresholds and air-bone gaps were found. Hearing improved in 94.4% (17/18) of operated ears. Successful outcome, defined as an air-bone gap closure to within 20 dB after surgery, was reached in 44.4% (8/18). Serviceable hearing (air conduction ≤30 dB) was reached in 55.6% (10/18). Negative outcome (any significant deterioration in hearing) occurred in 1 patient: in this ear otitis media occurred during the postoperative course. At long term follow up, available for 50% of the cohort, hearing remained stable in 5 ears, improved in 1 ear and deteriorated in 3, all of which underwent revision surgery. Sensorineural hearing loss due to surgery, or other complications, were not encountered. middle ear surgery was found to be an effective treatment option to improve hearing in this cohort of patients with congenital middle ear anomalies. Surgical goals of obtained gain in air conduction thresholds and serviceable hearing levels were met by most patients without the occurrence of any iatrogenic sensorineural hearing loss.

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Neck Dissection in Salvage Surgery for Larynx Cancer: National Cancer Database Review

Tirth R. Patel,Jaijeet Toor,Bobby A. Tajudeen,Mihir Bhayani,Samer Al-Khudari

Publication date 11-06-2021


Salvage laryngeal surgery is the preferred treatment after failure of non-surgical treatment of larynx cancer. This study aims to identify the impact of ND in salvage surgery on survival and factors predictive of nodal metastasis. The National Cancer Database was used to identify patients who received salvage laryngeal surgery. Demographics, disease characteristics, and survival were compared between the subgroups of patients stratified according to performance of ND and presence of nodal metastasis. Sixty-two percent of patients underwent ND. A total of 26% of patients undergoing ND had nodal metastasis. Younger age and lesser time since radiation were associated with nodal metastasis. While undergoing ND did not significantly affect survival, those with nodal metastasis had poorer survival ( Although ND did not show a survival benefit, younger patients and those who have had a shorter time elapsed between the start of radiation and salvage surgery may benefit from the prognostic data provided by ND. Nonetheless, the risks and benefits of elective ND in salvage larynx cancer treatment should be evaluated on an individual case basis as the data do not support a broadly applicable recommendation.

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Supporting Direct Breastfeeding in a Tracheostomy-Dependent Neonate: A Case Report

Kylen Van Osch,Kerry Hunter,M. Elise Graham

Publication date 10-06-2021


There are numerous well-described benefits to breastfeeding to both infant and mother. Even in healthy children with an uncomplicated perinatal course, there may be significant struggles maintaining a breastfeeding relationship. Infants with a complicated clinical course have been shown to benefit even more from the provision of breastmilk, however they are seldom encouraged to feed directly at the breast. There are no reports of successful direct breastfeeding in an infant with a tracheostomy. We present the case of a breastfeeding dyad including a trach-dependent infant with congenital idiopathic bilateral vocal fold immobility who successfully initiated and maintained an inclusive breastfeeding relationship. This case illustrates that successful direct breastfeeding can be achieved in an infant with a tracheostomy. If a patient is felt to be capable of oral feeding via bottle, there is no reason that there should not be a trial of direct feeding at the breast, for the benefit of both members of the breastfeeding dyad.

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Fabrication of 3D Models for Microtia Reconstruction Using Smartphone-Based Technology

Peng You,Yi-Chun Carol Liu,Rodrigo C. Silva

Publication date 10-06-2021


Microtia reconstruction is technically challenging due to the intricate contours of the ear. It is common practice to use a two-dimensional tracing of the patient's normal ear as a template for the reconstruction of the affected side. Recent advances in three-dimensional (3D) surface scanning and printing have expanded the ability to create surgical models preoperatively. This study aims to describe a simple and affordable process to fabricate patient-specific 3D ear models for use in the operating room. Applied basic research on a novel 3D optical scanning and fabrication pathway for microtia reconstruction. Tertiary care university hospital. Optical surface scanning of the patient's normal ear was completed using a smartphone with facial recognition capability. The Heges application used the phone's camera to capture the 3D image. The 3D model was digitally isolated and mirrored using the Meshmixer software and printed with a 3D printer (Monoprice The 3D model of the ear served as a helpful intraoperative reference and an adjunct to the traditional 2D template. Collectively, time for imaging acquisition, editing, and fabrication was approximately 3.5 hours. The upfront cost was around $210, and the recurring cost was approximately $0.35 per ear model. A novel, low-cost approach to fabricate customized 3D models of the ear is introduced. It is feasible to create individualized 3D models using currently available consumer technology. The low barrier to entry raises the possibility for clinicians to incorporate 3D printing into various clinical applications.

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Corrigendum to The Clinical Significance of IGF-1R and Relationship with Epstein-Barr Virus Markers: LMP1 and EBERs in Tunisian Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

Publication date 09-06-2021


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Selective Facial Muscle Activation with Acute and Chronic Multichannel Cuff Electrode Implantation in a Feline Model

Ronald Sahyouni,Khodayar Goshtasbi,Alessandro Presacco,Jack Birkenbeuel,Dillon Cheung,Arash Abiri,Michael H. Berger,Hamid R. Djalilian,Harrison W. Lin

Publication date 07-06-2021


Facial paralysis is a debilitating condition with substantial functional and psychological consequences. This feline-model study evaluates whether facial muscles can be selectively activated in acute and chronic implantation of 16-channel multichannel cuff electrodes (MCE). Two cats underwent acute terminal MCE implantation experiments, 2 underwent chronic MCE implantation in uninjured facial nerves (FN) and tested for 6 months, and 2 underwent chronic MCE implantation experiments after FN transection injury and tested for 3 months. The MCE were wrapped around the main trunk of the skeletonized FN, and data collection consisted of EMG thresholds, amplitudes, and selectivity of muscle activation. In acute experimentation, activation of specific channels (ie, channels 1-3 and 6-8) resulted in selective activation of Our proof-of-concept results show the ability of an MCE, supplemented with field steering, to provide a degree of selective facial muscle stimulation in a feline model, even following nerve regeneration after FN injury. N/A.

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Vocal Fold Cyst Formation after Photoangiolytic KTP Laser Treatment of Early Glottic Cancer

Kenneth Yan,Aaron D. Friedman

Publication date 05-06-2021


The incidence of post-operative glottic cyst (POGC) formation in patients treated with transoral laser microsurgery with potassium-titanyl-phosphate laser (TLM-KTP) photoablation of early glottic carcinoma (EGC) has not previously been described. A retrospective chart review was performed to identify all patients with early glottic cancer who underwent with single-modality TLM-KTP at our institution. Each patient received regular follow up with videostroboscopy for tumor surveillance. New glottic cysts seen on surveillance examinations were noted and their management was documented. A total of 33 patients met inclusion criteria. Eight patients (24%) developed POGC's within the original geographic perimeter of the cancerous vocal fold(s): 6 in the infraglottic region and 2 near the vocal process, at an average of 8 months after their initial cancer surgery. Of these 8 POGC's, 7 were at the periphery of the original tumor distribution and 1 was in the center of it. No POGC's were associated with any change in voice. Four of the 8 POGC's were phonosurgically excised, all without evidence of malignancy on pathology.
The remaining 4 were monitored: 2 were stable for an average of 49 months of follow up; the remaining 2 resolved spontaneously by 7 and 31 months after first identification. POGC's are a frequent sequela of TLM-KTP for EGC. While these results suggest that they are unlikely to represent submucosal recurrences, surgeons should have a low threshold to biopsy if there is clinical concern for such and should counsel patients pre-operatively about the potential for their formation.

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Understanding Dizzy Patients a Cross-Sectional Analysis of Attitudes toward Diagnosis, Providers, and Treatment

Whitney Chiao,Roseanne Krauter,Laura Kirk,Kristen Steenerson,Lauren Pasquesi,Jeffrey Sharon

Publication date 04-06-2021


To evaluate patients' attitudes regarding their dizziness, provider capabilities, and receptiveness toward treatment. Cross-sectional study. Tertiary care vestibular clinic. Ages 18 years or older, fluent in English, and who presented with a chief complaint of dizziness or vertigo. N/A. Non-validated questionnaire surveying patients' beliefs regarding the cause of their dizziness, likelihood of successful treatment, and openness to various treatment modalities. Patients were asked to complete an online non-validated survey regarding their dizziness prior to being evaluated in neurotology clinic. About 67 surveys were completed between January 2017 and September 2018. A majority of patients attributed their dizziness to their ears (n = 47, 70%), followed by the brain (n = 29, 43%). Most subjects chose "neither agree nor disagree" about whether their provider could identify the cause of their dizziness (27%). Most subjects also chose "neither agree nor disagree" that their dizziness would resolve with treatment (31%). These attitudes were not influenced by demographics, dizziness severity, anxiety, depression, or quality of life on multivariate ordinal regression modeling. Patients who experience dizziness have neutral attitudes with regards to believing that their provider will be able to identify the cause of their dizziness and whether their dizziness will resolve with treatment. These neutral attitudes are experienced by a plurality of patients and do not differ by demographic information, dizziness handicap, quality of life, depression, or anxiety.

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Post-Operative Dysphagia in Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion

Leonard Haller,Khush Mehul Kharidia,Caitlin Bertelsen,Jeffrey Wang,Karla O’Dell

Publication date 02-06-2021


We sought to identify risk factors associated with long-term dysphagia, characterize changes in dysphagia over time, and evaluate the incidence of otolaryngology referrals for patients with long-term dysphagia following anterior cervical discectomy with fusion (ACDF). About 56 patients who underwent ACDF between May 2017 to February 2019 were included in the study. All patients were assessed for dysphagia using the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) survey preoperatively and late postoperatively (≥1 year). Additionally, 28 patients were assessed for dysphagia early postoperatively (2 weeks-3 months). Demographic data, medical comorbidities, intraoperative details, and post-operative otolaryngology referral rates were collected from electronic medical records. Of the 56 patients enrolled, 21 patients (38%) had EAT-10 scores of 3 or more at long-term follow-up. None of the demographics, comorbidities, or surgical factors assessed were associated with long-term dysphagia. Patients who reported no long-term dysphagia had a mean EAT-10 score of 6.9 early postoperatively, while patients with long-term symptoms had a mean score of 18.1 ( Dysphagia is a notable side effect of ACDF surgery, but there are no significant demographics, comorbidities, or surgical risk factors that predict long-term dysphagia. Early postoperative characterization of dysphagia using the EAT-10 questionnaire can help predict long-term symptoms. There is inadequate screening and otolaryngology follow-up for patients with post-ACDF dysphagia.

