International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 2020-10-24

Systematic review of rigid and flexible esophagoscopy for pediatric esophageal foreign bodies

Weining Yang, Daniel Milad, Nikolaus E. Wolter, Evan J. Propst, Yvonne Chan

Publicatie 12-10-2020


Esophageal foreign body (EFB) is a common presentation in pediatric hospitals. Rigid and flexible esophagoscopy are both primary modalities used for EFB removal. By systematically reviewing the literature, we sought to assess success and complication rates of both rigid and flexible esophagoscopy in pediatric EFB retrieval. A systematic search of the literature was performed in MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Web of Science, CINAHL. Two authors independently reviewed 74 abstracts and included studies that documented success rates of flexible and rigid esophagoscopy for EFB retrieval. The certainty and quality of the overall body of evidence was evaluated in accordance with the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Five retrospective chart reviews published between 1993 and 2016 identified 955 patients with a mean age of 4.2 (range 3.2-5.3 years). Foreign bodies were localized to the upper esophagus in 69.6%, middle esophagus in 13.0% and lower esophagus in 11.5%. Coins (82.1%) and food boluses (8.5%) comprised the majority of EFB. The success rate of foreign body retrieval was 95.4% with rigid esophagoscopy and 97.4% with flexible esophagoscopy. Complication rates were 2.4% for rigid esophagoscopy and 3.4% for flexible esophagoscopy. Rates of successful foreign body retrieval (odds ratio [OR] = 1.9 [95% CI 0.9-3.8; p = 0.07]) and complications (OR = 0.9 [95% CI 0.3-2.3; p = 0.79]) were not significantly different across modalities. There were no mortalities in any of the studies analyzed. Flexible and rigid esophagoscopy are equally safe and effective for the retrieval of EFB in children. Otolaryngologists, gastroenterologists, and pediatric general surgeons can be consulted for foreign body retrieval depending on institutional policies and resource availability.

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Isolated hyoid bone fracture in a child due to a fall

Mansharan Kaur Chainchel Singh, Sheue Feng Siew, Poh Soon Lai

Publicatie 18-10-2020


Hyoid bone fractures due to blunt trauma are rare accounting for only 0.002% of all head and neck fractures with most documented fractures being due to strangulation, hanging, motorcycle helmet straps, sports injuries and rarely as a complication of intubation. However, they are even rarer in the paediatric age group. We present a hyoid bone fracture in a two-year-old child as a result of a fall down three steps. Hyoid bone fractures though generally heal well with conservative treatment must be diagnosed early to avoid air way obstruction leading to morbidity and mortality.

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Management of pediatric laryngeal webs secondary to severe croup and traumatic intubation

Alex Waler, Kyle Sanchez, Sergio Santino Cervantes, Cynthia Chen

Publicatie 18-10-2020


Laryngotracheobronchitis is a common, typically self-limiting viral infection. However, severe laryngotracheobronchitis can require urgent intubation to prevent imminent airway obstruction. The concurrent inflammation and urgency make laryngeal trauma more likely. We report two cases of children who underwent emergent intubation for acute respiratory distress due to viral laryngotracheobronchitis and subsequently developed anterior laryngeal webs. Both underwent laryngoplasty with keel placement, with resolution of their laryngeal webs. These cases describe pediatric laryngeal web formation as a rare complication of traumatic intubation and a novel technique for endoscopic keel placement.

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Use of an intraocular handpiece for the removal of magnets from the oropharynx of a pediatric patient

Prahasit Thirkateh, Sarah M. Walner, David L. Walner

Publicatie 14-10-2020


With the increasing availability of magnets within household objects and toys, otolaryngologists must be aware of the propensity of ingestions or impaction of magnets within the upper aerodigestive tract of pediatric patients. We describe a case of a 21-month old male who presented with throat pain after swallowing ten 0.5-inch magnetic balls, after which evaluation revealed the adherence the the of three magnets within the posterior oropharynx and an additional seven magnets in the small intestine. After an initial failed attempt to remove the pharyngeal magnets with forceps, the magnets were successfully removed using an ophthalmic intraocular magnet handpiece designed for ophthalmologic procedures. Use of this device should be taken into consideration for similar cases.

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Dacryoendoscopic examination for location of internal orifice of congenital lacrimal fistula: A case series

Shinjiro Kono, Patricia Ann L. Lee, Hirohiko Kakizaki, Yasuhiro Takahashi

Publicatie 06-10-2020


We examined the location of the internal orifice of congenital lacrimal fistula using a dacryoendoscope in 5 patients. A suture inserted from the skin orifice and passing into the lacrimal drainage system through the fistula track was identified using a dacryoendoscope. Consequently, the suture passed into the lacrimal sac in all patients. Although the internal orifice had been reported to be predominantly located in the common canaliculus, the methods previously used for identification of the internal orifice were less accurate. The results in our study suggest a higher incidence of congenital lacrimal fistulae connected with the lacrimal sac.

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Non-accidental trauma presenting with nasal septal hematoma or abscess

S. Ghadersohi, C.R. Francom, J.D. Prager

Publicatie 23-10-2020


Failure to diagnose non-accidental trauma (NAT) leaves the victim at risk of further injury or even death. It is incumbent upon physicians and other health care personnel to identify trauma patterns that have a high likelihood of being caused by NAT. The objective of this study is to discuss the presentation of nasal septal hematoma (NSH) or nasal septal abscess (NSA) as a sign of NAT. This is a retrospective case series of patients presenting with nasal septal hematoma or abscess between 2010 and 2019. The primary endpoint was the etiology of the injury. Secondary endpoints included demographics, concomitant injuries and treatments rendered. There were 28 patients who presented with septal hematoma or abscess. The etiologies included 20 (71.4%) due to accidental trauma, four (13.8%) with NAT, one infectious, and three unknown. All four NAT patients were male and infants with an average age of 5.4 months (SD 4.6) significantly (p = 0.0069) younger than 10.3 years (SD 5.1) in the accidental trauma group. There was a delayed time to presentation for the NAT patients compared to other etiologies. Two of four NAT patients were initially thought to have a congenital midline nasal dermoid, yet surgical intervention revealed a hematoma. Further NAT evaluation noted concomitant injuries including rib fractures and intracranial injuries in 75% of the NAT patients. Presentation of a child with NSH/NSA prior to the onset of ambulation or with a delayed time to presentation should prompt suspicion and further workup for NAT.

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Changes in auditory function in premature children: A prospective cohort study

Irina V. Savenko, Ekaterina S. Garbaruk, Elena A. Krasovskaya

Publicatie 24-10-2020


To analyze the age-specific pattern of auditory function in preterm children as a function of their gestational age at birth. longitudinal cohort study. a prospective cohort study involved 271 preterm children aged from 6 months to 15 years old. Children were divided into two groups: 70 children with a gestational age at birth of 32-36 weeks (Group 1) and 201 children with a gestational age of 22-31 weeks (Group 2). Hearing was assessed by ABR, ASSR, OAE, behavioral audiometry, and pure tone audiometry. Additionally, for some children, CT, MRI, and GBJ2 evaluations were performed. Assessments of hearing impaired children were performed 3-4 times a year for children under 2 years of age; 2-3 times a year for children from 2 to 5 years of age; and 1-2 times a year for children over 5 years of age. Infants without any hearing problems were examined 2-3 times during their first year of life, followed by annual examinations as they aged. The initial hearing examination identified SNHL and ANSD in 18 children (25.7%) and 64 children (31.8%) in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. No significant difference in the occurrence of auditory impairment in the two groups was found at the initial assessment (p > 0.05). Further long-term follow-up revealed changes in hearing in 16 children: 15 from Group 2 and only one child from Group 1. Four different kinds of hearing changes were noted: hearing recovery to normal levels in children with ANSD; late onset hearing loss; the transformation of ANSD to SNHL, and vice versa. The age, factors, and possible mechanisms of such changes are discussed in the article. The auditory function in prematurely born children tends to be unstable, especially at a very early age. In very preterm infants, it may either deteriorate or improve. Infants born before 31 weeks' gestation require long-term follow-up at least until they are 3-4 years of age. Caution is advised regarding very early cochlear implantation for children born before 32 weeks of gestation age.

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“The importance of preoperative evaluations prior to pediatric otorhinolaryngological surgery”

Beatriz Pallarés Martí, Natsuki Oishi, José Ramón Alba, Francisco Javier García Callejo, Enrique Zapater

Publicatie 24-10-2020


To describe the results of preoperative evaluations prior to pediatric surgery. We reviewed a total of 99 patients, with mean age of 6.53 + 2.39 years, an average of 11.04 months after their inclusion on the surgical treatment list. These patients were obtained from General University Hospital of Valencia surgery waiting list between October 2015 and July 2016. We have reassessed all the patients before their surgery date and analyzed the results: the indication had changed or not. In the case of indication changed, the outcome was subdivided into: extension, reduction, or surgery no indicated because a clinical resolution. After waiting on the list for surgery for an average of 11 months, the initial surgical indication had changed in 52 patients (52%), this groups was subdivided into: 33 patients (33%) had spontaneously resolved by the time of their reassessment and their clinical symptoms no longer met the criteria for surgery, the indication for surgery was extended in 10 patients (10%) and was reduced another 9 patients (9%). We found a statistically significantrelationship (p = 0.034) between the age of the patients at the time of the preoperative re- evaluation and modifications made to the initial surgery indication. Our results show the dynamic evolution of benign Waldeyer-ring related pathologies in the pediatric population due to physical growth and immune development. The clinical evaluation prior to benign pediatric surgery is recommended In specially in the group over 5 years.

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Revision cochlear implantation using a double array device in the post-meningitis ossified cochlea

Chanan Shaul, J.Thomas Roland, Jean-Yves Sichel, Riki Salem, Ronen Perez

Publicatie 23-10-2020


To describe the surgical technique and outcome in a series of patients who underwent revision cochlear implantation using a double array or split electrode device. All patients developed ossified cochleae due to meningitis and were functioning poorly with the previous implant. Four patients between the ages of 4-15 years underwent revision with five double-array cochlear implant devices. One patient underwent bilateral revision surgery. All patients had previous meningitis with CT and MRI imaging studies that demonstrated completely ossified cochleae. The time interval range between the disease and the initial cochlear implantation and was 4 months to 3 years. The patient's data were retrospectively analyzed with emphasis on the surgical technique, the number of electrodes inserted, and the number of active electrodes at follow-up. In addition, pre and post-revision surgery function was compared. The revision surgery was carried out 2-11 years after the initial surgery. Two tunnels, basal and apical, were drilled in the ossified cochlea. In each of the tunnels, 5 to 11 electrodes were inserted. While the number of active electrodes before revision was 0-5, after revision with the double array, it was increased to 8-12, resulting in improved auditory and speech function. Revision cochlear implantation with a double array implant using the two tunnel technique can increase the number of active electrodes. This leads to a better outcome in post-meningitis children with completely ossified cochleae and a poor functioning previous device.

