Audiology and Neurotology 2020-11-25

Neuroprotective Effect of Near-Infrared Light in an Animal Model of CI Surgery

Publicatie 25-11-2020

Introduction: The preservation of residual hearing has become an important consideration in cochlear implant (CI) recipients in recent years. It was the aim of the present animal experimental study to investigate the influence of a pretreatment with near-infrared (NIR) light on preservation of sensory hair cells and residual hearing after cochlear implantation. Methods: NIR was applied unilaterally (15 min, 808 nm, 120 mW) to 8 guinea pigs, immediately before a bilateral scala tympani CI electrode insertion was performed. The nonirradiated (contralateral) side served as control. Twenty-eight days postoperatively, auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were registered from both ears to screen for hearing loss. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed and inner hair cells (IHCs) and outer hair cells (OHCs) were counted and compared between NIR-pretreated and control (contralateral) cochleae. Results: There was no IHC loss upon cochlear implantation. OHC loss was most prominent on both sides at the apical part of the cochlea. NIR pretreatment led to a statistically significant reduction in OHC loss (by 39.8%). ABR recordings (across the frequencies 4–32 kHz) showed a statistically significant difference between the 2 groups and corresponds well with the apical structural damage. Hearing loss was reduced by about 20 dB on average for the NIR-pretreated group (p ≤ 0.05). Discussion/Conclusion: A single NIR pretreatment in this animal model of CI surgery appears to be neuroprotective for residual hearing. This is in line with other studies where several NIR posttreatments have protected cochlear and other neural tissues. NIR pretreatment is an inexpensive, effective, and noninvasive approach that can complement other ways of preserving residual hearing and, hence, should deserve further clinical evaluation in CI patients. Audiol Neurotol

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Publicatie 18-11-2020

Audiol Neurotol 2020;25:I–VI

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Acknowledgement to the Reviewers

Publicatie 18-11-2020

Audiol Neurotol 2020;25:345–346

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Is There Any Correlation between Spread of Excitation Width and the Refractory Properties of the Auditory Nerve in Cochlear Implant Users?

J Coutinho da Silva,MV Schmidt Goffi-Gomez,RK Tsuji,R Bento,R Brito Neto

Publicatie 30-09-2020

Background: The spread of excitation (SOE) and auditory nerve recovery function (REC) are objective measures recorded by neural response telemetry and may interfere in cochlear implant (CI) stimulation. Objective: To analyze and correlate SOE with the refractory periods in subjects with pre- and postlingual deafness implanted with different electrode arrays. Methods: This was a retrospective study of 323 ears separated by perimodiolar or straight arrays and by pre- or postlingually deaf recipients. Measures were collected intraoperatively on electrode 11. The SOE width was measured in millimeters at the 0.75 point of the curve, and the relative (tau) and absolute (t0) refractory periods were measured in microseconds. Results: There was a statistical correlation between the SOE and the t0 in the patients with postlingual deafness implanted with the perimodiolar array. The SOE width was statistically different between the straight and perimodiolar arrays and between the pre- and postlingual groups in the perimodiolar array. Tau was statistically different between the pre- and postlingual groups with the straight array and the t0, between the pre- and postlingual groups with the perimodiolar array. Neural response threshold and amplitude of the neural response were not statistically different among groups. Conclusion: There was a correlation between SOE width and t0 only in patients with acquired deafness. The findings suggest that different factors influence SOE and REC, considering SOE is different according to the electrode array and REC being different according the onset of deafness. Audiol Neurotol

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Fifteen-Year Follow-Up of Stapedotomy Patients: Audiological Outcomes and Associated Factors in a Middle Income Country

D Peñaranda,S Moreno,F Montes,JM Garcia,Z Rico,A Peñaranda

Publicatie 23-09-2020

Objective: To evaluate the short-term (postoperative), medium-term (5 years), and long-term (10 and 15 years) audiometric results of patients who underwent stapedotomy and to determine specific factors associated with better postoperative outcomes. Methods: This study is a retrospective case review of 486 ears with surgically confirmed stapes fixation who underwent microscopic small fenestra stapedotomy. Preoperative, postoperative, and medium- and long-term air conduction (AC), bone conduction (BC), and air-bone gap (ABG) were assessed. Postoperative factors associated with better postoperative outcomes were evaluated. Results: At 10- and 15-year follow-ups, ABG, AC, and BC were significantly deteriorated but clinically preserved in comparison with postoperative results. According to a multiple quantile regression, younger age was associated with better postoperative results at 0.25 kHz (p = 0.003) and 4 kHz (p = 0.028) and a smaller preoperative ABG was associated with better audiometric results at 0.25 kHz (p = 0.048), 0.5 kHz (p = 0.001), and 4 kHz (p = 0.001). In addition, younger age (p = 0.001 for AC and p #x3c; 0.001 for BC) and preoperative AC PTA (p #x3c; 0.001 for AC) were significantly associated with better postoperative AC and BC PTA. Conclusions: Stapedotomy surgery provides short-, medium-, and long-term hearing benefits in our studied cohort. ABG, AC, and BC thresholds obtained after the surgery are clinically preserved in 5-, 10-, and 15-year follow-ups, with an age-expected BC deterioration. Smaller preoperative ABG and younger age were positive predictors for better postoperative ABG. Future research should address long-term subjective and quality of life outcomes. Audiol Neurotol