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Thyroidectomy for Graves’ Disease Predicts Postoperative Neck Hematoma and Hypocalcemia: A North American cohort study

Sadaf Mohtashami,Keith Richardson,Veronique-Isabelle Forest,Alex Mlynarek,Richard J. Payne,Michael Tamilia,Marc P. Pusztaszeri,Michael P. Hier,Nader Sadeghi,Marco A. Mascarella

Publication date 01-06-2021


Examine the association of Graves' disease with the development of postoperative neck hematoma. A cohort of patients participating in the Thyroid Procedure-Targeted Database of the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program from January 1, 2016 to December 31, 2018. A North American surgical cohort study. 17 906 patients who underwent thyroidectomy were included. Propensity score matching was performed to adjust for differences in baseline covariates. Multivariate logistic regression was used to ascertain the association between thyroidectomy for Graves' disease and risk of postoperative adverse events within 30 days of surgery. The primary outcome was postoperative hematoma. Secondary outcomes were postoperative hypocalcemia and recurrent laryngeal nerve injury. One-to-three propensity score matching yielded 1207 patients with mean age (SD) of 42.6 (14.9) years and 1017 (84.3%) female in the group with Graves' disease and 3621 patients with mean age (SD) of 46.7 (15.0%) years and 2998 (82.8%) female in the group with indications other than Graves' disease for thyroidectomy. The cumulative 30-day incidence of postoperative hematoma was 3.1% (38/1207) in the Graves' disease group and 1.9% (70/3621) in other patients. The matched cohort showed that Graves' disease was associated with higher odds of postoperative hematoma (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.10-2.46) and hypocalcemia (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.66-2.50) compared with other indications for thyroid surgery. There was no difference in recurrent laryngeal nerve injury among the 2 groups. Patients with Graves' disease undergoing thyroidectomy are more likely to suffer from postoperative hematoma and hypocalcemia compared to patients undergoing surgery for other indications.

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Cervicofacial Actinomycosis in the Pediatric Population: Presentation and Management

Karan Gandhi,Benjamin D. van der Woerd,M. Elise Graham,Michelle Barton,Julie E. Strychowsky

Publication date 01-06-2021


Infection caused by Presented are 2 pediatric cases of secondary actinomycosis in the context of congenital lesions: 1 patient with a previously excised preauricular sinus and another with a persistent sublingual mass. A comprehensive literature search was conducted for reported cases of pediatric actinomycosis in the cervicofacial region. Both cases presented were successfully treated with a combination of complete surgical excision of the lesions and prolonged antibiotic therapy. Thirty-four pediatric cases of cervicofacial actinomycosis are reviewed, 2 presented herein, and 32 from the published literature. There was equal gender distribution and the median age was 7.5 years. The most common site for infection was the submandibular area. Four (12%) of cases arose in pre-existing congenital lesions. Most patients were treated with penicillin-based antibiotics for a median duration of 6 months following surgical excision or debridement. Actinomycosis is a rare infection of the cervicofacial region; secondary infections arising from congenital lesions of the head and neck are even more rare. A previously excised pre-auricular sinus and a sublingual dermoid cyst are not previously reported sites of infection. Actinomycosis should be suspected in chronically draining sinuses of the head and neck region and confirmed through anaerobic culture. Osteomyelitis is a potential complication and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is warranted. Long-term antibiotic therapy with a penicillin-based antibiotic and surgical excision should be considered.

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Oropharyngeal Carcinoma Treated with Surgery Alone: Outcomes and Predictors of Failure

Joshua D. Waltonen,Sydney G. Thomas,Gregory B. Russell,Christopher A. Sullivan

Publication date 31-05-2021


To analyze the oncologic outcomes and risk factors for recurrence in patients who underwent surgery for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), and in whom adjuvant therapy was not recommended or was declined. Retrospective cohort study of patients with OPSCC who were treated with transoral surgery only at a tertiary care academic medical center from April 2010 to March 2019. Seventy-four patients met inclusion criteria. In 16, adjuvant therapy was recommended but declined. There were 8 recurrences, of which 6 had been given recommendations for adjuvant therapy. Of the 8 recurrences, 2 died, 2 are alive with disease, and 4 were successfully salvaged. Five patients died of unrelated causes. Lymphovascular invasion (LVI, Patients who undergo surgery for HPV-positive OPSCC with negative margins, no PNI, no LVI, and ≤1 positive lymph node without ENE have low risk for recurrence. These patients can likely be safely treated with surgery alone. Patients with these risk factors who decline adjuvant therapy are at risk for recurrence, and should be monitored.

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Pembrolizumab Induced Acute Persistent Airway Disease in a Patient with Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (RRP)

Kathryn Marcus,Daniel J. Lee,Jeffrey S. Wilson,Richard J. H. Smith,Michael Puricelli

Publication date 31-05-2021


To present an uncommon but serious, recently identified complication of checkpoint inhibitor therapy in a patient treated with pembrolizumab infusion for disseminated recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP). Case report. A 43-year-old woman with underlying asthma developed acute hypoxic respiratory failure within 24 hours of her third infusion of pembrolizumab for treatment of intractable, disseminated recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Pulmonary function testing revealed a severe intra-thoracic obstructive ventilatory defect. Discontinuation of pembrolizumab, ventilatory support, and treatment with systemic and inhaled corticosteroids resulted in resolution of respiratory failure; however, her underlying asthma remains poorly controlled. To our knowledge, this case is the first report of pembrolizumab-induced obstructive respiratory failure in a patient being treated for RRP.

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Multi-Disciplinary Skull Base Conference and its Effects on Patient Management

Nathan Kemper,Scott B. Shapiro,Allie Mains,Noga Lipschitz,Joseph Breen,John Michael Hazenfield,Mario Zuccarello,Jonathan Forbes,Ravi N. Samy

Publication date 29-05-2021


Examine the effects of a multi-disciplinary skull base conference (MDSBC) on the management of patients seen for skull base pathology in a neurotology clinic. Retrospective case review of patients who were seen in a neurotology clinic at a tertiary academic medical center for pathology of the lateral skull base and were discussed at an MDSBC between July 2019 and February 2020. Patient characteristics, nature of the skull base pathology, and pre- and post-MDSBC plan of care was categorized. A total of 82 patients with pathology of the lateral skull base were discussed at a MDSBC during an 8-month study period. About 54 (65.9%) had a mass in the internal auditory canal and/or cerebellopontine angle while 28 (34.1%) had other pathology of the lateral skull base. Forty-nine (59.8%) were new patients and 33 (40.2%) were established. The management plan changed in 11 (13.4%, 7.4-22.6 95% CI) patients as a result of the skull base conference discussion. The planned management changed from some form of treatment to observation in 4 patients, and changed from observation to some form of treatment in 4 patients. For 3 patients who underwent surgery, the planned approach was altered. For a significant proportion of patients with pathology of the lateral skull base, the management plan changed as a result of discussion at an MDSBC. Although participants of a MDSBC would agree of its importance, it is unclear how an MDSBC affects patient outcomes.

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A Novel Approach for the Treatment of Sialolithiasis that Preserves Salivary Duct Anatomy

Gani Atilla Şengör,Ahmet Mert Bilgili

Publication date 29-05-2021


The sialendoscopy era in the treatment of salivary gland stones has reduced the use of classical surgical methods. However, the miniature ducts and tools may cause difficulties in removing large sialoliths. Therefore, invasive combined oral surgeries or gland resection may be considered. We searched for the most suitable method in order to stay in line with the minimally invasive approach that preserves the ductus anatomy, and that can reduce the surgical fears of patients. The study included 84 cases (23 parotid and 61 submandibular) in whom stones were fragmented by pneumatic lithotripsy and removed between January 2015 and January 2020. The parotid cases comprised 7 females and 16 males, and the submandibular cases comprised 25 females and 36 males. Intraductal lithotripsy was performed using pneumatic lithotripter. This study has fourth level of evidence. Based on total number of cases (n = 84), success rate was 67/84 (79.7%) immediately after sialendoscopy, and overall success rate was 77/84 (91.6%). Based on number of stones treated (n = 111), our immediate success rate was 94/111 (84.6%), and overall success rate was 104/111 (93.7%). The success criteria were complete removal of the stone and fragments in a single sialendoscopy procedure and resolution of symptoms. We successfully treated salivary gland stones, including L3b stones, in our patient cohort with sialendoscopy combined with pneumatic lithotripsy. The lithotripsy method that we have adapted seems to be more useful and cost-effective compared to its alternatives. We were also able to preserve the ductus anatomy and relieve patients' concerns.

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Microsurgical Management of Early Onset Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma of the Oral Tongue: Case Report and Review of the Literature

Jacob C. Lucas,Omar A. Karadaghy,Brian Andrews,Elizabeth Friedman,Kiran Kakarala,Wojciech Przylecki,Jill Arganbright

Publication date 28-05-2021


Alveolar soft part sarcoma is a rare subset of soft tissue sarcomas, typically presenting in subjects 15 to 35 years of age. Usual presentation sites are the trunk, extremities, and the head and neck. Subjects younger than 5 years are rarely affected. In this retrospective case report, we present a 16-month old male with a rapidly growing soft tissue mass of the anterior and posterior tongue, found to be alveolar soft part sarcoma. The subject was treated with primary surgical resection and the resulting defect was reconstructed with a radial forearm free flap. To our knowledge, this is the youngest subject to have been diagnosed with alveolar soft part sarcoma. Surgical extirpation and microvascular reconstruction were successful, and the patient remains disease free 4 years post-operatively.

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Adult Onset Bilateral Cochlear Nerve Atrophy and Cochlear Implantation: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

Lucas Leonhard,Kathryn Brewer,Joseph Roche

Publication date 27-05-2021


To describe a case of idiopathic bilateral cochlear nerve atrophy acquired in adulthood. A 75-year-old male with acquired bilateral cochlear nerve atrophy. Unilateral cochlear implantation. Description of a patient with acquired bilateral cochlear nerve atrophy diagnosed at the age of 75. The patient had normal hearing and no communication deficits until the age of 66. At this point, the patient demonstrated a slight asymmetric hearing loss, which progressed to severe sensorineural hearing loss. Due to the resulting communication deficit, cochlear device implantation candidacy was pursued. Pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed severe atrophy versus absence of the cochlear nerves bilaterally. After careful counseling regarding the expected communication outcomes given the MRI findings, the patient underwent left-sided cochlear implantation. The patient gained sound awareness, but no additional communication benefit compared to pre-operative baseline abilities. Cochlear nerve deficiency is a known finding in certain cases of congenital and acquired hearing loss, but no cases of idiopathic adult-onset bilateral nerve atrophy have been reported. Without MR imaging, the clinically significant finding would not have been identified. Thus, MRI is advantageous when compared with other imaging modalities in patients with progressive sensorineural hearing loss and enables improved patient counseling regarding expected auditory and communication outcomes.

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Depression and Intolerance of Uncertainty: Association with Decisional Conflict in Otolaryngology Patients

Chelsea Cleveland,Maxwell Newby,Shari Steinman,Tyler Wanstreet,Sarah Callaham,Reena Razdan,Steven Coutras,Rusha Patel,Michele M. Carr

Publication date 27-05-2021


To determine if anxiety, stress, depression, worry, and intolerance of uncertainty were related to pre-operative decisional conflict (DC), shared decision making (SDM), or demographic variables in adult otolaryngology surgical patients. Consecutive adult patients meeting criteria for otolaryngological surgery were recruited and completed DC and SDM scales, Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ), Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS-12), and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). The cohort included 118 patients, 61 (51.7%) males and 57 (48.3%) females. Surgery was planned for a benign process in 90 (76.3%) and 46 (39.3%) had previous otolaryngologic surgery. SDM and DC scores did not significantly differ across gender, age, education level, previous otolaryngologic surgery or whether or not surgery was for malignancy. Patients with no malignancy had significantly higher DASS-21 Stress scores (mean 12.94 vs 8.15, Preoperative decisional conflict is associated with increased depression and intolerance of uncertainty in adults undergoing otolaryngologic surgery. Screening for and management of depression, anxiety, and related concerns may improve surgical outcomes in this group.