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Systematic review of endoscopic-assisted surgical management for congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction

Skylar Trott, Nicole Colgrove, Philip Westgate, Matthew Bush, Kenneth Iverson

Publicatie 23-10-2020


Epiphora is a common presenting complaint in infants affecting up to 6% of infants in the United States. It is most frequently due to congenital anomalies of the nasolacrimal duct system, termed congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO). Nasolacrimal duct probing is widely accepted as the primary surgical intervention in cases that fail conservative management. Recently, nasal endoscopy has been combined with traditional probing to improve success rates and outcomes. Several studies have been conducted, but the results have been inconclusive overall. The goal of this systematic review is to examine the existing literature on the role of nasal endoscopy during nasolacrimal duct probing and evaluate patient outcomes. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, LILAC, and EMBASE to identify peer-reviewed research. Eligible studies were those containing original peer-reviewed research in English addressing nasolacrimal duct probing for congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction in conjunction with nasal endoscopy. Two investigators independently reviewed all articles and extracted data. Bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool, the Newcastle-Ottawa Assessment scale, and the NIH Quality Assessment scale. A literature review ultimately yielded 11 articles that were selected and included in our analysis. Of the seven case series, the success rate was 92.5% for a total of 492 eyes. Of the four cohort/case-control studies, the success rate in conventional probings was 75.3% for a total of 293 eyes. In probings with nasal endoscopy, the success rate was 95.3% for 162 eyes. Overall, there was a high risk of bias and variation in data reporting amongst studies. Infants with congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction that does not resolve with conservative treatment often require surgical intervention. Based on this systematic review of the current literature, nasal endoscopy is a useful adjunct for nasolacrimal duct probing.

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Rapid telemedicine implementation in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic in an academic pediatric otolaryngology practice

Nandini Govil, Nikhila Raol, Ching Siong Tey, Steven L. Goudy, Kristan P. Alfonso

Publicatie 21-10-2020


To describe the implementation of telemedicine in a pediatric otolaryngology practice during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic. A descriptive paper documenting the development and application of telemedicine in a tertiary academic pediatric otolaryngology practice. A total of 51 established patients were seen via telemedicine within the first 2 weeks of telemedicine implementation. Seven (7) patients were no shows to the appointment. The median patient age was 5 years old, with 55% male patients. Common diagnoses for the visits included sleep disordered breathing/obstructive sleep apnea (25%) and hearing loss (19.64%). Over half (50.98%) of visits were billed at level 4 visit code. The majority (88%) of visits during the first 2 weeks of telemedicine implementation in our practice were completed successfully. Reasons that patients did not schedule telemedicine appointments included preference for in person appointments, and lack of adequate device at home to complete telemedicine visit. Limitations to our telemedicine practice included offering telemedicine only to patients who had home internet service, were established patients, and English-speaking. Trainees were not involved in this initial implementation of telemedicine. COVID-19 has driven the rapid adoption of telemedicine in outpatient medicine. Our group was able to institute an effective telemedicine practice during this time.

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Mismatch Negativity in children with Phonological Disorders

Amália El Hatal de Souza, Julia Dalcin Pinto, Carolina Lisboa Mezommo, Eliara Pinto Vieira Biaggio

Publicatie 21-10-2020


to characterize the latency, amplitude and area variables of the Mismatch Negativity (MMN) elicited with verbal stimuli in children with PD, in addition to assessing whether this potential can be a useful tool in capturing auditory perception and discrimination deficits related to this disorder. MMN was recorded using a combination of speech contrast consisting of acoustic syllables [da vs ta], as the standard and deviant stimuli, in 34 children aged between 5 and 8 years. 14 children of the sample were already diagnosed with Phonological Disorder (PD) while 19 were characterized with typical development. No statistically significant differences were observed for the MMN responses recorded between children with PD and their typically developed peers. The results suggest that the MMN may not be the most suitable procedure to assess auditory perception and discrimination deficits that could potentially be related to PD.

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Comparisons of performance in pediatric bone conduction implant recipients using remote microphone technology

Hillary Snapp, Kari Morgenstein, Chrisanda Sanchez, Jennifer Coto, Ivette Cejas

Publicatie 19-10-2020


For children with hearing loss, remote microphone (RM) technology can significantly improve access to speech in environments with poor signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), such as classrooms. Yet, this has never been studied in bone conduction device (BCD) users, a common treatment for children with irresolvable conductive hearing loss resulting from anatomical malformations of the outer ear. The objective of this study was to investigate the benefits of RM technology on speech perception in noise in pediatric BCD users with Microtia/Atresia. A secondary aim was to assess parent and child perceptions of RM technology before and after exposure to RM technology. Participants included 10 pediatric bone conduction implant users with unilateral conductive hearing loss ages 7-17 years, and their guardians. Speech perception in noise for soft and moderate inputs was assessed with and without RM technology. Guardians actively observed the child's hearing performance with and without the RM and were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing their perceptions about their child's performance. Children were also administered the questionnaire prior to and immediately following exposure to the RM technology. Participants showed improved speech understanding in noise for both soft and moderate speech inputs when using the RM with their BCD compared to their BCD alone. Questionnaire results indicated good parent-child agreement. Further, significant improvements were reported for child understanding speech, parent hearing domains after exposure to the RM. No significant differences were noted for ease of use/likability. Significant hearing in noise benefits were observed with RM technology for children using BCDs. Consistent with objective findings, children reported improved speech understanding with the RM. Improved parental perceptions of hearing benefit following exposure to the RM suggests that active participation may serve as an effective strategy to help improve parent understanding of the benefits of RM technology for their child.

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The concatenation of association between gastroesophageal reflux and obstructive adenotonsillar hypertrophy

Milind Sagar, Prem Sagar, S.K. Kabra, Rajeev Kumar, Saumyaranjan Mallick

Publicatie 18-10-2020


Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is frequently seen in patients with adenotonsillar hypertrophy. However, the sequential association between GER and adenotonsillar hypertrophy is unknown. This leads to unpredictable outcomes while treating patients of adenotonsillar hypertrophy with GER. The objective of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of GER and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in paediatric patients with obstructive adenotonsillar hypertrophy (OATH), and to assess the effect of adenotonsillectomy (AT) on GER as well as GERD. In this prospective cohort study, consecutive pediatric patients with grade III/IV hypertrophy of adenoid or/and tonsillar tissue who were planned for AT were recruited after excluding comorbidities predisposing to GER. Symptoms of GERD using Gastro Esophageal Reflux Questionnaire for Young Children (GERQ-YC) and Reflux Indices (RI) obtained from 24-h ambulatory esophageal pH monitoring were evaluated in all patients pre-operatively and 12 weeks following AT. A total of 49 patients with OATH with average age of 6 years were included in this study. With a RI of >4.3% as the threshold for making the diagnosis of GER on esophageal pH monitoring, the prevalence of GER was 20.4%. The average RI preoperatively was 15.7% which reduced to 1.7% following AT (p = 0.004). Among the 10 patients with preoperative GER, 80% of the patients had no evidence of GER after surgery. New incidences of GER was not observed post operatively in this cohort. As per the GER symptom scoring system, 31% of the parents reported GERD pre-operatively which resolved completely in all patients following surgery. - In this study, the prevalence of GER proven by 24 h ambulatory esophageal pH monitoring is 20% in pediatric patients with OATH. Following AT, GER resolved in 80% of cases and was reduced substantially in the remaining cases in the subset of patients with pre-operative GER. The symptoms of GERD based on parents' recall of child's previous symptoms may not accurately represent presence of GER. Our results suggest that OATH can result in GER due to increased negative intra-thoracic pressure as a result of breathing against an obstructed upper airway and hence, GER subsides following surgical removal of the obstructive pathology. To establish this concatenational association of OATH and GER, larger studies are mandated.

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Yield of preoperative findings in pediatric airway foreign bodies - A meta-analysis

Gil Zoizner-Agar, Sabah Merchant, Binhuan Wang, Max M. April

Publicatie 18-10-2020


Foreign body (FB) aspiration into the airway is a significant cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality, yet the clinical presentation is diverse and dynamic. There are conflicting recommendations which pre-procedural findings support performing a bronchoscopy, the gold standard for diagnosis and removal of FBs, however a procedure that entails general anesthesia and possible risks. Decision whether to proceed to a bronchoscopy may be challenging. Our goal was to enhance decision-making by analyzing the diagnostic values of the different pre-procedural findings in this setting. A comprehensive search was performed in PUBMED, EMBASE and Cochrane Review databases to find studies from the last 19 years that reported pre-procedural history, physical examination and radiological findings in patients who had bronchoscopies. Studies were included of pediatric populations if they contained bronchoscopy results (positive and negative for foreign body) with a breakdown according to pre-intervention findings. Titles and abstracts retrieved from our search were screened. Thereafter, full-texts were carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion if the aforementioned criteria were met. PRISMA guidelines for systematic review and meta-analyses were followed. Cumulative weighted prevalence, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of each pre-procedural finding were calculated, as well as for the "classic triad" (history of an acute event, wheezing, and unilateral decreased breath sounds). Calculation for other combinations of findings, or optimally, constructing a weighted score based on all the findings for each specific patient were not possible to perform, as the specific data breakdown is rarely reported. Fifteen studies met inclusion criteria, totaling 5606 patients who underwent bronchoscopies. All studies but one were single center based and all except one were retrospective. No single finding has both positive and negative predictive values over 50%. The "classic triad" has 90% specificity, however only 35% sensitivity. The data is very heterogeneous with regard to pre-procedural findings and how best to guide treatment according to them. This meta-analysis provides cumulative weighted metrics for each finding, to optimize decision-making for the individual patient. Future reporting of data should be enhanced, so that combinations of findings for a specific patient can be used to optimize management. 4.