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Analysis of Click and Swept-Tone Auditory Brainstem Response Results for Moderate and Severe Sensorineural Hearing Loss

J Tan,J Luo,X Wang,Y Jiang,X Zeng,S Chen,P Li

Publicatie 09-09-2020

Introduction: Auditory brainstem response (ABR) is one of the commonly used methods in clinical settings to evaluate the hearing sensitivity and auditory function. The current ABR measurement usually adopts click sound as the stimuli. However, there may be partial ABR amplitude attenuation due to the delay characteristics of the cochlear traveling wave along the basilar membrane. To solve that problem, a swept-tone method was proposed, in which the show-up time of different frequency components was adjusted to compensate the delay characteristics of the cochlear basilar membrane; therefore, different ABR subcomponents of different frequencies were synchronized. Methods: The normal hearing group, moderate sensorineural hearing loss group, and severe sensorineural hearing loss group underwent click ABR and swept-tone ABR with different stimulus intensities. The latencies and amplitudes of waves I, III, and V in 2 detections were recorded. Results: It was found that the latency of each of the recorded I, III, and V waves detected by swept-tone ABR was shorter than that by click ABR in both the control group and experimental groups. In addition, the amplitude of each of the recorded I, III, and V waves, except V waves under 60 dB nHL in the moderate sensorineural hearing loss group, detected by swept-tone ABR was larger than that by click ABR. The results also showed that the swept-tone ABR could measure the visible V waves at lower stimulus levels in the severe sensorineural hearing loss group. Conclusion: Swept-tone improves the ABR waveforms and helps to obtain more accurate threshold to some extent. Therefore, the proposed swept-tone ABR may provide a new solution for better morphology of ABR waveform, which can help to make more accurate diagnosis about the hearing functionality in the clinic. Audiol Neurotol 2020;25:336–344

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Changes in Tinnitus by Cochlear Implantation: A Parametric Study of the Effect of Single-Electrode Stimulation

FJJ Kloostra,E de Kleine,RH Free,R Hofman,P Van Dijk

Publicatie 07-09-2020

Introduction: While cochlear implantation may have a positive effect on tinnitus, it is not effective in reducing tinnitus in all patients. This may be due to different patients requiring different strategies of electrical stimulation in order to obtain a positive effect on tinnitus. It is, therefore, important to identify the most effective stimulation strategies to reduce tinnitus. The simplest possible strategy is stimulation by only one electrode. In this study, we investigated tinnitus suppression by electrical stimulation via a single electrode of the cochlear implant. Methods: We performed a listening experiment in 19 adult participants, who had received a unilateral cochlear implant (CI) because of severe bilateral hearing loss. All of these patients had indicated that they suffered from tinnitus. During a 300-s interval, patients listened to blocks of single-electrode stimulation and rated the loudness of the stimulus and any effects on their tinnitus. The 300-s interval included a block of single-electrode stimulation (duration 120 s). In consecutive intervals, the stimulus differed in its cochlear location (basal or apical), its pulse rate (720 or 725 Hz, 1,200 Hz, and 2,400 or 2,320 Hz), and amplitude (just above threshold or equivalent to moderate loudness). Thus, 2 × 3 × 2 = 12 stimulus conditions were tested in each participant, and each condition was presented only once. During the experiment, the participants promptly rated the loudness of the stimuli and the loudness of their tinnitus on a Visual Analogue Scale (10-point VAS). Results: Significantly more tinnitus reduction was observed with stimuli at a moderate intensity level (30%) compared to stimuli at near-threshold level (18%) (χ2 1, N = 222 = 14.115, p #x3c; 0.01). No significant differences in tinnitus levels resulted from the different pulse rates and stimulation sites. Eight participants reported an increase of tinnitus loudness under at least one stimulus condition. Changes in tinnitus loudness were generally minor, and never exceeded 3 points on the VAS. The overall effect of cochlear implantation on tinnitus, that is, the effect with full-array stimulation, was not correlated with the effectiveness of the single-electrode stimulation on tinnitus. Conclusion: In conclusion, the effect of single-electrode stimulation on tinnitus is relatively insignificant in comparison to the effect of full-array stimulation. However, in some individual cases, sustained single-electrode stimulation may be beneficial for tinnitus management. Audiol Neurotol

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How Long Is Otosclerosis Surgery Effective? Hearing Results after a 22-Year Follow-Up