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Metabolomic Expression of Laryngeal and Hindlimb Muscles in Adult versus Senescent Rats

Adrianna C. Shembel,Yik Siu,Tenzin Lhakhang,Leonard Ash,Drew Jones,Aaron M. Johnson

Publication date 27-05-2021


(1) Determine the feasibility of obtaining a global, unbiased metabolomic profile on laryngeal muscle in a rat model; (2) evaluate the impact of biological aging on the laryngeal metabolome; and (3) characterize biochemical expression differences between aged and non-aged laryngeal and hindlimb muscle. Thyroarytenoid laryngeal muscle and plantaris hindlimb muscle were harvested from 5 young adult (9 months old) and 5 older adult (32 months old) F344BN rats. Tissue was processed and analyzed using LC-MS methods. Detected metabolites were compared to widely used metabolite databases and KEGG pathway enrichment was performed on significant metabolites. The greatest differences in metabolite expression were between laryngeal and limb muscle with 126 different metabolites found between laryngeal and limb within the young group and 149 different metabolites within the old group. Significant hits between muscle groups highlighted amino acid differences between these tissues. There were more robust differences with age in limb muscle compared to laryngeal muscle. Amino acid metabolism is a key difference between muscles of the limbs and larynx. Due to the number of differentially expressed metabolites between the 2 muscle groups, caution should be exercised when applying skeletal limb muscle physiology and biology concepts to the vocal muscles in both aged and non-aged musculoskeletal systems. Mechanisms underlying less robust effects of age on laryngeal muscle compared to limb muscle require elucidation.

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Analysis of Gabapentin’s Efficacy in Tinnitus Treatment: A Systematic Review

Matheus Pedrosa Tavares,Fayez Bahmad

Publication date 26-05-2021


Tinnitus can be a chronic symptom that brings disability and distress. Some studies suggested that gabapentin might be effective on tinnitus relief. The objective of the study is to perform a systematic review in order to evaluate the efficacy of oral gabapentin in patients with tinnitus. A literature search was conducted in English and following the recommendations from PRISMA.
The terms used were: ("tinnitus" OR "subjective tinnitus") AND ("gabapentin"). The study selection was performed following the eligibility criteria in accordance to the PICOS (population, intervention, comparison, outcome, study design) strategy-patients with tinnitus; oral gabapentin; placebo; reduction of tinnitus severity questionnaires scores; prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial, respectively. The selected studies were included in qualitative synthesis. The studies were analyzed according to Joanna Briggs Institute's critical appraisal checklist for randomized controlled trials. One hundred twenty-one studies were found in 9 databases and 8 studies were found in gray literature. After study selection, 6 articles were read in full. Then, 2 studies were excluded and 4 were included in qualitative synthesis. All 4 articles were analyzed according to critical evaluation checklist. There is insufficient evidence to recommend the use of gabapentin for patients with tinnitus.

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Pediatric Single-Sided Deafness: A Review of Prevalence, Radiologic Findings, and Cochlear Implant Candidacy

Nicholas A. Dewyer,Sullivan Smith,Barbara Herrmann,Katherine L. Reinshagen,Daniel J. Lee

Publication date 26-05-2021


To characterize the prevalence, imaging characteristics, and cochlear implant candidacy of pediatric patients with single-sided deafness (SSD). An audiometric database of patients evaluated at a large tertiary academic medical center was retrospectively queried to identify pediatric patients (<18 years old) with SSD, defined as severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss in one ear and normal hearing in the other. Medical records of identified patients were reviewed to characterize the prevalence, etiology, and cochlear implant candidacy of pediatric patients with SSD. We reviewed audiometric data obtained from 1993 to 2018 for 52,878 children at our institution. 191 (0.36%) had the diagnosis of SSD. Cochlear nerve deficiency (either hypoplasia or aplasia) diagnosed on MRI and/or CT was the most common etiology of SSD and was present in 22 of 88 (25%) pediatric SSD patients with available imaging data. 70 of 106 (66%) pediatric SSD patients with available imaging had anatomy amenable to cochlear implantation. Pediatric SSD is a rare condition and the most common etiology based on radiology is cochlear nerve deficiency. High resolution imaging of the temporal bone is essential to determine cochlear nerve morphology prior to consideration of cochlear implantation.

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The Clinical Value of Periventricular White Matter Hyperintensity on MRI in Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

Jung Woo Lee,Deoksu Kim,Seokhwan Lee,Sung-Won Choi,Soo-Keun Kong,Lee Hwangbo,Jae Il Lee,Se-Joon Oh

Publication date 25-05-2021


To assess the clinical value of periventricular white matter hyperintensity (PWMH) found on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). In this prospective study, 115 patients who were diagnosed with SSNHL aged between 55 and 75 years were analyzed. All subjects underwent brain MRI and were divided into a PWMH and control groups, depending on the presence of PWMH on MRI. PWMH was subdivided into 3 groups according to severity. Pure-tone average results and hearing gain were compared between the 2 groups before treatment and 2 months after treatment. Hearing improvement was assessed using Sigel's criteria. A total of 106 patients (43 in the PWMH group and 63 in the control group) finally completed the 2-month follow-up. Average hearing gain in the PWMH group was significantly higher than in the control group (34.8 ± 20.3 and 25.9 ± 20.3, respectively, The presence of PWMH score 1 on brain MRI in patients with SSNHL was associated with better treatment response and was a good prognostic factor in a multivariate analysis while the hearing recovery in more severe PWMH (scores 2, 3) was not different from the control group.

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Preoperative Psychological Burdens in Patients with Vestibular Schwannoma

Yufeng Li,Guo Ran,Kaizheng Chen,Xia Shen

Publication date 25-05-2021


To assess preoperative psychological burden in patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS). A total of 100 patients undergoing VS resection between September 2019 and June 2020 completed preoperative psychological screening. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was applied the day before surgery, and a score >14 was considered clinically important. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyzes were used to identify risk factors associated with increased preoperative psychological stress. Of the 100 patients who underwent VS resection, 44% were male, with a mean age of 45.9 years. Twenty-two (22%) had HADS scores >14. For the univariate analysis, risk factors associated with elevated psychological burden included time since diagnosis, number of symptoms, headache, vertigo, and nausea and/or vomiting. In the regression analysis, the number of symptoms and greater time from diagnosis to treatment correlated with higher preoperative psychological stress. Nearly 1 in 4 patients with VS experienced clinically significant emotional burden preoperatively. Number of symptoms and greater time from diagnosis to treatment contributed to this psychological burden.

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Airway Management in Substernal Goiter Surgery

Kendall K. Tasche,Ashley M. Dorneden,William M. Swift,Nathan H. Boyd,David C. Shonka,Nitin A. Pagedar

Publication date 25-05-2021


To review the experience of 3 hospitals with airway management during surgery for substernal goiter and identify preoperative factors that predict the need for advanced airway management techniques. A retrospective chart review between 2009 and 2017 of patients with substernal goiter treated surgically at 1 of 3 hospitals was performed. Of the 179 patients included in the study, 114 (63.7%) were female, the mean age was 55.1 years (range 20-87). Direct laryngoscopy or videolaryngoscopy was successful in 162 patients (90.5%), with fiberoptic intubation used for the remaining 17 patients. Thirty-one patients (17.4%) required >1 intubation attempt; these patients had larger thyroids (201.3 g, 95% CI 155.3-247.2 g) than those intubated with 1 attempt (144.7 g, 95% CI 127.4-161.9 g, The majority of patients undergoing surgery for substernal goiter can be intubated routinely without the need for fiberoptic intubation. Thyroid-specific factors such as lowest thyroid extent and mass effect of the gland on the trachea do not appear to be associated with difficult intubation, whereas classic patient factors associated with difficulty intubation are. VI.

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Novel Use of the Buccal Fat Pad for Sinocutaneous Fistulae Closure and a Review of Reconstructive Options

Christopher Pool,Neerav Goyal,Jessyka G. Lighthall

Publication date 25-05-2021


Sinocutaneous fistulae (SCF) are abnormal communications between the paranasal sinuses and the overlying skin. They may be difficult to manage due to facial geometry, scar contraction, and poor tissue vascularity. We describe a novel use of the buccal flap and review the literature to examine management options for this disease process. A Pub Med/MEDLINE literature search was performed for studies published between January 1, 1950 and April 29, 2020 that describe management strategies for SCF. The clinical record, imaging, and operative reports were reviewed of the case in which the buccal fat flap was used in reconstruction. A total of 359 articles were retrieved. After removing duplicate articles, non-English studies, animal studies, duplicate articles and studies that mentioned SCF without specific mention of management strategies, 51 articles were reviewed. Management paradigms throughout the articles include (1) removal of infection, (2) ensuring patency of sinus outflow tracts, (3) tensionless multilayered closure using well vascularized tissue, and (4) prevention or minimization of future risk factors for fistula formation. This article informs surgeons on reconstructive options for sinocutaneous fistulae including a novel description of the buccal fat flap.

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Analysis of Droplet Splatter Patterns During Coblation Tonsil Surgery in the Covid-19 Pandemic

Grace C. Khong,Jaya Bhat,Ravi S. Sharma,Samuel C. Leong

Publication date 22-05-2021


To assess droplet splatter around the surgical field and surgeon during simulated Coblation tonsil surgery to better inform on mitigation strategies and evaluate choice of personal protective equipment. This was an observational study performed using a life-size head model to simulate tonsil surgery and fluorescein-soaked strawberries to mimic tonsils. The Coblation wand was activated over the strawberries for 5 minutes. This was repeated 5 times with 2 surgeons (totalling 10 data sets).
The presence of droplet around the surgical field and anatomical subsites on the surgeon was assessed in binary fashion: present or not present. The results were collated as frequency of droplet detection and illustrated as a heatmap; 0 = white, 1-2 = yellow, 3-4 = orange, and 5 = red. Fluorescein droplets were detected in all 4 quadrants of the surgical field. The frequency of splatter was greatest in the upper (nearest to surgeon) and lower quadrants. There were detectable splatter droplets on the surgeon; most frequently occurring on the hands followed by the forearm. Droplets were also detected on the visor, neck, and chest albeit less frequently. However, none were detected on the upper arms. Droplet splatter can be detected in the immediate surgical field as well as on the surgeon. Although wearing a face visor does not prevent splatter on the surgical mask or around the eyes, it should be considered when undertaking tonsil surgery as well as a properly fitted goggle. 5.