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Severe tracheobronchial harm due to lithium button battery aspiration: An in vitro study of the pathomechanism and injury pattern

Johannes Voelker, Christine Voelker, Jonas Engert, Philipp Schendzielorz, Rudolf Hagen, Kristen Rak

Publicatie 15-10-2020


Button battery incidents have become a rising medical issue in recent years, especially for infants. The increasing number of these cases can be explained by the expanding use of objects of everyday life and toys. As a result, button batteries in many households are ubiquitous in different states of charge. The extremely long shelf-life and the increasing energy densities of lithium button batteries boost the potential medical complications of accidental swallowing. The study aimed to analyze the pathophysiology of damage to tracheobronchial structures by button batteries aspiration over time. CR2032 and CR927 lithium button batteries (3.2/3.0 V) were exposed to porcine trachea preparations intraluminal at 37 °C in intervals up to 36 h. Measurements were made of the voltage curve, the discharge current, and the resulting pH values around the electrodes. The effects on tissue were examined using macroscopic time-lapse images and microscopic pictures of sections of the fixed specimens over time. The examinations showed a tissue electrolysis reaction directly after the beginning of battery exposure, which led to an immediate coagulation impairment of the respiratory epithelium. Over time, a strongly alkaline environment was established around the batteries. The resulting tissue colliquation caused profound tissue damage beyond the basal membrane of the mucosa, affecting the tracheobronchial cartilage after only 4 h of exposure time. After 12 h, there was significant necrosis of the annular ligaments of the trachea and the peribronchial pulmonary tissue. After completion of the experimental exposure time of 36 h, there was still a sufficient residual voltage on all button batteries of the experiments. Besides accidental ingestion, the aspiration of button batteries is a life-threatening situation. The partial or complete acute airway obstruction in the trachea or the bronchi initially is the leading symptom, as with any foreign body aspiration. However, the results of the investigations show that even after a short exposure time, relevant tissue damage can be caused by the electrolysis reaction of the battery. After 12 h, a profound destruction of cartilage, connective tissue, and smooth muscles was observed in vitro, which may cause significant consequential damage in vivo. These findings reveal the need for rapid diagnosis and immediate foreign body removal after any battery ingestion. Moreover, the results show how relevant prevention of these accidents is, and that future safety modifications of these types of battery by the manufacturers would be appropriate.

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Congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction update study (CUP study): Paper II - Profile and outcomes of complex CNLDO and masquerades

Oshin Bansal, Nandini Bothra, Abhimanyu Sharma, Mohammad Javed Ali

Publicatie 18-10-2020


To assess the profiles and outcomes of complex congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (C-CNLDO). Retrospective interventional case-series was performed on patients diagnosed with C-CNLDO and managed at a tertiary care Dacryology Institute from Jan 2016 to June 2019. Complex CNLDO was diagnosed based on intraoperative findings during probing and are defined as entities where CNLDO is secondary to, or associated with complex embryonic entities like buried probe, mal-development or non-development of bony NLD, additional proximal lacrimal dysgenesis, atonic sac, or associated craniofacial syndromes and craniofacial dysostosis. The parameters studied include patient demographics, clinical presentation, types of C-CNLDO, management modalities, and outcomes. Success was defined as the subjective resolution of epiphora and discharge with objective measures of normal tear meniscus height and dye clearance on fluorescein dye disappearance test. For patients who underwent a dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR), a minimum follow-up of 1-year post-DCR was considered for outcome analysis. Of the 2714 cases of CNLDO managed during this period, 482 (17.75%) were diagnosed as complex CNLDO. C-CNLDO showed predilection to the male gender (60.3%, 291/482). A significant number of patients (40.2%, 194/482) presented beyond 36 months of age. The common subtypes of C-CNLDO were atonic sacs (33.8%, 163/482), buried probes (19.7%, 95/482), and associated proximal lacrimal drainage anomalies (11.2%, 54/482). Since C-CNLDO is usually confirmed during the initial endoscopy-guided probing, the managements varied based on the type of C-CNLDO. Silicone intubation and/or balloon dacryoplasty (BDCP), and/or additional minimally invasive procedures were added to the initial endoscopy-guided irrigation and probing based on the nature of C-CNLDO. The overall resolution rate with these non-bypass modalities was 72.6% (350/482). Although the success rates start dropping in C-CNLDO patients beyond 3-years of age, significant success rates with multi-modal (non-bypass) management were noted in age-groups 3-5 years (71.8%, 79/110) and encouraging results (38.5%, 27/70) in 5-10 years age group. The anatomical and functional outcomes in those who underwent endoscopic or external dacryocystorhinostomy with a follow-up beyond 1-year was 96.4% (55/57). The age at presentation is delayed in patients with C-CNLDO. Multi-modal endoscopy-guided management facilitates the identification of several sub-types of C-CNLDO, and achieves significantly high favourable outcomes in older children. C-CNLDO refractory to probing, intubation and BDCP demonstrates high success with external or endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy.

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Pediatric head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma: An analysis of treatment and survival in the United States (1975–2016)

Christina Darwish, Timothy Shim, Andrew D. Sparks, Yeshwant Chillakuru, David Strum, Daniel A. Benito, Ashkan Monfared

Publicatie 14-10-2020


Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue head and neck sarcoma in children. Stringent analysis of survival data is imperative to optimize treatment. The National Cancer Database (NCDB, 2004-2016) and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER, 1975-2016) were queried for patients ages 0-19 with RMS of the head and neck. Survival trends were analyzed using univariable logistic regression and Chi-square pairwise comparisons. Survival by treatment was analyzed using log-rank tests, Kaplan Meier, and multivariable Cox-proportional hazards regression. 1147 (63.3% age <10 years, 54.3% male) and 459 (71.4% age <10 years, 53.6% male) patients were identified in NCDB and SEER, respectively. In NCDB, embryonal (n = 625, 54.5%) and alveolar (n = 300, 26.2%) were the most common histology and nonparameningeal/non-orbital (n = 634, 55.3%), followed by parameningeal (n = 303, 26.4%) and orbital (n = 210, 18.3%) the most common location. Five-year overall survival (OS) was 70.3% with lower mortality risk for embryonal histology (adjusted HR [aHR] = 0.69, p = 0.0038). Orbital tumors had greatest survival (5-year OS = 92.4%) of all sites, and their mortality risk was higher with chemotherapy and radiation compared to surgery and radiation (aHR = 6.27, p = 0.0302). SEER analysis showed average increased survival by 4% per year (p < 0.0001), but no significant 5-year OS difference when comparing 1976-1980 and 2006-2010 (p = 0.0843). Major prognostic factors for survival in childhood RMS of the head and neck were embryonal histology, orbital site, extent of disease, and use of SRT for orbital tumors. Larger population studies are required to demonstrate survival differences between treatment modalities for other sites.

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Eosinophilic esophagitis with and without airway involvement in children – A comparative analysis

Varun Bora, Anthony Olive, Eric Chiou, Priya Raj, Deepak Mehta

Publicatie 14-10-2020


Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergic disease characterized by marked eosinophilic infiltration and inflammation of the esophagus eventually leading to esophageal dysfunction. This condition at times may involve the airway leading to breathing difficulties. To compare the course of EoE in patients with or without airway involvement. A retrospective chart review was done on patients with a diagnosis of Eosinophilic Esophagitis and that were managed in our Aerodigestive clinic from 2012 to 2018. A total of 121 EoE patients were included in the study. Each patient's disease course was examined for pertinent information including - but not limited to - age at presentation, allergies, endoscopic and pathology results, treatments prescribed, and time to resolution. The data was analyzed for any differences between the airway and non-airway groups for each of these variables. The variables that were analyzed showed no significant difference between patients suffering from EoE with (n = 19) and without (n = 102) airway involvement. However, patients with airway disease trended towards being younger in age at presentation as compared to those without airway symptoms (6.68 years vs. 9.69 years, p = 0.69). Analysis of endoscopic and pathology findings revealed no difference. Similarly, no differences were found between the prescribed treatments. Kaplan-Meier estimates of time to disease remission indicated that 50% of patients had resolution at one year, regardless of airway involvement (p = 0.31). Our findings indicate that the disease course of patients with EoE does not vary depending on the presence of airway symptoms. Thus, patients with airway symptoms should not be diagnosed or treated any different than those without airway symptoms.

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Patterns of pediatric cervical spine fractures in association with mandibular and facial fractures

Jonathan A. Harounian, Garrett Ni, Michele M. Carr

Publicatie 14-10-2020


To determine the incidence, demographics, and outcomes of concurrent cervical spine (C-spine) fractures in pediatric facial trauma. The Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) from the 2016 Healthcare Cost Utilization Project (HCUP) was queried for various facial fractures using International Classification of Diseases Tenth Revision (ICD-10) diagnosis codes. Mandible fractures were further subdivided into fracture site. Patients aged 0-18 were included, and rates of C-spine fracture were analyzed with regards to demographic factors, length of stay, total charges, mortality rate, hospital characteristics, and concurrent facial fractures. Of 5568 patients included, 4.18% presented with C-spine fracture. Children with C-spine fractures were significantly older (15.02 vs 12.76 years, p < 0.001) and length of stay was significantly longer (11.33 vs 6.44 days, p < 0.001). There was no difference in rate of C-spine fracture when stratified by gender, time of week/year, hospital location/type, or facial fracture other than subcondylar fractures. Subcondylar fractures were positively associated with C-spine fractures (OR 2.08, p = 0.002). C-spine fractures were associated with significantly higher mortality, length of stay, rate of tracheostomy, transfer out of index hospital, and total hospital charges. A significant association exists between subcondylar mandible and C-spine fractures. Awareness of this information is vital for clinicians who manage pediatric facial trauma and alerts them to the need to rule out C-spine fractures in this group as these patients have significantly higher lengths of stay, total mean hospital costs, mortality and tracheostomy rates.