D Lucidi,G Paludetti,S Settimi,E De Corso,PM Picciotti,B Sergi

Publicatie 03-09-2020

Introduction: Stapes surgery is a safe procedure, with favourable hearing outcome. The objective of the study is to assess the long-term hearing results, addressing the bone conduction (BC) decay and the need for hearing aids in otosclerosis patients. Methods: We enrolled patients who underwent stapes surgery by means of stapedectomy or stapedotomy between 1991 and 2001. All enrolled patients underwent pure-tone audiometry (PTA) between September 2017 and June 2018. A set of questions was administered to record the prevalence of subjective symptoms and the need for hearing aids. Results: Seventy patients were enrolled for a long-term evaluation; 37 patients underwent bilateral surgery; therefore, 107 ears were included in the analysis. The average follow-up period was 22 years. No statistically significant difference was found between early and late post-operative air conduction (AC) PTA (41 vs. 49 dB; p #x3e; 0.05) nor between early and late post-operative BC-PTA (29 vs. 37 dB; p #x3e; 0.05). A significant difference was observed for AC at 8 kHz (65 vs. 78 dB; p #x3c; 0.05) and BC at 2 and 4 kHz (28 vs. 40 dB and 45 vs. 58 dB, respectively; p #x3c; 0.05). Conclusions: This is, to our knowledge, the longest mean follow-up time in the literature. A mild decrease in both AC and BC threshold can be expected and the sensorineural decay is more pronounced on the high frequencies. The subjective hearing symptoms and overall sound perception are satisfactory. Audiol Neurotol

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Influence of Semicircular Canal Dehiscence on Cochlear Implant Outcome

J Matic,S Winklhofer,F Pfiffner,C Roosli,D Veraguth,A Huber,A Dalbert

Publicatie 02-09-2020

Introduction: Semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) is defined as a defect of the bone overlying the semicircular canal. It has a relatively high prevalence of 3% in the general population, which makes it likely that a certain number of patients receiving a cochlear implant (CI) would have it. However, little is known about the influence of SCD on the CI outcome. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the influence of SCD on CI outcome with regard to short- and long-term word perception and hearing preservation. Methods: This study was a retrospective analysis of postoperative word perception ability in the electric-only condition after 6, 12, and ≥18 months and of hearing preservation 4 weeks after surgery in CI recipients with and without SCD. All patients received a preoperative 1.5- or 3-tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Fifty-five patients were included. Forty-eight patients (87%) had no SCD, and 7 patients (13%) had SCD. Mean postoperative word perception scores were 66% in the non-SCD group versus 50% in the SCD group (p = 0.17) after 6 months, 74 versus 64% (p = 0.28) after 12 months, and 77 versus 73% (p = 0.62) after 18 or more months. The mean postoperative hearing loss in patients with functional residual hearing before surgery (n = 34) was 22 dB in the non-SCD group versus 31 dB in the SCD group (p = 0.15). Conclusions: CI outcome is comparable between recipients without and with SCD. Specifically, hearing preservation rate and word perception ability in the electric-only condition seem not affected by SCD. The rate of progress of word perception ability in the first 12 months after cochlear implantation is not influenced by SCD. Audiol Neurotol

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Effect of Cochlear Implantation on Hearing Fluctuation in Patients with Biallelic SLC26A4 Variants

G Na,JM Lee,HJ Lee,Y Jeong,J Jung,JY Choi

Publicatie 02-09-2020

Introduction: Fluctuating hearing loss is a distinctive feature caused by SLC26A4 variants. We investigated whether cochlear implantation had protective or deleterious effect on hearing fluctuation in patients with biallelic SLC26A4 variants. Methods: Patients with biallelic SLC26A4 variants (N = 16; age = 10.24 ± 9.20 years) who had unilateral cochlear implantation and consecutive postsurgical, bilateral pure-tone audiograms more than 3 times were selected. We retrospectively reviewed the patients’ medical records from 2008 to 2019 obtained from a tertiary medical center and used the auditory threshold change (Shift) over time as a marker of hearing fluctuation. Fluctuation events were counted, and the Shift of the implanted and contralateral ears was compared using logistic regression with a generalized estimating equation and linear mixed model. A total of 178 values were included. Results: The odds of fluctuating hearing frequency were 11.185-fold higher in the unimplanted ears than in the implanted ears postoperatively (p = 0.001). The extent of fluctuation at 250 and 500 Hz was also significantly lower in the implanted ears than in the unimplanted ears after adjusting for every other effect (p = 0.003 and p #x3c; 0.001, respectively). Notably, higher residual hearing was rather associated with lesser fluctuation in frequency and the extent of fluctuation at 500 Hz, indicating residual hearing function is not the positive predictor for hearing fluctuation. Conclusion: In patients with biallelic SLC26A4 variants, cochlear implantation may reduce the frequency and extent of hearing fluctuations. Audiol Neurotol

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