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Outpatient Parotidectomy, a Safety and Financial Review

Maxwell Scher,Claudia I. Cabrera,Yida Cai,Akina Tamaki,Shawn Li,Nicole Fowler,Rod Rezaee,Pierre Lavertu,Theodoros Teknos,Jason Thuener

Publication date 13-05-2021


The objective of this study is to investigate the safety, efficacy, and potential cost-savings of the outpatient parotidectomy procedure. This is a retrospective chart review of all patients who underwent a parotidectomy at a large academic center from 2015 through 2019 including demographic data, postoperative complications, drain placement, readmission, and financial cost. A comparison was performed between patients who underwent an outpatient vs inpatient parotidectomy. A total of 335 patients underwent parotidectomy (136 outpatient; 199 inpatient). Comparison of patient demographics, common comorbidities, tumor size, tumor type, postoperative complications, and readmission rate was similar between the inpatient and outpatient cohorts. The overall mean cost difference between inpatient parotidectomy and outpatient parotidectomy for all years was $1528.58 (95%CI: $1139-$1916). The outpatient parotidectomy procedure has a comparable safety profile to the inpatient procedure while providing a significant cost-savings benefit.

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Peritonsillar Abscess Size as a Predictor of Medical Therapy Success

Matthew J. Urban,Jamie Masliah,Cameron Heyd,Tirth R. Patel,Thomas Nielsen

Publication date 13-05-2021


To evaluate the success of sole medical therapy (MT) versus surgical therapy (ST) in patients with both clinically and radiographically confirmed peritonsillar abscess (PTA). To also determine treatment safety based on abscess size, and identify predictors of treatment failure. This was a retrospective cohort of 3 hospitals in a single academic health system. A total of 214 immunocompetent patients diagnosed with uncomplicated PTA underwent a contrasted CT scan of the neck. About 87 patients were treated with sole MT (intravenous antibiotics and steroids), and 127 patients were treated with ST (MT plus drainage). Treatment failure occurred in 8.0% of the MT group and 7.9% of the ST group ( Frequency of treatment failure was not significantly different among patients receiving MT and ST. Abscesses ≥2 cm in size were more likely to fail in both groups and ST was not statistically superior. Sole MT for uncomplicated PTA may help reduce unnecessary procedures and healthcare costs.

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Impact of Patient Socioeconomic Disparities on Time to Tympanostomy Tube Placement

Jennifer L. McCoy,Ronak Dixit,R. Jun Lin,Michael A. Belsky,Amber D. Shaffer,David Chi,Noel Jabbour

Publication date 12-05-2021


Extensive literature exists documenting disparities in access to healthcare for patients with lower socioeconomic status (SES). The objective of this study was to examine access disparities and differences in surgical wait times in children with the most common pediatric otolaryngologic surgery, tympanostomy tubes (TT). A retrospective cohort study was performed at a tertiary children's hospital. Children ages <18 years who received a first set of tympanostomy tubes during 2015 were studied. Patient demographics and markers of SES including zip code, health insurance type, and appointment no-shows were recorded. Clinical measures included risk factors, symptoms, and age at presentation and first TT. A total of 969 patients were included. Average age at surgery was 2.11 years. Almost 90% were white and 67.5% had private insurance. Patients with public insurance, ≥1 no-show appointment, and who lived in zip codes with the median income below the United States median had a longer period from otologic consult and preoperative clinic to TT, but no differences were seen in race. Those with public insurance had their surgery at an older age than those with private insurance ( Lower SES is associated with chronic otitis media with effusion and a longer wait time from otologic consult and preoperative clinic to TT placement. By being transparent in socioeconomic disparities, we can begin to expose systemic problems and move forward with interventions. 4.

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Virtual Resident Mentorship Groups for Fourth Year Medical Students Applying into Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery

Janice L. Farlow,Jenna Devare,Susan E. Ellsperman,Catherine T. Haring,Molly E. Heft Neal,Terrence Pleasant,Katie K. Spielbauer,Michael J. Sylvester,Yanjun Xie,Emily J. Marchiano

Publication date 12-05-2021


To create a longitudinal near-peer mentorship program for medical students applying to otolaryngology. A program for longitudinal near-peer mentorship was designed based on a needs analysis of senior medical students. Program objectives were to (1) provide didactic education on common otolaryngology consults, (2) facilitate resident-student networking, and (3) enable applicants to meet other students. Senior otolaryngology residents were matched with medical students from across the United States applying to otolaryngology for a series of online small group meetings. Sessions included resident-designed didactics covering high-yield clinical scenarios and a mentorship component focused on transition to residency topics. Program evaluation included anonymized pre- and post-tests for each didactic session and an anonymous post-program participant survey. There were 40 student participants from across the United States, with an average attendance of 73% of sessions per participant. Performance on didactic testing improved for 2 of the 3 sessions. Participants stated they would be very likely to recommend each session to another student in the future (4.96/5.00, obs = 155). Participants stated the most valuable part of the program was interacting with residents (82% of responses), transition to residency advice (28%), and learning about otolaryngology consults (28%). Suggestions for improvement included expanding content, increasing the number of sessions, and involving additional faculty and residents. A longitudinal virtual experience can be valuable for near-peer mentorship for medical students applying to otolaryngology.

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The Impact of Medical Comorbidities on Patient Satisfaction in Chronic Rhinosinusitis

Amarbir S. Gill,Joshua Hwang,Angela M. Beliveau,Jeremiah A. Alt,Edward Bradley Strong,Machelle D. Wilson,Toby O. Steele

Publication date 12-05-2021


Patient satisfaction has a significant bearing on medical therapy compliance and patient outcomes. The purpose of this study was to (1) describe patient satisfaction, as characterized by the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire-18 (PSQ-18), in the care of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and (2) analyze the impact of comorbidities on satisfaction using the functional comorbidity index (FCI). Patient demographics, disease severity measures, and PSQ-18 scores for patients with CRS presenting to a tertiary rhinology clinic between November 2019 and April 2020 were collected and analyzed. FCI was calculated retrospectively using the electronic medical record; individual comorbidities were tabulated. Spearman's correlations followed by multivariate regression was used to assess the relationship between medical comorbidities and PSQ-18. Sixty-nine patients met criteria for analysis. There were no significant differences in age, gender, and Sinonasal Outcomes Test-22 scores between CRS patients with (CRSwNP) and without (CRSsNP) nasal polyps. There was no significant difference in the mean FCI for patients with CRSwNP versus CRSsNP (5.1 and 4.3, respectively) ( Patient satisfaction in the care of CRS is generally high with a diagnosis of comorbid hearing impairment demonstrating a negative association with satisfaction in this cohort.

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Does Prematurity Play a Role in Newborn Microtia-Anotia?

Jennifer N. Shehan,David O’Neil Danis,Ashank Bains,Andrew R. Scott,Jessica R. Levi

Publication date 12-05-2021


Microtia-anotia (MA) describes a range of external ear anomalies which is commonly associated with various syndromes and malformations of the head and neck. Previous studies have suggested a strong association between MA and male sex, maternal diabetes, and Hispanic race/ethnicity. This study seeks to evaluate the associations between MA and preterm newborns in the United States. Population-based inpatient registry analysis was conducted. Kids' Inpatient Database (2016) was used to identify weighted in-hospital births with diagnosis of prematurity or MA. Demographic information was obtained, and odds ratios (ORs) were used to determine associations between prematurity and MA. Among patients included in our dataset, 8.655% (326 285) were preterm and 0.016% (523) had MA. 0.003% (109) of patients were preterm and had MA. Preterm infants had 2.19 times the odds (95% C.
I. = 1.78-2.69) of having MA when compared to the full-term population. The binary logistic regression model accounting for possible confounding variables produced an aOR of 1.48 (95% C.
I. = 1.17-1.87) for the association between prematurity and MA. Infants who are born preterm are more likely to have MA than full term infants. The current results will allow for improved risk stratification, maternal counseling, and interventions in the case of prematurity.

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Auricular Perichondrium Graft for Septal Perforation Repair

Stephen F. Bansberg,Cullen M. Taylor,Gregory S. Neel

Publication date 11-05-2021


Procedures which utilize bilateral mucosal flaps with an interposition graft are frequently used when attempting closure of a septal perforation. Concurrent surgical management of the nasal valve or an aesthetic deformity may be indicated. The objective of this study is to report our experience using auricular perichondrium for the interposition graft when auricular cartilage is harvested for structural or aesthetic graft material. A retrospective medical record review was performed for septal perforation repairs performed at Mayo Clinic in Arizona from January 2010 through January 2020. Patients identified for this study underwent a procedure utilizing bilateral nasal mucosal flaps with an auricular perichondrium interposition graft. Forty-four patients (31 females) with a mean age of 53.3 years met study criteria. The most common presenting symptoms were nasal obstruction, crusting, and epistaxis. Prior septal surgery was the most common perforation etiology (45.5%). Mean perforation length was 11.8 (range, 3-26) mm and height, 9.1 (range, 2-16) mm. Auricular cartilage was harvested for nasal valve surgery in 43 patients. Complete perforation closure was noted in 95.3% (41/43) of patients with a minimum post-operative follow-up of 3 (mean, 20.4) months. Four patients underwent revision surgery for persistent postoperative nasal obstruction. The ear can provide both cartilage and perichondrium for use in septal perforation surgery. Our study demonstrates the successful use of auricular perichondrium as the interposition graft for a perforation closure procedure utilizing bilateral nasal mucosal flaps.

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Pediatric Head and Neck Tumors Associated with Li-Fraumeni Syndrome

Kenny D. Rodriguez,Kami Wolfe Schneider,Alexandra Suttman,Timothy Garrington,Tennyson Jellins,Kaitlyn Tholen,Christian R. Francom,Brian W. Herrmann

Publication date 11-05-2021


Cancer predisposition syndromes are germline pathogenic variants in genes that greatly raise the risk of developing neoplastic diseases. One of the most well-known is Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), which is due to pathogenic variants in the To examine head and neck manifestations of LFS in children treated at a tertiary children's hospital over a 20-year period. A retrospective review of LFS children with neoplastic disease presenting in traditional Otolaryngologic head and neck subsites from 2000 to 2019, with patient charts reviewed for relevant clinical, imaging, and operative data. Of the 40 LFS patients initially identified, 27 neoplastic tumors were identified in 20 children within this cohort (20 primary, 7 second primary). Head and neck subsites aside from the brain or orbit were involved in 22% (6/27) of these tumors, representing 20% (4/20) of primary tumors and 29% (2/7) of second primary tumors. Both second primaries within the head and neck were within the radiation fields of the first primary tumor. The mean ages at primary and second primary diagnosis were 4.6 years (SD 3.5) and 12 years (SD 1.4), respectively. The male/female ratio was 1:6 among all patients with head and neck tumors. All 6 head and neck tumors were sarcomas. Rhabdomyosarcoma ( This study identifies a high potential for head and neck involvement in children with LFS, which has not been previously described in the literature. Otolaryngological care should be included in a multidisciplinary care team surveilling these patients.