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Nasal function and cardio-respiratory capacity of adolescent with external nasal dilator

Carlos Henrique Santos Ferreira, Ricardo Reis Dinardi, Cássio da Cunha Ibiapina, Cláudia Ribeiro de Andrade

Publicatie 12-10-2020


the external nasal dilator (END) has been employed for the purpose of aiding sporting performance. The objective of this study was to evaluate nasal function and cardio-respiratory capacity in healthy adolescent athletes using the END. double-blind, crossover clinical trial in which adolescents were evaluated while using the experimental and placebo END during physical exercise. Values for peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF), nasal resistance (NR) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO for the 71 adolescents evaluated, the use of the experimental END, compared to the placebo, produced a significant improvement in values of PNIF (177.4 ± 20.9 L/min and 172.8 ± 20.2 L/min) (p = 0.020), NR (0.24 ± 0.16 and 0.27 ± 0.16) (p = 0.007), VO the END reduced NR, increased PNIF and improved VO

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Usefulness and practical insights of the pediatric video head impulse test

Kyu-Sung Kim, Yoon Kun Jung, Ki Jong Hyun, Min Ji Kim, Hyun Ji Kim

Publicatie 12-10-2020


The video head impulse test (vHIT) is a diagnostic tool to examine patients experiencing dizziness by assessing the function of the semicircular canals. vHIT has been widely studied in adults but relatively less so in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the causes of dizziness and the results of vHIT in children. We also identified factors that affect the vHIT results such as artifacts and technical errors. Retrospective review; SETTING: Tertiary care center. A total of 39 patients who visited our clinic for dizziness from 2014 to 2017. The gain of vestibulo-ocular reflex, refixation saccades, and artifacts were analyzed using vHIT. We analyzed 691 individual vHIT traces and categorized the artifacts into 8 categories. Twenty-three males and 16 females were included. The mean age was 13.84 ± 2.60 years (range, 7-18). Common causes of dizziness were benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood (25.6%), vestibular neuritis (20.5%), and vestibular migraine (17.9%). The sensitivity and specificity of vHIT based on the bithermal caloric test results were 40% and 94%, respectively. The analysis of vHIT traces revealed that the children had higher artifact ratios of vHIT than the adults. The main artifacts were high gain and blinking eyes. The vHIT results showed a higher percentage of artifacts in children than in the adults. More careful efforts are required to obtain more accurate results during the test, and it is necessary to check for technical errors while interpreting the results.

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"Pediatric nasal dermoid- a decades experience from a South Indian tertiary care centre"

P. Naina, G.E. Jonathan, M. Prabhakar, A. Irodi, K.A. Syed, M. John, A.M. Varghese

Publicatie 10-10-2020


Nasal dermoid sinus cyst (NDSC) are uncommon congenital lesions in children. To review the clinical and radiological presentation and study the surgical outcomes of this uncommon lesion. Retrospective chart review of all children diagnosed with nasal dermoid from 2010 to 2020 at a tertiary referral hospital in South India was executed. The medical records were reviewed for demographics, lesion characteristics, imaging, operative details, and outcomes and literature review was performed. A total of 25 children [Mean age 3.7 yrs (Range 2-9 yrs)] with nasal dermoid sinus cysts were treated in the last decade. While 13 presented with a sinus, 11 presented with cyst and 1 had both. The lesions mainly involved the upper third of the nose in 10 children, middle one third in 6 and upper one third in 9 children. All underwent Magnetic Resonance Imaging, in 11 Computed Tomography also was done. A flow chart of the lesion characteristics and its management has been presented. Intraoperatively intracranial extension was present in four children. The approach to intracranial extension and corresponding literature review has been presented. Follow up ranged from one to six years. (Median 3.5 yrs) and no recurrence or complication was noted. Nasal dermoid is an uncommon congenital anomaly. Preoperative evaluation must include imaging to assess extent and rule out intracranial extension. Surgical strategy depends on whether presentation is as sinus or cyst and location and extent of lesion. All surgical approaches have a good surgical and cosmetic outcome.

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Radiological evidence to changes in the olfactory bulb volume depending on body mass index in the childhood

Murat Karaoglan, Hale Colakoglu Er

Publicatie 10-10-2020


Energy balance is preserved through the exchange between body weight and adipose tissue across the multi-faceted complex network that is composed of the sensorial, metabolic, and neuro-endocrine circuits. The olfactory control of energy homeostasis is maintained through the interplay between the olfactory bulb (OB) and adipose tissue. While extremely studied, most researches still report controversial results and sensorial regulation of obesity is not fully understood. This study aims to investigate the interplay between olfactory bulb volume (OBV) as a radiological clue of sensorial control and obesity in children. Children (n = 195) were classified into four groups based on body mass index (BMI) percentiles: normal weight (n = 89), overweight (n = 31), obese (n = 32) and morbidly obese (n = 43). OBV were calculated using MRI. Mean OBV was higher in children with obesity than in those of normal weights. The means of OBV are found higher in the overweight and obese children (43.76 ± 9.50-49.29 ± 8.61 mm This study reveals that OBV is higher in obese children. Also, it shows that there is a positive correlation between OBV and BMI in overweight and obese children and a negative correlation in the morbidly obese group. These radiological bimodal changes in OBV indicate that olfactory control acts to provide energy balance, mediated by positive in the overweight and obese children, negative feedback in the morbidly obese group.

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Effect of delivery mode on neonate auditory brainstem responses to air- and bone-conducted stimuli

Andrew Stuart

Publicatie 10-10-2020


The object of this study was to examine if caesarean section delivered neonates have different middle ear function relative to neonates with vaginal delivery. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were examined in caesarean section delivered (n = 23) and vaginally delivered (n = 29) neonates. ABRs were also evoked with air- and bone-conducted stimuli (i.e., clicks and CE-Chirps) and presented at a screening intensity level (i.e., 30 dB nHL). Wave V latencies and amplitudes were examined as a function of mode of delivery and stimuli. Statistically significant longer wave V latencies evoked with air-conducted stimuli were seen in caesarean section delivered neonates (p = .042). There was no statistically significant difference in wave V latencies with bone-conducted stimuli among the two groups of neonates (p = .42). There were no significant differences in wave V amplitude between neonates with caesarean section and vaginal delivery for air-conducted (p = .42) stimuli. Wave V amplitudes were not significantly different as a function of mode of delivery with CE-Chirp stimulus (p = .41). Wave V amplitudes were significantly larger for the caesarean section delivered neonates with the bone-conducted click stimulus (p = .036). The ABR wave V latency disparity with air- and bone-conducted stimuli support the notion that differences in middle ear function exist between the two groups of newborns. It was speculated that delayed fluid resorption in the middle ear exists in neonates with caesarean section delivery compared to those with vaginal delivery.

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Anthropometry: A clue for Otorhinolaryngology surgical indications in children

Francisco Alves de Sousa, Afonso Domingos Castro, André Sousa Machado, Ana Nóbrega Pinto, Miguel Bebiano Coutinho, Cecília Almeida e Sousa

Publicatie 10-10-2020


There are reports in literature concerning the relation between some maternal and neonatal factors and future risk of disease, including atopy, recurrent infections and obstructive sleep disturbances, three common pathologies eliciting surgery in children. To evaluate if maternal and neonatal factors can relate to Otorhinolaryngology surgical indications in a cohort of children treated in a tertiary referral center. A retrospective analysis of data from children submitted to primary Otorhinolaryngology surgery in the pediatric ambulatory unit of Centro Hospitalar Universitário do Porto between March 2016 and March 2020 was performed. Children with orofacial congenital anomalies were excluded and 1256 children met the eligibility criteria. The associations between maternal and neonatal factors and the development of atopy, recurrent infections and obstructive sleep apnea were analyzed. Atopic children showed higher birth weight percentile (p < 0,001) and birth weight-for-length index (p < 0,001) compared with non-atopic. Weight-at-surgery was also higher in atopic patients (p = 0,002). Maternal atopy significantly increased the risk of children atopic disease (p < 0,001; Odds Ratio 4,359). Children indicated for surgery for recurrent infections showed lower birth weight-for-length index (p = 0,038) and lower probability of atopic disease (p < 0,001). Recurrent acute otitis media related to both lower birth weight-for-length index (p = 0,002) and birth body mass index (p = 0,023). There was not a significant higher incidence of sleep apnea in preterm infants (p = 0,488). Obstructive sleep apnea patients showed lower weight-at-surgery percentile (p = 0,045). This work suggests an association between birth anthropometric measurements and atopic and infectious diseases later in life, irrespective of gestational age. There was no consistent association between perinatal parameters and obstructive sleep apnea, but the impact of disordered breathing in childhood anthropometry was significative.

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Cross-cultural adaptation of the sinus and nasal quality of life survey (SN-5) to Spanish

Christian Calvo-Henríquez, Beatriz Valencia-Blanco, Borja Boronat-Catalá, Juan Maza-Solano, Águeda Díaz-Anadón, Sandra Kahn, Jose D. Moure-Gonzalez, Ana Faraldo-García, Gabriel Martinez-Capoccioni

Publicatie 09-10-2020


There is a high prevalence for rhinitis with an increasing trend. However, there is a lack of specific quality of life pediatric questionnaires for sinonasal symptoms. The Sinus and Nasal Quality of Life Survey (SN-5) is the only validated instrument specifically designed with this objective. In this work we have translated and validated the Spanish version of the SN5 questionnaire. The SN5 was translated according to the World Health Organization recommendation for the translation and adaptation of instruments. The final version of the Sp-SN5 was administered twice (day 0 and day 7) to 137 participants with and without sinonasal symptoms. Reliability was measured with Cronbach α, temporal stability was measured with intraclass correlation coefficient. External validity was assessed with a ROC curve comparing a cohort of cases (children going to turbinate radiofrequency ablation) and controls (asymptomatic children). A Spearman correlation between the total result of the Sp-SN-5 questionnaire and the QOL score showed a strong negative correlation in the general sample and all the age subgroups. Internal consistency measured with Cronbach α was 0.87 for 5 items and was still over 0.83 after removing each item of the test. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for test-retest measurements was 0.94. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for all the included participants showed a very high area under the curve (0.998). The Sp-SN-5 questionnaire was successfully translated and cross-culturally adapted into Spanish, and the translated version exhibited adequate properties. The survey was effective in assessing the quality of life of pediatric patients with sinonasal complaints and can be used for this purpose both in a clinical setting and in future research.

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Validation of the Mandarin versions of CAP and SIR

Liyan Wang, Min Shen, Wei Liang, Weijie Dao, Lijun Zhou, Meihua Zhu

Publicatie 08-10-2020


The present study aims to develop the Mandarin versions of Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP) and Speech Intelligibility of Rating (SIR), verify their reliability and validity, and establish standardized values of the Mandarin CAP and SIR. In doing that it will provide an effective tool for evaluating the auditory skills and speech production of Mandarin-speaking hearing-impaired children. The preliminary Mandarin versions of the CAP and SIR were determined using the back-translation method and then administered to 191 cases aged 0-6 years. A pre-test was conducted on the Mandarin-speaking hearing children, and according to the pre-test and data analysis, the questionnaires were perfected. Formal questionnaires were administered to 103 Mandarin speakers aged 0-6 years, to get the test-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability. A test was conducted on 60 Mandarin-speaking children aged 0-2 years and 60 Mandarin-speaking children aged 3-6 years to get the criterion validity of the CAP and SIR. A total of 5059 Mandarin-speaking typically hearing children aged 0-6 years in China were finally selected for the CAP and SIR assessment to calculate the CAP and SIR scores for each age group. Pre-test data showed a strong positive significant correlation between age and the scores of CAP and SIR, respectively (r1 = 0.817, p < 0.01; r2 = 0.836, p < 0.01). In terms of test-retest reliability, the two CAP scores were significantly and positively correlated (r = 0.981, p < 0.01), and the two SIR scores were also significantly and positively correlated (r = 0.983, p < 0.01). With regard to the inter-rater reliability, the two CAP scores (r = 0.983, p < 0.01), and the two SIR scores (r = 0.997, p < 0.01) were both significantly and positively correlated. As for the criterion validity, CAP and the two efficacy scores were highly significantly correlated (r = 0.721, p < 0.01) and a significant positive correlation (r = 0.283, p < 0.05); along the same lines SIR and the two efficacy scores were both highly significantly correlated (r1 = 0.698, p1<0.01; r2 = 0.428, p2 < 0.01). Standardized values (Mean CAP and SIR scores of each age group) of the Mandarin CAP and SIR were provided. The Mandarin versions of the CAP and SIR are reliable and valid as tools to assess the hearing and speech ability in Mandarin-speaking children. The Mandarin standardized values are helpful to monitor the rehabilitation outcome of hearing-impaired children.

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Positive predictive value for diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in pediatric cholesteatoma: A retrospective study

Rémi Hervochon, Monique Elmaleh-Berges, Martine Francois, Alix Marhic, Abdullah Bahakim, Natacha Teissier, Thierry Van Den Abbeele

Publicatie 08-10-2020


The aims of this study were first to calculate the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) of DW-MRI to detect cholesteatoma and then to analyze false positives. All temporal bone MRI with DWI sequences performed in our pediatric university hospital between 2005 and 2015 were included retrospectively. 46 patients with a cholesteatoma diagnosis on the MRI report and who underwent surgery were studied. The number of DW-MRI for identification of cholesteatoma has grown in ten years. We calculated an 89% Positive Predictive Value. DW-MRI sensitivities were 100.0% and 70.7% for respectively keratin and squamous epithelium. DW-MRI hypersignal is not synonymous of cholesteatoma diagnosis. Indeed, this diagnosis relies on the importance of a proper otoscopic examination, a suggestive medical history, CT scan data and analysis of other MRI sequences, including T1-weighted sequence, to rule out other etiologies of middle ear DW-MRI hypersignal.

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Effects of familial Mediterranean fever on the middle ear

Asli Cakir Cetin, Ceyhun Acari, Hande Evin, Ahmet Omer Ikiz, Gunay Kirkim, Erbil Unsal

Publicatie 09-10-2020


To evaluate middle and inner ear function and hearing status of children with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). We assigned 56 patients with FMF to the study group and 52 healthy volunteers to the control group. The mean age of patients in the study and control groups were 10.10 ± 3.70 and 9.77 ± 3.74 years, respectively. Physical examination and hearing evaluation were performed in both groups. The audiological test battery included 226-Hz tympanometry, pure tone audiometric evaluation, acoustic stapedial reflex measurements, distortion product otoacoustic emission recording, and wide-band tympanometry assessment. The groups were similar in age and sex ratio (p > 0.05 for both comparisons). Pure tone audiogram and distortion product otoacoustic emission results were also similar for both groups (p > 0.05). The ipsilateral acoustic stapedial reflex were present in both of the groups and all participants had Type A tympanogram. The contralateral acoustic stapedial reflex thresholds were significantly higher in the familial Mediterranean fever group (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). The ambient and peak pressure absorbance values of wide-band tympanometry were significantly lower at 2000 Hz and significantly higher at 4000 Hz in the familial Mediterranean fever group (p < 0.05 for both comparisons). The severity and duration of disease adversely affected the absorbance values of wide-band tympanometry at 2000 and 4000 Hz (p < 0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the adverse subclinical effects of familial Mediterranean fever on the middle ear. We recommend that children diagnosed with FMF should be closely monitored for future clinical middle ear pathologies.

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Results of the Universal Neonatal Hearing Screening in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Mexico city

Carlos Fabián Martínez- Cruz, Mayra Norma Ramírez-Vargas, Patricia García-Alonso Themann

Publicatie 07-10-2020


Universal Neonatal Hearing Screening (UNHS) includes as its main objective, that all Newborns (NB) receive an audiological evaluation during their first month of life. To determine the prevalence of hearing loss in a population of healthy NB in a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City. A prospective cross-sectional study was designed. The period was from October 1, 2011 to May 15, 2019. UNHS was performed with a flowchart in three phases using Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions and Brainstem auditory evoked potentials. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. 14,000 NB were evaluated, 28,000 ears. Gender was distributed in n = 7038 (50.3%) males and n = 6962 (49.7%) females. The mean age at the time of the first UNHS study was 48.3 ± 22.2 days. Hearing loss was confirmed in n = 31 (0.22%) NB, in 20 (64%) of the cases with hearing loss there were no documented audiological risk factors. The prevalence of hearing loss was 2.2 per 1000 NB in a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City. Diagnosis and early habilitation of hearing loss in NB constitute quality indicators in health care and guarantee the best prognosis for NB with hearing loss.

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Auricular reconstruction with modified expanded two-flap method in Goldenhar Syndrome: 7-Year experiences

Wenshan Xing, Jin Qian, Bingqing Wang, Yue Wang, Jintian Hu, Qingguo Zhang

Publicatie 07-10-2020


Goldenhar Syndrome (GS) is a systematic polymalformational disease characterized by microtia, hemifacial microsomy, ocular anomalies, abnormal vertebra and other deformities. These congenital malformations brought severe physical and mental stress to the patients. Auricular reconstruction has always been the primary appeal of the patients and their families to achieve a better facial balance and harmony. However, multiple deformities made it a great challenge to perform this technique. In this study, we reported a modified expanded two-flap method of auricular reconstruction, which is more applicable for patients with Goldenhar Syndrome. Between January of 2012 and September of 2019, 69 cases of Goldenhar Syndrome underwent auricular reconstruction with the modified expanded two-flap technique. Auricular reconstruction was performed in three surgical stages. In the first stage, a 50 ml kidney-shaped tissue expander was embedded in mastoid region and the retroauricular skin expanded. In the second stage, the autologous rib cartilage was harvested and the ear framework fabricated. The expander was further removed, and then enveloped by the expanded flap, retroauricular fascial flap and a free skin graft. In the third stage, the reconstructed ear was further trimmed, including lobule transposition and tragus reconstruction. The patients were followed for 6 months to 7 years. There were 63 cases (91.3%) responded satisfied outcomes in size, shape, position and bilateral symmetry. One case suffered expander leakage and tissue expansion accomplished after the expander was replaced. Hematoma was occurred in four cases and removed to complete the reconstruction. Complications of cartilage exposure were observed in one case. Modified expanded two-flap method is effective and safe in auricular reconstruction for patients of Goldenhar syndrome with long term satisfying results. Level of Evidence IV.

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Telemedicine in paediatric otorhinolaryngology: Lessons learnt from remote encounters during the Covid19 pandemic and implications for future practice

Shradha Sharma, Mat Daniel

Publicatie 07-10-2020


Covid19 has necessitated new methods of conducting outpatient consultations. At our institute, patient-facing paediatric ENT appointments were replaced with telemedical consultations. We performed a prospective analysis of the outcomes following telephone consultations with parents and describe our experience of remote consulting during a pandemic, and the possibilities for future applications of telemedicine in paediatric ENT. 215 patients were appropriately referred to the paediatric ENT clinic, 65% of these patients were deemed suitable for remote telephone consultation. Following a telephone call, 50% did not need further ENT clinic management, most commonly due to being listed for surgery (20%) or discharged (18%). The treating consultant assessed 81% of phone consultations as being effective. When given the choice, patients reported that 29% would choose a telephone consultation whilst 43% preferred a face to face consultation. Our experience has shown that there are areas of paediatric ENT that can be streamlined effectively by substituting face to face consultations with telephone consultations. However, prospective evaluation of these remote contacts suggest that telephone consultations are not a panacea and cannot be indiscriminately applied to all. Instead, the strategies to take forwards into a post Covid19 practice are vetting of referrals, individualised treatment plans, and giving patients a choice.

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Incidence of cure and residual obstructive sleep apnea in obese children after tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy stratified by age group

Tonya Lee, Sharon Wulfovich, Ellen Kettler, Javan Nation

Publicatie 07-10-2020


Current clinical guidelines by the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends adenotonsillectomy (T&A) as the first-line treatment for pediatric OSA. However, obese children experience a decreased incidence of cure from T&A compared to non-obese children, with obesity increasing risk of residual post-operative OSA by up to 3.7-fold. In addition to obesity, increased age has also been linked to more severe baseline OSA, among other factors. In this study, we examined how age effects the post-operative outcome in obese children with OSA. A retrospective chart review was performed to assess post-operative T&A polysomnography outcomes of obese children. Inclusion criteria included patients who were 17 years old and younger, underwent T&A, were obese and had both pre- and post-operative sleep studies. The patients were split into 3 different groups based on their age: Group 1 (0-6 years old), Group 2 (7-11 years old), and Group 3 (12-17 years old). 55 patients were included in the study: 13 in Group 1, 20 in Group 2, and 22 in Group 3. For Groups 1, 2, and 3 respectively, data averages were BMI percentile 99.20, 98.49, and 98.92 (P = 2.77); z-score 2.79, 2.36, and 2.45 (P = 0.026), tonsil size 3.17, 3.15, and 3.23 (P = 0.898), adenoid size 2.42, 2.05, and 1.77 (P = 0.015), time between the preoperative and postoperative PSG 179, 240, and 202 days (P = 0.481), and time from surgery to postoperative PSG 126, 170, and 127 days (P = 0.544). The average preoperative oAHI was 52.56, 41.23, and 43.49 (P = 0.732), post-operative oAHI was 1.94, 4.79, and 4.44 (P=.417); and change in oAHI was 50.62, 36.44, and 39.25 (P = 0.617). When comparing the age group of 0-6-year-olds to the older remaining patients, the post-operative oAHI was the only variable to show a significant difference between the two-groups with a P value of 0.038. The percentage of patients with post-operative resolution of OSA (oAHI<2), mild, moderate, and severe OSA, respectively, were 53%, 29%, 9%, and 9% for all patients, 70%, 23.1%, 7%, and 0% for group 1; 50%, 35%, 5%, and 10% for group 2; and 45%, 27%, 13%, and 13% for group 3. The percent of the patients requiring post-surgical nighttime airway support were 18%, 7%, 15%, and 26% for Groups All, 1, 2, and 3, respectively. We found that despite having the highest rates of obesity and the most severe OSA, obese patients under 7 years old performed better following T&A, with greater cure rate, overall reduction of oAHI, and decreased need for post-surgical nighttime airway support.