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Educational Value of Endoscopic Versus Microscopic Ear Surgery

Alexander Chern,Rahul K. Sharma,Sarah E. Maurrasse,Madeleine A. Drusin,Adam J. Ciarleglio,Justin S. Golub

Publication date 07-05-2021


To compare the educational value of endoscopic ear surgery versus microscopic ear surgery among medical students. Medical students anonymously completed a cross-sectional survey immediately after observing endoscopic or microscopic ear surgery. A Likert scale (1 = worst, 5 = best) was used to analyze variables across 3 domains including: (1) area of interest visibility, (2) optical quality, (3) education and understanding. The Mann-Whitney Forty-four surveys were analyzed (20 endoscopic and 24 microscopic ear surgeries). Across domains, the endoscope was superior to the microscope (adjusted Among medical students, endoscopic ear surgery was superior to microscopic ear surgery for several visual quality indicators and perceived educational benefit. These findings have implications for medical student education and surgical training.

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Surgery with Post-Operative Endoscopy Improves Recurrence Detection in Sinonasal Malignancies

Gurston Gordon Nyquist,Prachi N. Patel,Swar Vimawala,Chandala Chitguppi,Tawfiq Khoury,Joseph M. Curry,Adam Luginbuhl,Mindy R. Rabinowitz,Marc R. Rosen

Publication date 06-05-2021


The mainstay of treatment in sinonasal malignancy (SNM) is surgery, and when combined with chemoradiation therapy, often leads to the best overall prognosis. Nasal endoscopy is essential for post-treatment surveillance along with physical exam and radiologic evaluation. The ability to directly visualize the sinus cavities after surgery may also improve early detection of tumor recurrence and is another reason to potentially advocate for surgery in these patients. A retrospective chart review of medical records of patients with pathologically proven SNM was conducted from 2005 to 2019. The nasal cavity and maxillary sinus were the most common primary tumor sub-sites. The most common pathology was squamous cell carcinoma (42%). The median time to recurrence was 9.8 months. Recurrence was initially detected endoscopically in 34.3% patients, by imaging in 62.7% patients, and by physical exam in 3.0% patients. 67 (29%) total recurrences were detected on follow-up, of which 46 (68.7%) were local. Twenty-three of the local recurrences were identified via nasal endoscopy. Thirteen recurrences were identified via endoscopic surveillance within the surgically patent paranasal sinuses while 13 were identified within the nasal cavity; 5 patients had multiple sites of recurrence. Local recurrence of SNM is the most common site for recurrent disease and nasal endoscopy identified half of these cases. 50% of these recurrences were within the paranasal sinuses and would not have been easily identified if the sinuses were not open for inspection. Thus, open sinus cavities aid in the detection of tumor recurrence and is another advantage of surgery in the management of SNM.

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Vocal Fold Injection Augmentation for Post-Airway Reconstruction Dysphonia: A Case Series

Mathieu Bergeron,John Paul Giliberto,Meredith E. Tabangin,Alessandro de Alarcon

Publication date 05-05-2021


Post airway reconstruction dysphonia (PARD) is common and has a significant effect on the quality of life of patients. Vocal fold injection augmentation (VFIA) is one treatment that can be used to improve glottic insufficiency in some patients. The goal of this study was to characterize the use and outcomes of VFIA for PARD. Retrospective chart review from January 2007 to July 2018 at a tertiary pediatric care center. Consecutive patients with PARD who underwent VFIA, who had a preoperative voice evaluation and a follow-up evaluation within 3 months after VFIA (fat, carboxymethylcellulose gel, hyaluronic acid). Thirty-four patients (20 female) underwent VFIA. The mean age at the time of the injection was 13.6 years (SD 6.1). Twenty patients (58.8%) had a history of prematurity and a mean of 1.8 open airway surgeries. After injection, 29/34 patients (85.3%) noted a subjective voice improvement. The baseline Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE-V) overall severity score decreased by a mean of 5.7 (SD = 19.6) points, Patients with PARD represent a complex subset of patients. VFIA is a straightforward intervention that may improve voice perception. Many patients reported subjective improvement despite minimal objective measurement. Further work is warranted to elucidate the role of injection in management of PARD.

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Distinct Histopathologic Features of Complicated Sinusitis

Hannah J. Brown,Ashwin Ganti,Paolo Gattuso,Peter Papagiannopoulos,Bobby A. Tajudeen

Publication date 03-05-2021


Sinusitis complicated by intracranial or orbital extension can be life-threatening and require emergent intervention. Histologic features of complicated sinusitis have yet to be determined and may have significant implications for understanding pathophysiology. A structured histopathology report was utilized to analyze sinus tissue extracted during functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). A total of 13 histopathology variables were compared between patients with complicated sinusitis (CS), CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP), and CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). About 24 CS, 149 uncomplicated CRSsNP, and 191 uncomplicated CRSwNP patients were analyzed. Nasal tissue from CS and CRSwNP patients demonstrated similar levels of overall inflammation (66.7% vs. 69.6% with moderate/severe inflammation, Significant histopathological differences were evident in patients with CS, CRSsNP, and CRSwNP. CS patients did not perfectly fit either a CRSsNP or CRSwNP profile, underscoring the importance of delineating the histopathological features of CS. This study offers insight into the histologic aspects of CS, providing initial evidence that it is an aggressive neutrophilic inflammatory process.

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Transoral Laser-Assisted Diverticulectomy: Swallow Study Results after Complete Endoscopic Pouch Excision for Zenker’s Diverticulum

Ryan A. McMillan,Andrew J. Bowen,Michael L. Wells,Dale C. Ekbom

Publication date 30-04-2021


Transoral endoscopic laser-assisted diverticulotomy (TELD) with diverticulectomy and diverticuloplasty (TELD + DD) for the management of Zenker's diverticulum (ZD) has been utilized by our institution since 2016 in attempts to reduce residual pouch size. This technique involves complete endoscopic pouch excision with partial advancement of mucosal flaps. Our study compares the subjective outcomes, objective outcomes, and complication rates between TELD and TELD + DD. A retrospective cohort study was performed on patients who underwent TELD or TELD + DD by a single surgeon at a tertiary academic center (2013-2019). Videofluoroscopic swallow studies (VFSS) with esophagram, Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10), Reflux Symptom Index (RSI), and Functional Outcome Swallowing Scale (FOSS) were collected at preoperative and 3 month follow-up visits. A single blinded reviewer recorded height, width, and depth of pre and postoperative pouches with volumetric analysis performed assuming an ellipsoid shape. Comorbidities, complications, postoperative course, and recurrence were recorded. Of the 75 patients that met criteria, 27 underwent TELD + DD and 48 underwent TELD. Eighteen TELD + DD and 37 TELD had both pre and post-operative VFSS. TELD + DD and TELD had a 96 ± 7% and 87 ± 16% reduction in pouch volume, respectively ( Use of TELD + DD is associated with a statistically significantly decreased residual pouch size with no significant difference in short-term subjective outcomes. Complication rates and short-term recurrence rates are comparable. Long-term recurrence rates will require further studies to characterize. Level 3.

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Predicting Gag, Discomfort, and Laryngeal Visualization in Patients Undergoing Flexible Laryngoscopy with Stroboscopy

Patrick Kiessling,Semirra Bayan,Christine Lohse,Diana Orbelo

Publication date 23-04-2021


To investigate potential associations between the Predictive Gagging Survey (PGS) with patient experience of gag and discomfort as well as provider perception of patient gag and level of laryngeal visualization during flexible laryngoscopy with stroboscopy (FL-S). A total of 53 adult patients undergoing FL-S were recruited for this prospective non-controlled study. PGS was completed before FL-S. Patients rated perceived level of gag and discomfort on a 10-point severity scale after FL-S. Additionally, providers completed a Gagging Severity Index (GSI) reflecting their impression of patient gag and level of laryngeal visualization following FL-S. Spearman rank correlation coefficients were used to assess associations. There was a positive association with PGS score and patient perception of gagging (0.34; While not predictive of GSI or level of laryngeal visualization, the PGS was found to be a useful tool in predicting patient experience of gagging and discomfort during FL-S, further reinforcing the subjective experience of this procedure. Use of the PGS may be helpful in identifying specific candidates who may struggle with subjective discomfort or gagging during FL-S for future studies considering interventions to manage and meaningfully decrease discomfort. Having such an instrument is important given the low number of individuals who struggle with discomfort during the exam.

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Otolaryngologists’ Attitudes toward In-Office Pediatric Tympanostomy Tube Placement without General Anesthesia

Sam D. Schild,Richard M. Rosenfeld

Publication date 23-04-2021


Our objectives were to assess attitudes regarding office-based insertion of tympanostomy tubes without general anesthesia, to identify barriers that would discourage in-office procedures, and to highlight opportunities that would potentially facilitate this approach in the future. Cross-sectional survey administered to members of the American Society of Pediatric Otolaryngology (ASPO) from March to April 2020 using the Research Electronic Data Capture (Redcap), internet-based data capture platform. The brief, 10-item survey required 3 minutes to complete and used a 5-point Likert scale for primary questions. Respondents included 172 fellowship trained, pediatric otolaryngologists with 14 median years of clinical practice and 25 median tympanostomy tube insertions per month (75% >40 per month). Although tubes, in any setting, were most often inserted in children under age 2 years (95% "often" or "very often") and in those aged 3 to 5 years (93%), the likelihoods of doing this in-office for these age groups were only 8% and 6% respectively. For children aged 6 to 12 years, likelihood of in-office insertion was only 15%. Frequent barriers noted were safety concerns, emotional trauma, physical pain, and inability to suction. Opportunities to facilitate this approach include improved topical anesthesia, availability of conscious sedation, conclusive research on adverse effects of general anesthesia, and availability of an automated tube insertion device. Office-based insertion of tympanostomy tubes in children without general anesthesia is performed by a small minority of respondents, but there are discernible barriers and opportunities to promote future uptake. Our results should facilitate ongoing discussion and innovation to better accommodate the preferences of families whose children are candidates for tympanostomy tubes.

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The Thickness of the facial Nerve Sheath Consistently Varies by Region in Its Intra-Tympanic Course on Cadaveric Study

Vinay Kumar Vijayendra,Vijayendra Honnurappa,Nilesh Mahajan,Miriam Redleaf

Publication date 23-04-2021


Iatrogenic removal of intra-temporal disease processes, such as cholesteatoma and keratosis obturans, can be challenging when the facial nerve (FN) is involved. Despite this concern about possible FN injury during these procedures, our clinical observation has been that the diseased growth can be cleaned quite easily from the vertical FN epineurium. Therefore, we designed a cadaveric protocol to measure thickness of the FN sheath (epineurium) in horizontal, second genu and vertical FN segments and to correlate these measurements with surgical management of FN disorders. Fifty non-fixated (wet) cadaveric temporal bones were dissected over 1 year's time. The intra-temporal FN sheath epineurium was harvested from the mid-horizontal, second genu, and mid-vertical segments. Using a digital micrometric technique, the thickness of each sample was measured. Data analysis was performed using student's two-tailed, dependent Epineurial nerve sheath thickness was the least in the horizontal segment (mean 0.9 mm, range 0.040-0.140 mm), greater at the second genu (mean 0.19 mm, range 0.010-0.280 mm), and greatest in the vertical segment (mean 0.29 mm, range 0.170-0.570 mm). These differences were statistically significant. In cases of cholesteatoma and keratosis obturans involving the vertical FN, the disease process can be separated from the FN sheath because of the sheath thickness in this region. Disease in the horizontal segment involves a thinner sheath and separating the disease process from the nerve is more difficult in this area.