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Image-guided surgical navigation for bone-conduction hearing device implant placement

Michael Shih, Sarah A. Gitomer, Geran Barton, Yi-Chun Carol Liu

Publicatie 18-10-2020


For pediatric patients, bone-conduction hearing devices (BCHD) have demonstrated excellent outcomes. Unique to this population, BCHD implant surgeries can be technically challenging in children due to thinner, developing bone and syndromes with atypical anatomy. Image-guided surgical navigation (IGSN) clarifies underlying skull structure, potentially improving outcomes. IGSN is commonly used in otorhinolaryngologic surgeries, but current use in BCHD placement surgeries remains unprecedented. We report favorable results of IGSN in BCHD implantation for three children with complex otologic anatomy: two syndromic patients with variable temporal bone thickness, and one with prior mastoidectomies. The three patients each underwent a successful hearing implant surgery without significant intra- or post-surgical complications. All patients had good audiologic outcomes. We report using IGSN to assist in BAHA or BONEBRIDGE™ implant surgery for three medically complicated patients. For stereotactic imaging, the patients each received pre-operative high-resolution CT scans using the paranasal sinus fusion protocol without contrast. The first patient was a 6-year-old male with CHARGE-associated abnormal temporal bone anatomy, atretic left auditory nerve, and bilateral chronic tympanic membrane perforation and otorrhea resulting in bilateral mixed conductive and sensorineural hearing loss. The patient thus was unable to consistently tolerate hearing aids. The second patient was an 18-year-old male with Rosai-Dorfman disease, history of bilateral chronic mastoiditis and middle ear infections, bilateral mastoidectomies, and bilateral malleus and incus removal resulting in mixed conductive and sensorineural hearing loss. The third patient was an 11-year-old male with Treacher Collins Syndrome, bilateral microtia, and bilateral atresia of the external auditory canals resulting in bilateral conductive hearing loss. The patients each underwent a successful hearing implant surgery without significant intra- or post-surgical complications. All patients had good audiologic outcomes. Intraoperative IGSN can be a beneficial adjunct to BCHD implant placement surgeries for pediatric patients with abnormal temporal bone anatomy. IGSN can help identify the optimal surgical implantation sites, thereby reducing the risk for major morbidities associated with BCHD implantations. Furthermore, our findings expand application of IGSN use to placement of both BAHA and BONEBRIDGE™.

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Plasma ablation-assisted endoscopic excision versus traditional technique of endoscopic excision of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma

Avinash Shekhar Jaiswal, Rakesh Kumar, Alok Thakar, Rajeev Kumar, Hitesh Verma, Ashu Seith Bhalla, Arvind Kumar Kairo, Aanchal Kakkar, Suresh Chandra Sharma, Pirabu Sakthivel

Publicatie 07-10-2020


Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is the vascular and locally aggressive tumor of the posterior nares and nasopharynx. Endoscopic excision is the preferred surgical modality in early Radkowski stages. The prime challenge is intraoperative bleeding. Literature is in favor of the use of plasma ablation to overcome surgical challenges. To evaluate the effectiveness of plasma ablation technique in the surgical management of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. The current study recruited 36 patients of clinico-radiologically diagnosed cases of primary JNA of stage I and II (Modified Radkowski). In prospective arm, 18 consecutive patients were recruited, who underwent plasma ablation assisted endoscopic excision. In retrospective arm, 18 consecutive patients who underwent excision by traditional endoscopic instruments in the past two years, were recruited. Both the groups were compared for baseline characteristics, intraoperative blood loss, duration of surgery, length of hospital stay, and recurrence rates. The use of plasma ablation decreased overall blood loss by 338 ml (mean difference) which was not statistically significant (p = 0.26). On subgroup analysis, the use of plasma ablation significantly decreased mean blood loss (648 ml, p = 0.046) and duration of surgery (83 min, p < 0.001) in patients who underwent embolization. No statistically significant difference was noted between two groups in length of hospital stay (p = 0.36) and recurrence rates (p = 0.64). Plasma ablation is an effective technique available to decrease blood loss and duration of surgery during endoscopic excision of post embolized stage I and II patients of JNA.

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Feasibility of same day surgery for pediatric second branchial cleft anomalies

Christopher Pool, Christopher Ehret, Linda Engle, Junjia Zhu, Meghan N Wilson

Publicatie 06-10-2020


The risk of expansile hematoma and airway compromise following neck surgery have been used to validate overnight observation. We investigated the outcomes of pediatric patients undergoing a removal of second branchial cleft anomalies (BCA) via either same day surgery or overnight observation. A retrospective review of patients undergoing second BCA removal between January 1, 2008 to January 1, 2019 was performed. 40 cases were identified for review. Bivariate analyses were performed to determine predictive factors for overnight admission as well as associations between overnight observation and adverse outcomes (hematoma, seroma, airway compromise, infection). Factors evaluated for analysis included ASA class, surgeon type, history of pre-operative infection, recurrent case, operation >90 min, pharyngeal violation, intraoperative cyst rupture, cyst size, and drain placement. There were no life-threatening adverse events. Same day discharge was not associated with adverse events (p = 0.24). Overnight observation was associated with a history of preoperative infection (p = 0.003), cyst > 3.0 cm (p = 0.046), operative time > 90 min (p < 0.001), and drain placement (p = 0.001). There was no association between other investigated variables and adverse events or overnight stay. Same day discharge following second branchial cleft anomalies appears safe and feasible. Further study is needed to determine the safety profile of same day discharge and etiologies of practice patterns of overnight observation.

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Anesthetic management of children undergoing drug-induced sleep endoscopy: A retrospective review

Katie A. Liu, Christopher C. Liu, Gijo Alex, Peter Szmuk, Ron B. Mitchell

Publicatie 21-10-2020


To determine the best anesthetic technique for DISE based on a retrospective review of the current literature and to highlight research gaps that should be addressed in future studies. A comprehensive retrospective review of the literature on anesthetic regimens for pediatric DISE through March 2020 was performed. Specific medical subject heading (MesH) terms included: drug-induced sleep endoscopy and anesthesia, DISE, child, obstructive sleep apnea, sleep disordered breathing. Twelve articles were included. One study was a retrospective comparative study while the remaining 11 were case series. Five studies described anesthetic technique for DISE pre-T&A, two post-T&A, and four both pre- and post-T&A. The heterogeneity of the studies did not allow for a meta-analysis. A total of 1110 children ages 2 months to 19 years were included. Sedation depth and anesthetic outcomes with DISE were infrequently described. Eleven studies used a sevoflurane inhalational induction and mostly transitioned to a total IV anesthetic for maintenance. Propofol was the most commonly used sole anesthetic. A total of three studies used a combination of remifentanil and propofol, one used dexmedetomidine alone, one used sevoflurane alone, and one compared different regimens. Dexmedetomidine and ketamine have the most favorable profile for pediatric DISE but are not universally used. DISE completion, as reported in two studies, was 93% and 100%. There are several anesthetic regimens for DISE that achieve good sedation and outcomes. The combination of ketamine and dexmedetomidine may be the ideal regimen. Limited data and lack of protocols/high-quality studies exist on anesthetic regimens for pediatric DISE.

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Strategies for restarting Pediatric Otolaryngology outpatient clinics after a pandemic-related shutdown such as from COVID-19

Katharina Leitmeyer, Mark Felton, Neil K. Chadha

Publicatie 19-10-2020


The novel coronavirus 19 SARS-CoV2 caused a change in the practice of Otolaryngology around the globe. The high viral load in the nasal cavity, nasopharynx and airway subjects Otolaryngologists to a high risk of catching the virus during aerosol generating procedures. After the first outbreak wave has subsided, many teams are now discussing how our 'new normal' practice will look. We share our guidelines on restarting elective clinical work in order to create a safe environment for patients and staff in a Pediatric Otolaryngology outpatient clinic.

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Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea revisited: Perioperative considerations for the pediatric Anesthesiologist

Arvind Chandrakantan, Deepak Mehta, Adam C. Adler

Publicatie 10-10-2020


Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea presents in up to 7% of children and represents a constellation from nasal turbulence to cessation in gas exchange. There are numerous end organ sequelae including neurocognitive morbidity associated with persistent OSA. Adenotonsillectomy (AT), the first line therapy for pediatric OSA, has not been demonstrated to reduce all end organ morbidity, specifically neurological and behavioral morbidity. Furthermore, certain at-risk populations are at higher risk from neurocognitive morbidity. Precise knowledge and perioperative planning is required to ensure optimal evidence-based practices in children with OSA. This comprehensive review covers the seminal perioperative implications of OSA, including preoperative polysomnography, pharmacotherapeutics, and postoperative risk stratification.

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The role of bioresorbable intraluminal airway stents in pediatric tracheobronchial obstruction: A systematic review

Joshua A. Stramiello, Amir Mohammadzadeh, Justin Ryan, Matthew T. Brigger

Publicatie 06-10-2020


Tracheal stenosis and tracheobronchomalacia are complicated, patient-specific diseases that can be treated with intraluminal stenting. Most commonly, silicone and metal stents are utilized, however, they pose significant early and late morbidity and are further complicated by growth of the airway in the pediatric population. Given recent improvements in materials science, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting a strong role for bioresorbable intraluminal stents in treating pediatric tracheobronchial obstruction. A PubMed.gov literature search was performed on December 3, 2019 and May 15, 2020, and a 2-researcher systematic review was performed following the PRISMA criteria. The following search query was utilized: (((((((bioresorbable) OR bioabsorbable) OR resorbable) OR absorbable) OR biodegradable AND airway) OR trachea) AND stent. A pooled statistical analysis was performed on all reported pediatric patients using SPSS software. 1369 publications were screened and 26 articles with original data were identified. Materials used included polydioxanone (PDO), poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA), polyglycolic acid/poly-l-lactide co-polymer with Proglactin 910 (Vicryl®-PDS®), polycaprolactone (PCL), magnesium alloys, and co-polymers in varying proportions. Twelve articles presented data on human subjects, 8 of which were case series and case reports on pediatric populations using polydioxanone (PDO) stents. Pooled statistical analysis demonstrated an average age of 19 months (range 0.25-144), 56.5% associated with a cardiovascular anomaly, and overall complication rate of 21.7%, with a stent fragment foreign body being the most common (8.7%), followed by significant granulation tissue (4.3%), stent migration (4.3%), and local stenosis (4.3%). Comparative analysis demonstrated short-term improvement (up to 1 month) has a statistically significant association with tracheobronchomalacia versus tracheal stenosis on chi-squared test (p = 0.001). The remaining analyses did not yield statistical significance. The reported application of bioresorbable materials as intraluminal airway stents is positive. All comparative animal studies report biocompatibility and fewer morbidities compared to metal and silicone stents, however, in human studies there are concerns over the short interval of degradation and the potential for obstructive foreign bodies in poorly seated stents. Overall, there are clear, reproducible advantages to bioresorbable intraluminal stents in pediatric airway obstruction, as well as common pitfalls, that warrant further research.

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"Authors response to the letter about the article: Hearing screenings for pre-school children: A comparison between whispered voice and pure tone audiogram tests"

L. Skoloudik, J. Mejzlik, V. Chrobok

Publicatie 15-07-2020


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Letter to the Editor – International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology

C.A.J. Prescott

Publicatie 08-07-2020


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How face masks can affect school performance

Manoel Nobrega, Renata Opice, Mariana Machado Lauletta, Christiane Ayello Nobrega

Publicatie 14-09-2020


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Systemic bevacizumab for recurrent respiratory papillomatosis

Yiressy Izaguirre Baday, Julina Ongkasuwan, Rajkumar Venkatramani

Publicatie 10-09-2020


Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a benign tumor of the respiratory tract associated with human papillomavirus 6 and 11. Patients undergo multiple surgical debridements for management of growing papilloma. Adjuvant treatment options for RRP in children are often ineffective and do not decrease the need for repeated surgical debridement. We report on three patients with severe disease refractory to surgery who were treated with 10 mg/kg systemic bevacizumab every 4 weeks. All patients had improvement in voice and reduced need for surgical debridement. Interval between bevacizumab doses was gradually increased to every 8-12 weeks. Adverse events included mild proteinuria and self-resolving epistaxis.

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Human papilloma virus induced oropharyngeal inverted papilloma as a precursor to laryngeal papillomatosis in A 1 year old child

Habie Thomas Samuel, Lalee Varghese, Regi Kurien, Meera Thomas

Publicatie 09-09-2020


Inverted papillomas are rare tumors in the pediatric population and have not been reported in children less than two years. These tumors may produce respiratory distress in patients, particularly if they ectopically occur in the airway. Human papilloma virus is one of the known etiologies for many head and neck neoplasms including inverted papillomas and squamous papillomas. We report a child who was surgically treated at fifteen months of age for inverted papilloma of the pharynx who subsequently developed squamous papilloma of the larynx which persisted as a recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. This is the first such reported case to our knowledge.

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"Zygomatic air cells in connection with Lucs abscess"

Steven Engebretsen, Tyler Patrick, Cecelia Helwig, Mallory ONiel

Publicatie 31-08-2020


An uncommon complication of Acute Otitis Media (AOM) is a subperiosteal temporal infection known as Luc's abscess. Zygomatic air cells (ZACs) are an uncommon anatomic variant. Two otherwise healthy male patients, aged six- and thirteen years-old presented with unilateral otalgia, swelling, trismus, and fever. Imaging revealed Luc's abscess near ZACs. Antibiotics, drainage and myringotomy tubes resulted in a full recovery. In addition to the spread of soft tissue infection through the Notch of Rivinus, the presence of ZACs may provide a pathway for suppurative effusion and development into Luc's abscess.

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Parotid gland atrophy after conservative treatment of a post-traumatic parotid fistula in a two-year-old boy

Hiroshi Fukumasa, Masayoshi Tsuda, Ryo Ninomiya, Masashi Kobayashi, Kazutaka Nishiyama, Ayami Ito, Yukihiro Tasaki, Masano Amamoto

Publicatie 30-08-2020


A parotid fistula is a rare complication following parotid gland and duct injury. A two-year-old boy with a previous parotid fistula after parotid injury due to a dog bite was successfully treated with pressure-dressing therapy, which is generally non-invasive and tolerable by young children. During follow-up, ultrasonography revealed atrophy of the parotid gland. This finding is consistent with the healing mechanism previously assumed in adult patients with a parotid fistula. Consideration should be paid to the possibility of oral environmental changes associated with reduced saliva secretion from parotid gland atrophy after conservative treatment of parotid fistula.

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Tracheal cartilaginous sleeve diagnosed on ultrasound in a child with Pfeiffer syndrome

Kelsey A. Loy, Austin S. Lam, Jeffrey P. Otjen, John P. Dahl

Publicatie 03-09-2020


The tracheal cartilaginous sleeve (TCS) is a rare, difficult to diagnose airway malformation in which segmented tracheal rings are replaced by a solid sheath of cartilage. TCS is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with syndromic craniosynostosis, and early diagnosis is essential. We report a case in which ultrasound (US) was used to diagnose TCS in a patient with Pfeiffer syndrome. This is the first case demonstrating the use of US as the initial tool to diagnose TCS. The case supports ongoing research investigating the use of US as a screening and diagnostic imaging modality for TCS.

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Minimally invasive transoral image-guided drainage of a retropharyngeal abscess with mediastinal extension

Christina Stevens, Patricia Ladd, Saied Ghadersohi, Sarah A. Gitomer

Publicatie 25-08-2020


Retropharyngeal abscess (RPA) in children is a serious deep neck space infection that rarely is complicated by extension into the mediastinum. RPA with mediastinal abscess requires prompt surgical management, generally via external or transoral approach. We present the case of a 3-year-old boy with RPA with mediastinal extension who was managed with a unique multidisciplinary surgical approach with otolaryngology and interventional radiology. A transoral approach was utilized to pass a transnasal drain with image guidance into the mediastinal fluid collection. This report reviews the presentation and surgical management of RPA with mediastinal extension and describes a unique minimally invasive approach to drainage.

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Benign postcricoid hypertrophy: Case report and review of the literature

Kevin J. Contrera, Tarik M. Elsheikh, Brandon Hopkins, Stephen Hadford, Samantha Anne

Publicatie 28-08-2020


This is a case of a premature infant with stridor, supplemental oxygen requirement, and dysphagia refractory to anti-reflux and anti-inflammatory medications. Endoscopy revealed postcricoid fullness with MRI showing submucosal lobulations. Microscopic resection of an obstructive postcricoid mass resulted in immediate resolution of stridor and oxygen requirement with mild improvement in dysphagia. Pathology demonstrated submucosal fibrosis, edema, and vascularity with no evidence of malignancy, fibromatosis, or cystic/polypoid components. Review of the literature shows that lesions in postcricoid region include amyloidosis, lymphatic malformation, and normal-variant hypertrophy. Surgery should be considered for atypical postcricoid lesions with symptoms refractory to medical management.

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Benign adenoidal hypertrophy caused by adenovirus presenting as a nasopharyngeal mass concerning for malignancy

J. Nicodemo, E. Hamersley, P. Baker, S. Reed

Publicatie 22-08-2020


Benign adenoidal hypertrophy is the most common cause of nasopharyngeal obstruction. However, depending on size and location, masses may cause nasopharyngeal obstruction. We present our experiences with a ten-year-old female who presented with what appeared to be a large nasopharyngeal mass that was initially favored to be malignant and was ultimately found to be adenoid hypertrophy related to acute infection with adenovirus.

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Heterotopic gastric mucosa of the proximal esophageal (HGMPE) and its potential role in pediatric dysphonia and dysphagia

Michael S. Weinstock, Jeffrey P. Simons, Joseph E. Dohar

Publicatie 18-08-2020


Despite a reported incidence of HGMPE of 10%, proof of acid production, and an increased incidence of respiratory symptoms, the pediatric otolaryngology, swallowing and voice care literature is silent on this entity. This case series describes pediatric patients confirmed to have HGMPE with dysphonia and/or dysphagia. Retrospective case series of Pediatric Voice, Resonance, and Swallowing Center patients at a tertiary Children's Hospital in 2019. Tertiary academic medical center. Three patients who underwent triple endoscopy for dysphonia or dysphagia were histologically diagnosed with HGMPE. Esophageal biopsies were otherwise normal. Two of the three patients resolved their primary aerodigestive symptoms following treatment with acid suppression and a protectant (sucralfate). The third patient reported significant improvement in symptoms by phone. The significance of this case series cannot be understated: 1) A need for increased awareness among pediatric otolaryngologists, voice care and swallowing professionals of this entity given its relatively common incidence of 10% offset by a dearth of presentations & scientific publications in our literature clearly exists. 2) Otolaryngologists have abandoned operative upper aerodigestive tract endoscopy in lieu of office-based less comprehensive videolaryngostroboscopy and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. HGMPE & other esophageal disorders (i.e. eosinophilic esophagitis) support revisiting triple endoscopy in select patients where office endoscopy has failed to diagnose and successfully treat such patients. 3) Both acid suppression therapy and a protectant (sucralfate) may be useful in these patients. 4) Modification of rigid esophagoscopy technique to carefully assess the introitus and superior esophageal segment is paramount 5) Otolaryngologists over-diagnose & over-treat laryngopharyngeal reflux. The pediatric & adult literature is replete with significant safety warnings associated with acid suppression therapy and guidelines admonish their indiscriminate use, raising the liability bar of empiric treatment. Large scale prospective, randomized and controlled studies are needed to confirm the pathophysiologic role of this entity in pediatric aerodigestive disorders. HGMPE is a clinical entity that can be easily missed upon swift entry into the esophagus with rigid endoscopy. Careful scrutiny and visualization of the proximal esophagus is critical in order to identify HGMPE, as there is a higher rate of laryngospasm, stricture, and potentially neoplasm in this population.