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Outcomes and Utility of Intracranial Free Tissue Transfer

Heather M. Minchew,Omar A. Karadaghy,Paul J. Camarata,Roukoz B. Chamoun,Donald David Beahm,Wojciech H. Przylecki,Brian T. Andrews

Publication date 21-04-2021


Complications associated with intracranial vault compromise can be neurologically and systemically devastating. Primary and secondary repair of these deficits require an air and watertight barrier between the intracranial and extracranial environments. This study evaluated the outcomes and utility of using intracranial free tissue transfer as both primary and salvage surgical repair of reconstruction. A retrospective review was performed of all subjects who underwent intracranial free tissue transfer as primary or salvage repair.
A total of 13 intracranial free tissue transfers were performed on 11 subjects: osteocutaneous radial forearm free flaps (n = 6), partial myofascial rectus abdominis flaps (n = 5), temporoparietal fascia flap (n = 1), and serratus anterior myofascial flap (n = 1). Primary reconstruction was performed on 4 subjects with the remaining being salvage repair. Indications for surgery included neoplasm (n = 6 of 11), ballistic trauma (n = 3 of 11), motor vehicle accident (n = 1 of 11), and infection (n = 1 of 11). Three subjects required additional surgical repair for CSF leak and pneumocephalus, with 2 subjects requiring an additional free tissue transfer at a different site. In our experience, free tissue transfer is an effective primary and salvage surgical technique in the reconstruction of complex intracranial problems.

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Trends in Cochlear Implantation in Texas: An Exploration of Outpatient Discharge Data, 2010 to 2017

Sanjana Balachandra,Imam M. Xierali,Marc A. Nivet,Jacob B. Hunter

Publication date 21-04-2021


To describe trends in cochlear implantation (CI) disparities in Texas using an all-payer database from 2010 to 2017. Texas Outpatient Surgical and Radiological Procedure Data, a public use data file, was accessed to analyze outpatient CI cases for Texas. Variables analyzed include patient age, sex, race/ethnicity, and insurance status. Population data from the American Community Survey generated CI utilization rates by patient demographic characteristics. There were 6158 CI cases identified during the study period. The number of CI per year nearly doubled from 497 in 2010 to 961 in 2017. The majority of CI recipients were white (59.5%), male (51.9%), and privately insured (47.9%). All sub-populations statewide had more CI in 2017 compared to 2010, with the overall CI per 100 000 population increasing from 1.98 to 3.50 per 100 000 population. Patients over 75 demonstrated the greatest increase in the CI rate per 100 000 population, increasing from 4.60 in 2010 to 14.30 in 2017. Regarding race/ethnicity, all sub-populations noted an increase in the CI per 100 000 population, with white patients demonstrating the highest rate in 2017, at 4.36 CI per 100 000 population. Asian patients had a 502% increase in the CI rate (from 0.42 to 2.53), compared with 87.9%, 84.4%, and 69.2% increases for white, Black, and Hispanic populations, respectively. CI became more widespread between 2010 and 2017, benefiting certain populations more than others. Black and Hispanic populations had lower CI per 100 000 population than their white peers, while patients >65 years of age accounted for the greatest increase in CI.

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Differential Correlations among Allergy Tests According to Indoor Allergens in Allergic Rhinitis

Jae-Sung Nam,Sang Hyeon Ahn,Jong-Gyun Ha,Jeong-Jin Park,Hae Eun Noh,Joo-Heon Yoon,Chang-Hoon Kim,Hyung-Ju Cho

Publication date 19-04-2021


Several allergy tests are used for the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis; however, few studies have reported a direct comparison of the skin prick test (SPT), multiple allergen simultaneous test (MAST), and ImmunoCAP according to specific allergens. This study aimed to evaluate the correlations between each test and allergic rhinitis symptoms and to evaluate the correlations of the MAST and ImmunoCAP with the SPT for representative indoor allergens in Korea. Electronic medical charts were retrospectively reviewed, and 698 patients with allergic rhinitis who had performed SPT, MAST, and ImmunoCAP were enrolled. Correlations between each allergy test for 4 representative indoor allergens and the symptoms of allergic rhinitis were analyzed. Agreements of the MAST and ImmunoCAP with the SPT were compared according to each allergen. The SPT showed higher correlations with allergic rhinitis symptoms for 4 indoor allergens ( Overall, the SPT showed a higher correlation with allergic rhinitis symptoms than the MAST or ImmunoCAP for 4 indoor allergens. ImmunoCAP showed similar reactivity to MAST; however, it showed better positivity with dog allergen in patients who were reactive to the allergen in the SPT. Care should be taken while evaluating dog allergen sensitization using the MAST.

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Patterns of Care and Outcomes of Primary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Trachea

Sara Behbahani,Gregory L. Barinsky,David Wassef,Boris Paskhover,Rachel Kaye

Publication date 19-04-2021


Primary tracheal malignancies are relatively rare cancers, representing 0.1% to 0.4% of all malignancies. Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is the second most common histology of primary tracheal malignancy, after squamous cell carcinoma. This study aims to analyze demographic characteristics and potential influencing factors on survival of tracheal ACC (TACC). This was a retrospective cohort study utilizing the National Cancer Database (NCDB). The NCDB was queried for all cases of TACC diagnosed from 2004 to 2016 (n = 394). Kaplan-Meier (KM) and Cox proportional-hazards models were used to determine clinicopathological and treatment factors associated with survival outcomes. Median age of diagnosis was 56 (IQR: 44.75-66.00). Females were affected slightly more than males (53.8% vs 46.2%). The most prevalent tumor diameter range was 20 to 39 mm (34.8%) followed by greater than 40 mm in diameter (17.8%). Median overall survival (OS) was 9.72 years with a 5- and 10-year OS of 70% and 47.5%, respectively. Localized disease was not associated with a survival benefit over invasive disease ( Our data suggests that surgical resection, possibly in conjunction with radiation therapy, is associated with improved survival, and tumor larger than 40 mm are associated with worse survival.

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Head Over Wheels: Traumatic Head and Neck Injuries Secondary to Mountain Biking

Rijul S. Kshirsagar,Chris Xiao,David W. Chou,Srikanth Krishnan,Ashton B. Christian,Kevin P. Labadie,Merrick A. Brodsky,Jonathan Liang

Publication date 12-04-2021


The popularity of mountain biking (MTB) in the United States has risen in recent years. We sought to identify the prevalence and distribution of MTB associated head and neck injuries presenting to emergency departments across the U.
S. and identify risk factors for hospital admission in this patient population. The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) was queried for MTB related injuries of the head and neck from 2009 to 2018, with analysis for incidence, age, gender, anatomic site, and diagnoses. A total of 486 cases were identified, corresponding to an estimated 18 952 head and neck MTB related ED visits. Patients were predominantly male (80.7%) and white (69.8%) with a median age of 35 years (interquartile range, 21-46 years). A majority (88.4%) of patients were released from the ED, but a significant proportion of patients were admitted (9.2%) or transferred (1.2%). The most common facial fractures were facial/not specified (35%), nasal bone (29%), mandible (15%), orbit (12%), and zygomaxillary complex (9%). The greatest predictors of hospital admission/transfer were injury to the mouth or neck and avulsion-type injury ( MTB results in a significant number of traumatic head and neck injuries nationwide. Patients are primarily adult, white males. The majority of injuries result in discharge from the ED, however a small amount of these patients experience significant morbidity necessitating hospital admission. Understanding the distribution of MTB head and neck injuries may aid in the clinical evaluation of these patients. 4.

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Survey of Anesthesiologists on Topical Vasoconstrictors and Intravenous Tranexamic Acid for Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

Max Feng,Veronica F. Lao,Garret Choby,Patrick B. Bolton,Michael J. Marino,Toby N. Weingarten,Ian M. Humphreys,Sabrina K. Dhillon,Byeong Y. Choi,Roman A. Fernandez,Najma S. Mehter,Philip G. Chen

Publication date 12-04-2021


Topical vasoconstrictors and intravenous tranexamic acid (IV TXA) are safe and efficacious to decrease bleeding and improve the surgical field during endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). The purpose of this study was to investigate practice patterns, awareness of clinical evidence, and comfort levels among anesthesia providers regarding these hemostatic agents for ESS. A total of 767 attending anesthesiologists, residents, and certified registered nurse anesthetists (CRNAs) at 5 United States academic centers were invited to participate in a survey regarding their experience with IV TXA and 3 topical vasoconstrictor medications (oxymetazoline, epinephrine, and cocaine) during ESS. 330 (47%) anesthesia providers responded to the electronic survey. 113 (97%) residents, 92 (83%) CRNAs, and 52 (68%) attendings managed 5 or fewer ESS cases per month. Two-thirds of providers had not reviewed efficacy or safety literature for these hemostatic agents. Oxymetazoline was perceived safest, followed by epinephrine, IV TXA, and cocaine. Respondents considered potential side effects over surgical field visibility when selecting agents. The majority of providers had no formal training on these agents for ESS, but indicated interest in educational opportunities. Many anesthesia providers are unfamiliar with safety and efficacy literature regarding agents used to improve hemostasis for ESS, highlighting a need for development of relevant educational resources. Rhinologic surgeons have an opportunity to communicate with anesthesia colleagues on the use of hemostatic agents to improve the surgical field during ESS.

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Is Transoral Robotic Surgery the Best Surgical Treatment for Lingual Thyroid?: A Case-Report and Literature Review

Grégoire D’Andréa,Benjamin Vairel,Clair Vandersteen,Emilien Chabrillac,Sébastien Vergez,Guillaume De Bonnecaze

Publication date 10-04-2021


To highlight the specific outcomes of the current surgical procedures for lingual thyroid excision, for benign and malignant lesions. We carried out a systematic review of surgical treatments of lingual thyroid, according to the PRISMA method. We conducted our literature search in Pub Med and Ovid. Data was collected concerning patient demographics, tumor characteristics, types of surgery performed, and specific intra- and postoperative outcomes of each procedure.
Surgical procedures were classified in 4 categories: transcervical approaches, "invasive" transoral approaches (transmandibular and/or tongue splitting), "non-invasive" transoral approaches, and transoral robotic surgery. We detailed the transoral robotic surgical technique through a case report, along with a surgical video. Of 373 peer-reviewed articles found, 40 provided adequate information on surgical management and outcomes for patients with lingual thyroid. "Non-invasive" transoral approaches and transoral robotic surgeries required significantly fewer tracheostomies than "invasive" transoral and transcervical approaches ( Transoral robotic surgery appears to be a feasible, effective, and fast solution for lingual thyroid excision, with excellent short- and long-term surgical outcomes.