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Fiber optic CO2-laser induced emphysema of the supraglottis

Lauren Arnold, Christopher Kennel, Eliav Gov-Ari

Publicatie 19-08-2020


Subcutaneous emphysema is a rare but well-defined surgical complication. However, emphysema of the supraglottic mucosa has not been described in the literature. We present a case of a 2-year-old male who suffered supraglottic emphysema secondary to fiber optic CO

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Surgical management of an infantile elliptical cricoid: Endoscopic posterior laryngotracheoplasty utilizing a resorbable plate

Andre M. Wineland

Publicatie 17-08-2020


The cricoid is a circular "ring" of cartilage in the airway. When the lateral walls of the cricoid approximate, it takes the shape of an ellipse. In severe cases, this also reduces the glottic aperture and causes respiratory distress, stridor, and failure to thrive. The elliptical cricoid has limited surgical options outside of open laryngotracheal procedures and tracheostomy. Recently, alternatives to autologous grafts have been utilized in airway reconstruction to reduce harvest site morbidity and increase operating room efficiency. Herein a case is presented that demonstrates the successful use of a resorbable plate in augmenting the posterior larynx in an infant with a severely elliptical cricoid to avoid a tracheostomy.

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Head and neck infections in children due to Eikenella corrodens: Report of three cases and review of literature

Manuel Penton, Silvia Schibeci Oraa, Ashraf Abdelhemid, Caitlin Otto, Margaret R. Hammerschlag

Publicatie 18-08-2020


Eikenella corrodens is a small, nonmotile Gram-negative rod that is part of the normal flora in the mouth, upper respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tracts. It is classically found in human bite (fist to mouth) infections but is also seen in respiratory tract and head and neck infections. We describe three cases of E. corrodens causing head and neck infections in children seen in our institution between 2013 and 2019. We also reviewed the available literature on pediatric head and neck infections caused by E. corrodens. All 3 children recovered and fit the trends identified in the 58 patients published in the literature from 1976 to 2019. E. corrodens is responsible for a range of head and neck infections in pediatric patients. It is a not infrequent cause of head and neck infections in children and should be considered when selecting presumptive antibiotic therapy.

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Pediatric necrotizing soft tissue infection after elective surgery: A case report and literature review

Lisa Gheuens, Quinten Roggeman, Koen Cortebeeck, Paul Leyman, Anja Bernaerts, Bert De Foer, Jan Van Leemput, Joost van Dinther

Publicatie 25-07-2020


Necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs) are rare but often lethal. Early diagnosis and aggressive surgical debridement are essential to achieve the best possible outcome. A 12-year old boy was diagnosed with a necrotizing soft tissue infection following elective revision surgery for functional impairment resulting from scar tissue of the neck. Fever and inflammation of the surgical wound manifested 24-36 hours postoperatively. Antibiotic therapy with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was initiated, but the patient was unresponsive. Ultrasonography, a wound culture and surgical exploration confirmed the diagnosis. The culture was positive for a Streptococcus pyogenes infection and antibiotic treatment was switched to penicillin and clindamycin. Following the diagnosis, surgical debridement was performed subcutaneously, and only necrotic tissue was removed to preserve as much skin tissue as possible. After eradication of the infection, vacuum-assisted closure of the wound was used to close the subcutaneous space. The patient was discharged after 40 days. In this patient, we treated a necrotizing soft tissue infection with antibiotics, skin sparing surgeries and negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). We used ultrasonography as imaging technique to help with the diagnosis. The extensiveness of surgical debridement was rather limited. We focused on opening all affected fascial layers. The surgical debridement was subcutaneous, and only necrotic tissue was removed. Because of the location in the neck, we tried to avoid an aggressive skin debridement to preserve as much skin tissue as possible. Negative pressure wound therapy is not frequently used in this context but it contributed to an enhanced wound healing. Ultrasonography for diagnosing NSTIs is useful, but the clinical findings and an explorative surgery will remain most important.

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Two rare cases of sinonasal vascular malformation in the pediatric population

Beatrice Go, Seerat K. Poonia, Conor Devine, Luv Javia, Adva Buzi, Mark D. Rizzi

Publicatie 25-07-2020


Vascular malformations presenting in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses are rare. Differentiating benign vascular malformations of the sinonasal cavity from other pathologic entities can be challenging and the role of preoperative angiography and embolization is not well defined. We present two unique cases of large pediatric sinonasal vascular malformations and describe their presentation, diagnosis and subsequent management. Both patients underwent embolization of the ipsilateral arterial supply followed by successful and complete endonasal surgical excision. This report provides description of management of the very rare occurrence of sinonasal vascular malformation in two adolescents.

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A retrospective analysis of complications and surgical outcome of 1380 ears: Experience review of paediatric otoplasty

A. Binet, O. El Ezzi, A. De Buys Roessingh

Publicatie 21-08-2020


The psychological benefits of successful surgery for prominent ears have been emphasised. However, there are few comprehensive reports in the literature on the incidence of complications. The aim of this retrospective study is to present the postoperative outcome and possible recurrence of prominent ears after otoplasty in a University Hospital Center. A total of 705 patients were followed after otoplasty. We carried out a retrospective review of the file that included all children who had been treated for prominent ears following the same surgical technique from January 01, 1993 to December 31, 2017, and made a descriptive analysis of the data. Our study confirmed the prevalence of females in operative treatment of PE, as well as the predominance of the bilateral form of this anomaly. Postoperative complications were recorded in 3.7% of the children (n = 26). 16 patients (2.2%) developed hypertrophic scar complications that required surgical revision in all cases, classifying them as 3b according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Nine patients (1.3%) required surgical revision for recurrence (Clavien-Dindo 3b). Recurrence, unlike scarring complications, seems to be dependent on the surgeon's experience. A family history was noted in 20% of cases. The otoplasty technique showed here is safe and has a low rate of the complications commonly described in the literature. A prospective study with a survey of complications and degree of satisfaction with the results will follow.

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Microtia and craniofacial microsomia: Content analysis of facebook groups

Hailey M. Umbaugh, Canice E. Crerand, Nicola M. Stock, Daniela V. Luquetti, Carrie L. Heike, Amelia F. Drake, Kristin J. Billaud Feragen, Alexis L. Johns

Publicatie 26-08-2020


An increasing number of patients use social media for health-related information and social support. This study's objective was to describe the content posted on Facebook groups for individuals with microtia and/or craniofacial microsomia (CFM) and their families in order for providers to gain insight into patient and family needs and experiences to inform clinical care. Two months of posts, images, comments, and "like" responses from two Facebook groups in the US and the UK were recorded and analyzed using content analysis. A secondary analysis identified statements of emotion. Posts (N = 254) had a total of 7912 "like" responses, 2245 comments, and 153 images. There were three categories of posts: seeking guidance (43%; 9 themes), promoting events/news (33%; 5 themes), and sharing experiences (24%; 3 themes). Across categories, 16% of posts had emotional content. Most comments were responding to posts seeking guidance, including medical care (20%), surgical care (9%), and hearing aids (5%). Promotional posts often aimed to increase CFM awareness. Posts sharing experiences were generally positive, with the highest number of "likes". Facebook groups members frequently exchanged health-related information, suggesting value placed on input from other families and the convenience of seeking information online. Posts also promoted awareness and shared experiences. Clinical care implications include the need for easily accessible accurate and tailored CFM-related health education. Additionally, providers should demonstrate awareness of health information on social media and may address the potential emotional impact of CFM by facilitating access to resources for social support.

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Bilateral mucosal flap septal perforation repair in the adolescent

Cullen M. Taylor, Sharon Gnagi, Stephen F. Bansberg

Publicatie 23-08-2020


Perforations of the nasal septum are rare in the pediatric age group. High success rates for attempted perforation closure utilizing mucosal flap techniques in adults are frequently reported. This study reviews our experience with pediatric patients diagnosed with a septal perforation who underwent attempted closure during adolescence. Our endonasal bilateral mucosal flap technique is present. This study is an observational case series with retrospective chart review of a single surgeon's experience of attempted septal perforation repair utilizing bilateral mucosal flaps with an interposition graft in patients diagnosed with a perforation prior to age 19. The study period was from November 1991 to April 2019. Patient demographics, perforation characteristics (etiology, symptoms and size), surgical closure technique and outcomes are presented. Twenty-three patients (13 females) met the study criteria. Mean age at diagnosis was 14.3 (range, 3-18) years. Crusting (82.6%), nasal obstruction/congestion (60.9%) and epistaxis (47.8%) were the most frequent reported symptoms at presentation. Fourteen patients who underwent attempted closure during adolescence had a minimum of three months follow-up. Mean age at the time of bilateral mucosal flap repair was 17.4 (range, 13-19) years. Mean perforation length was 14.2 (range, 8-22) mm and mean height 10.6 (range, 5-15) mm. Complete closure was noted in all but one patient (92.8%) at the time of last follow-up, mean 16.9 (range, 3-92) months. Every patient noted partial to complete resolution in presenting symptoms. Four patients required revision surgery to address persistent postoperative obstruction. Our experience demonstrates septal perforation repair utilizing a bilateral mucosal flap technique can be successfully employed in the adolescent patient.

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The addition of silver nitrate cautery to antiseptic nasal cream for patients with epistaxis: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Abdulmalik Alsaif, Mohammad Karam, Abdullah Alhaider, Ahmad Almazeedi, Ahmed Aldubaikhi, Abdulrahman Alfayez

Publicatie 02-10-2020


To compare the outcomes of the addition of silver nitrate cautery versus antiseptic cream alone in paediatric patients with recurrent epistaxis. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed as per the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) Guidelines and a search of electronic information was conducted to identify all Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs) and non-randomised studies comparing the outcomes of the addition of silver nitrate cautery versus antiseptic cream alone in paediatric patients with recurrent epistaxis. Treatment success and persistence of bleeding were primary outcome measures. Secondary outcome measures included treatment side effects. Fixed effects modelling was used for the analysis. Four studies enrolling 240 patients were identified. There was no significant difference between silver nitrate cautery group and antiseptic cream alone group in terms of complete resolution (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.07, P = 0.81), the partial resolution (OR = 1.02, P = 0.96) and persistence of bleeding (OR = 0.91, P = 0.71). For secondary outcomes, antiseptic nasal cream was associated with few side effects such as rash in one case and several complaints of bad smell or taste. The addition of silver nitrate cautery is not superior to the use of antiseptic cream alone in paediatric patients with recurrent epistaxis as it does not improve treatment success or persistence of bleeding.

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