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The Patient Perspective: Evaluating the Accessibility of Transoral Robotic Surgery Online Resources

Monica H. Xing,Raymond L. Chai

Publication date 10-04-2021


The varied treatment options available to patients with HPV-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) can cause significant patient confusion. In particular, transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has become widely used for treatment of HPV-positive OPSCC. As patients commonly refer to the internet for additional information, we aim to evaluate the quality of online patient educational materials for TORS in comparison to other otolaryngology surgical procedures. The terms "transoral robotic surgery," "glossectomy," "thyroidectomy," and "neck dissection" were searched on Google. Flesch reading ease, Flesh-Kincaid Grade Level, MD review rates, and PEMAT understandability and actionability were assessed for each search term. Google trends was used to determine search interest for each term between May 2015 and May 2020. Of the 30 TORS websites that met inclusion criteria, the average FRE and FKGL scores were 40.74 and 11.60 (that of an average high school senior). The FRE and FKGL scores for TORS were all statistically significantly lower than those of all comparator search terms ( In comparison to other common otolaryngology procedures, TORS websites are the least patient friendly. As TORS becomes a more widely used procedure, it is critical that TORS websites become higher quality resources that patients can reliably reference.

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Feel the Burn! Fireworks-related Otolaryngologic Trauma

Alexander J. Straughan,Luke J. Pasick,Vrinda Gupta,Daniel A. Benito,Joseph F. Goodman,Philip E. Zapanta

Publication date 09-04-2021


Fireworks are used commonly for celebrations in the United States, but can lead to severe injury to the head and neck. We aim to assess the incidence, types, and mechanisms of head and neck injuries associated with fireworks use from 2010 to 2019. A retrospective cross-sectional study, using data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, of individuals presenting to United States Emergency Departments with head and neck injuries caused by fireworks and flares from 2010 to 2019. Incidence, types, and mechanisms of injury related to fireworks use in the US population were assessed. A total of 541 patients (349 [64.5%] male, and 294 [54%] under 18 years of age) presented to emergency departments with fireworks-related head and neck injuries; the estimated national total was 20 584 patients (13 279 male, 9170 white, and 11 186 under 18 years of age). The most common injury diagnoses were burns (44.7% of injuries), laceration/avulsion/penetrating trauma (21.1%), and otologic injury (15.2%), which included hearing loss, otalgia, tinnitus, unspecified acoustic trauma, and tympanic membrane perforation. The remaining 19% of injuries were a mix, including contusion, abrasion, hematoma, fracture, and closed head injury. Associations between fireworks type and injury diagnosis (chi-square Fireworks-related head and neck injuries are more likely to occur in young, white, and male individuals. Burns are the most common injury, while otologic injury is a significant contributor. Annual rates of fireworks-related head and neck injuries have not changed or improved significantly in the United States in the past decade, suggesting efforts to identify and prevent these injuries are insufficient.

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TLM Outcomes in Elderly Patients with Glottic Pre-Malignancy and Early Malignancy; A 12-Year Retrospective Study

Heidi Jones,Elizabeth Ross,Jemy Jose

Publication date 09-04-2021


UK population ageing and associated cancer risk predicts an increase in the prevalence of laryngeal cancer in elderly patients. Whilst trans-oral laser microsurgery (TLM) has been demonstrated to achieve excellent control of early disease with few complications, data specifically related to its safety and efficacy in older patients is lacking. We report the largest series to date. To assess the safety and efficacy of TLM in elderly patients with glottic pre-malignancy and early malignancy. A retrospective review and statistical analysis of the clinical records of patients aged 70 or over undergoing TLM for early and premalignant glottic disease. The records of 106 patients over the age of 70 were identified. Thirteen records were excluded, 4 due to failure to meet the inclusion criteria (stage I/II disease, primary site of lesion in the glottis) and 9 due to incomplete follow up data capture. Most surgeries (>70%) were performed as a day case or overnight admission, with only 2 admissions >2 days. One patient required hospital readmission with dysphagia, resulting in an altered diet. No patients required tracheostomy or tube feeding. No treatment related deaths or intensive care admissions were observed. Ten patients had recurrent disease within 5 years; 1 received radiotherapy, 1 underwent salvage laryngectomy, the remainder had further TLM without complication. Five-year disease specific survival rates were >90%. Our results demonstrate that TLM is safe and effective for elderly patients, with outcomes comparable to those reported in large, non-age selected cohorts. Although our patients underwent more conservative cordectomy types (I-III) than those with similar disease stages reported elsewhere, our recurrence rates were not higher. This supports the oncological effectiveness of surgery whilst reducing the risk of associated functional compromise.

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Dural Contact to the Malleus Head in Patients with Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence (SSCD): Case Series and Review of SSCD and Tegmen Defects

Carissa Wentland,Joseph Cousins,Jason May,Arnaldo Rivera

Publication date 09-04-2021


Report a series of cases in which patients have concomitant superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) and a dehiscent tegmen tympani with Dural contact to the malleus head (DCMH). An analysis of radiologic and audiologic data in 4 patients who presented with SSCD and DCMH at a tertiary care institution. A pertinent literature review was performed. Four patients (5 ears) had SSCD and DCMH. In 3 patients with unilateral DCMH, the mean maximum air-bone gap was 15 dB in the ear with DCMH compared to 50 dB in the ear without DCMH. Of the 5 ears with DCMH, the mean air conduction threshold at 250 Hz was 17 dB compared to 42 dB in the 3 ears without DCMH. We report the findings of DCMH in a series of 4 patients with bilateral SSCD. This limited series suggests that ears with SSCD and DCMH have less of an air-bone gap than would be expected, as 1 would expect an additive effect of DCMH and SSCD on the air-bone gap.

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Demographic Characteristics of Children Diagnosed with Bacterial Tracheitis

Jenna H. Barengo,Andrew J. Redmann,Patrick Kennedy,Michael J. Rutter,Matthew M. Smith

Publication date 09-04-2021


Examine the presentation and clinical course of patients with bacterial tracheitis (BT). Identify if socioeconomic differences exist among children who present with BT. This was a retrospective case series from a tertiary care pediatric medical center. The study group included patients less than 18 years old who were diagnosed with BT from January 2011 to March 2019. Patients with a tracheostomy and those who developed BT after prolonged hospitalization were excluded. Patient demographics were compared with the demographics of the counties surrounding the hospital. 33 patients with BT met inclusion criteria. The most common presenting symptoms were difficulty breathing, stridor, and sore throat (81.8% each), followed by cough (78.8%). Median length of stay was 3 days [interquartile range (IQR):2-4]. 19 patients (57.5%) were admitted to the intensive care unit. Intubation was required for 13 patients (39.4%), for a median length of 2 days [IQR:2-2]. Methicillin sensitive staphylococcus aureus was the most common bacterial etiology (33%). Mean presenting age was 8.58 years [95% confidence interval:7.3-9.9] and 14 patients were female (42.4%). 31 patients were white (93.9%), 1 was black (3%), and 1 was Hispanic (3%). BT patients were more likely to have private insurance compared to comparison (81.8% vs 63.4%, Children who presented with BT were more likely to be privately insured than a comparison population.

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Spontaneous Congenital Perilabyrinthine Cerebrospinal Fluid Fistulas

Benjamin D. Lovin,Eric N. Appelbaum,Latifah Makoshi,William E. Whitehead,Alex D. Sweeney

Publication date 09-04-2021


To report a recalcitrant spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula arising from multiple, anatomically-linked lateral skull base defects, and to review the available literature to determine optimal techniques for operative repair of congenital CSF fistulae. A patient with recurrent episodes of otologic meningitis was found to have a patent tympanomeningeal fissure, also known as a Hyrtl's fissure, and internal auditory canal (IAC) diverticulum that communicated with the jugular bulb. A systematic review of the literature characterized all reports of spontaneous congenital perilabyrinthine CSF leaks, and all cases of Hyrtl's fissures. An 11-year-old female was referred for recurrent meningitis. Imaging demonstrated a fistulous connection between the middle ear and IAC diverticulum via the jugular foramen. Specifically, a Hyrtl's fissure was identified, as well as demineralized bone around the jugular bulb. Obliteration of the fissure was initially performed, and a fistula reformed 4 months later. Multifocal CSF egress in the hypotympanum was identified on re-exploration, and middle ear obliteration with external auditory canal (EAC) overclosure was performed. A systematic review of the literature demonstrated 19 cases of spontaneous congenital perilabyrinthine CSF leaks. In total, 6 cases had multiple sources of CSF leak and 2 had history suggestive of intracranial hypertension. All of these noted cases demonstrated leak recurrence. Middle ear obliteration with EAC overclosure was successful in 4 recalcitrant cases. Repair of spontaneous congenital perilabyrinthine CSF leaks in cases demonstrating multiple sources of egress or signs of intracranial hypertension should be approached with caution. Middle ear obliteration with EAC overclosure may provide the most definitive management option for these patients, particularly if initial attempt at primary repair is unsuccessful.

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Postoperative Infection Rate and Associated Factors Following Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

Sharan J. Shah,Vivian S. Hawn,Nina Zhu,Christina H. Fang,Qi Gao,Nadeem A. Akbar,Waleed M. Abuzeid

Publication date 09-04-2021


There is a paucity of data on postoperative infections after endoscopic sinus surgery and associated risk factors. Our objective was to evaluate a cohort of patients undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) for chronic rhinosinusitis to determine which perioperative factors may be associated with infection in the 30-day postoperative period. A retrospective cohort study of adults who underwent ESS at a tertiary academic medical center from 2015 to 2018 was performed. The primary outcome was incidence of postoperative infection, defined by identification of sinus purulence on nasal endoscopy necessitating antibiotics within 30 days of surgery. Independent variables collated included the result of postoperative cultures and use of perioperative antibiotics, oral corticosteroids, packing, and steroid-eluting stents. Statistical analysis involved bivariate analysis to identify variables that correlated with postoperative infection and subsequent multivariate logistic regression to identify independent risk factors. Three hundred seventy-eight unique ESS cases performed in 356 patients were reviewed. The mean age was 46 years (range, 18-87). The most common indication for surgery was chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyposis. The postoperative infection rate was 10.1%. The most commonly cultured pathogen was The incidence of postoperative infection following ESS was 10.1%. The use of postoperative systemic corticosteroids independently increased the risk of infection by 3.47-fold.

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Initial Experience Treating HPV-Related Laryngeal Diseases with Oral Brincidofovir: A Pilot Study

Brent E. Richardson

Publication date 09-04-2021


To determine if brincidofovir, an oral analog of cidofovir that achieves high tissue levels of the active metabolite with low systemic toxicity, has an observable effect on HPV-related disease of the larynx. Two patients with laryngeal recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (one each of genotypes 6 and 11) and 1 with recurring aryepiglottic fold Brincidofovir reduced papilloma burden in 1 patient and markedly attenuated the rate and magnitude of recurrence in both. After surgical intervention, Patient 1 remains disease-free at 10 years (7 years from last intervention) and Patient 2 has no symptoms at 8 years. Patient 3 with recurring Brincidofovir appears to attenuate HPV disease of the larynx in this small pilot study, though further investigation is required because of the highly variable nature of the disease and potential confounding factors.

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Risk Assessment in Thyroid Lobectomy and Total Thyroidectomy using Over 100 Thousand Cases

Philip R. Brauer,Brian B. Burkey,Chandana A. Reddy,Eric D. Lamarre

Publication date 09-04-2021


To assess risk factors and non-thyroid specific postoperative complications for thyroid lobectomy compared to total thyroidectomy. A retrospective, cross-sectional study of adults undergoing a lobectomy or total thyroidectomy using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database between 2005 and 2017. Patients not treated by otolaryngologists or general surgeons and with unknown demographic variables were excluded. A total of 106 915 patients were analyzed, 64 763 total thyroidectomies and 42 152 lobectomies. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that total thyroidectomy patients were half as likely to return to the operating room (OR = 0.491 (95%CI 0.445-0.542), Our multi-institutional study indicates specific risk factors for returning to the operating room that may warrant closer follow up after surgery for total thyroidectomy or thyroid lobectomy. We also identified the most common post-operative complications. During pre-operative planning, these findings should be considered by thyroid surgeons to help mitigate risk to patients.

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Endaural Over-Underlay Cartilage Tympanoplasty for Repair of Dry Subtotal Perforations

Yaser Said Çetin,Mehmet Zeki Erdem

Publication date 07-04-2021


We explored the auditory and anatomical success of grafting when the cartilage perichondrium (CP) was prepared using two different methods. Patients with subtotal or total perforation underwent tympanoplasty with a CP graft. A A total of 195 patients were included in the study. The total CP graft integration rate was 96% for both groups. Significant changes were detected in all hearing criteria evaluated 12 months after surgery compared to the preoperative period ( Cartilage slice support offers an extremely reliable method for reconstruction of tympanic membrane in cases of high-risk perforation. Partial failures are rare, but when they occur, they most often involved anterior graft medialization. When a piece of cartilage is removed at the malleus interface there may be a higher rate of partial failure.

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Can Tonsillectomy Be Safely Performed by Residents? A Comparative Retrospective Study

Shorook Na’ara,Michael Aronov,Ziv Gil,Arie Gordin

Publication date 07-04-2021


To assess whether a surgeon's level of training is associated with outcomes in pediatric tonsillectomy. A retrospective cohort study of the outcomes of pediatric tonsillectomies performed between 2006 and 2016 by senior surgeons versus resident surgeons under the supervision of senior surgeons. An otolaryngology department in a tertiary academic hospital. Children younger than 18 years who underwent bilateral tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy. Intraoperative bleeding, initiation of oral intake, and intraoperative and postoperative complications. Of 785 children, 397 (50.5%) were operated on by a resident surgeon and 388 (49.5%) by a senior surgeon. Patient demographics and surgical techniques were similar between the groups. The mean surgical time was 33.2 minutes in the residents' group and 27.1 minutes in the seniors' group ( Children undergoing tonsillectomy showed similar short-term outcomes, whether the operations were performed by a senior surgeon or a resident surgeon supervised by an attending surgeon. This study demonstrates the safety of pediatric tonsillectomy performed by resident surgeons supervised by attending physicians.

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Online Reputations: Comparing Hospital- and Patient-Generated Ratings in Academic Otolaryngology

Krystyne Basa,Nicolette Jabbour,Matthew Rohlfing,Sarah Schmoker,Claire M. Lawlor,Jessica Levi,Lindsay Sobin,Jeremiah C. Tracy,Lauren F. Tracy

Publication date 03-04-2021


This study compares hospital-generated online ratings to patient-generated online ratings in academic otolaryngology and evaluates physician factors influencing these results. Websites of academic otolaryngologists were assessed for inclusion of hospital-generated Press Ganey surveys. Corresponding scores on Healthgrades and Vitals.com were identified via internet search. Hospital ratings were compared with patient-generated ratings, including score, demographics, and number of ratings. All data was collected between July 15th 2019 and August 22nd 2019. 742 academic otolaryngologists with hospital-generated ratings were identified. Mean hospital-generated rating was significantly higher ((4.70, 95% CI 4.69-4.72) than patient-generated rating (Vitals:4.26, 95% CI 4.18-4.34, and Healthgrades:4.02, 95% CI 3.87-4.18; Hospital-generated ratings yield higher mean scores than patient-generated platforms. Between sources, Healthgrades.com scores were lower than those of Vitals.com. Professors with >30 years of practice generated more reviews in patient-generated ratings, and these physicians were generally rated lower. Access to patient-generated ratings is universal and physicians should be aware of variability between online rating platforms as scores may affect referrals and practice patterns.

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Sudden Sensorineural Hearing and Vestibular Loss in a Case of Relapsing Polychondritis

Özge Akdoğan,Smirnov Exilus,Bryan K. Ward,Justin C. McArthur,Charles C. Della Santina,John P. Carey

Publication date 03-04-2021


To report a case of profound bilateral sensorineural hearing and vestibular loss from relapsing polychondritis and hearing outcomes after cochlear implantation. Case report and literature review. A 43 year-old woman developed sudden loss of hearing and balance that progressed over several weeks to bilateral, profound hearing and vestibular loss. Steroid treatments were ineffective. She underwent vestibular physical therapy and left cochlear implantation. About 10 months after her initial presentation, she developed erythema, warmth, swelling, and pain of the left auricle sparing the lobule, flattening of the bridge of her nose, and right ankle swelling, warmth, and skin erythema. A biopsy of the left auricle revealed histopathologic findings consistent with relapsing polychondritis. She was treated with high dose prednisolone. The ear inflammation resolved, however, despite excellent auditory response to pure tone thresholds, the patient reported no improvement in speech perception after cochlear implantation. Relapsing polychondritis can present with rapidly progressive, profound loss of hearing and vestibular function. Hearing outcomes after cochlear implantation can include poor speech discrimination despite good pure tone detection thresholds.

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Sleep Dysfunction is an Independent Predictor of Productivity Losses in Patients with Chronic Rhinosinusitis

Gretchen M. Oakley,Kristine A. Smith,Shaelene Ashby,Richard R. Orlandi,Jeremiah A. Alt

Publication date 03-04-2021


Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is known to have a significant impact on economic productivity. Sleep dysfunction is associated with staggering productivity losses and is highly prevalent in patients with CRS. The effect of sleep dysfunction on productivity in CRS has not been elucidated. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between sleep dysfunction and lost productivity in patients with CRS. Eighty-two adult patients with CRS were prospectively enrolled into a cross-sectional cohort study. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea were excluded. Sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Presenteeism (reduced work efficiency), absenteeism (missed work days), and lost work, household, and overall productivity were analyzed. The primary aim was assessing the correlation between PSQI and productivity. Regression analyses were performed to account for disease severity, pain, and depression. Sleep dysfunction is significantly correlated with overall lost productivity (R Sleep dysfunction has a significant association with lost productivity in patients with CRS, particularly with worsening PSQI scores. More clearly defining those components of CRS that most impact a patient's daily function will allow clinicians to more optimally manage and counsel patients with CRS.

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Migraine Features in Patients with Persistent Postural-Perceptual Dizziness

Brooke Sarna,Adwight Risbud,Ariel Lee,Ethan Muhonen,Mehdi Abouzari,Hamid R. Djalilian

Publication date 03-04-2021


To evaluate the presence of migraine features in patients with persistent postural-perceptual dizziness (PPPD). In a retrospective survey study, consecutive patients presenting to a tertiary care neurotology clinic during an 18-month period were given questionnaires about headache and dizziness symptoms. The survey responses plus history and examination of the patient were used to diagnose patients with PPPD. The prevalence of migraine headache, vestibular migraine (VM), and migraine characteristics was evaluated. In total, 36 subjects with PPPD were included in the study. The mean age of the subjects was 56 ± 16 years with a female (72%) predominance. A total of 19 (53%) patients met the International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria for migraine headache, and 6 of those (17%) met the criteria for definite VM. Of the patients who did not meet full migraine headache criteria, 6 (17%) patients met 4 of 5 criteria, and 5 (14%) patients met 3 of 5 criteria. There was no significant difference between PPPD patients who fulfilled full migraine headache criteria and those who did not in sensitivity to light, sound, smells, weather changes, feelings of mental fog/confusion, and sinus pain/facial pressure. This study demonstrates that a majority of patients with PPPD fulfill the criteria for migraine headache. A large proportion of PPPD patients who do not meet the full criteria for migraine headache still meet a majority of the migraine headache criteria. This suggests an association between the 2 conditions. PPPD may be a part of the spectrum of otologic migraine, where migraine manifests as otologic symptoms.

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Giant Congenital Blue Nevus Presenting as Cutis Verticis Gyrata: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

Melissa E. Cullom,Garth R. Fraga,Alan R. Reeves,Dhaval Bhavsar,Brian T. Andrews

Publication date 03-04-2021


Cerebriform intradermal nevus and giant congenital blue nevi are rarely reported melanocytic nevi with clinical and histopathologic similarities. Both are known to produce cutis verticis gyrata. We report a significantly large occipital scalp congenital blue nevus with secondary cutis verticis gyrata. The aim of this report is to increase clinical awareness of this entity, highlight histopathologic and mutational features of cerebriform intradermal nevi and giant congenital blue nevi, and stress the importance of clinicopathologic correlation for diagnosis. Case report and review of the literature. A 20-year-old Asian male presented with a long-standing, large (20 cm × 30 cm), exophytic tumor at the occipital scalp and posterior neck. The skin overlying the lesion was arranged in thick folds resembling the surface of the brain, devoid of hair follicles, and discolored by salt-and-pepper pattern hyperpigmentation. After correlating the clinical and histopathologic findings, we diagnosed giant congenital blue nevus with secondary cutis verticis gyrata. Staged surgical excision was performed with subsequent treatment for hypertrophic scarring and occipital alopecia. Cerebriform intradermal nevus and giant congenital blue nevus have overlapping histologic and clinical features. Head and neck surgeons should be aware that nomenclature of these tumors is subjective and often imprecise. Diagnosis requires correlation of clinical findings, patient history, and histopathology. Surgical excision is advised due to rare malignant transformation potential.

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Otolaryngology Consult Protocols in the Setting of COVID-19: The University of Pittsburgh Approach

Harish Dharmarajan,Michael A. Belsky,Jennifer L. Anderson,Shaum Sridharan

Publication date 29-03-2021


To analyze trends in otolaryngology consultations and provide algorithms to guide management during the COVID-19 pandemic. A retrospective cohort study at a single institution tertiary care hospital. A total of 95 otolaryngology consultations were performed from March 1, 2020 to April 26, 2020 (COVID-era) and 363 were performed from September 1, 2019 to February 29, 2020 (pre-COVID-era) at the UPMC Oakland campus. Data collected included patient demographics, COVID-19 status, reason for consult, location of consult, type of consult, procedures performed, need for surgical intervention, length of hospital stay and recommended follow up. Patient populations in the pre-COVID-era and COVID-era were similar in terms of their distribution of demographics and chief complaints. Craniofacial trauma was the most common reason for consultation in both periods, followed by vocal fold and airway-related consults. We saw a 21.5% decrease in the rate of consults seen per month during the COVID-era compared to the 6 months prior. Review of trends in the consult workflow allowed for development of several algorithms to safely approach otolaryngology consults during the COVID-19 pandemic. Otolaryngology consultations provide valuable services to inpatients and patients in the emergency department ranging from evaluation of routine symptoms to critical airways. Systematic otolaryngology consult service modifications are required in order to reduce risk of exposure to healthcare providers while providing comprehensive patient care.

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