International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 2022-05-28

Aortopulmonary collaterals: An etiology for pediatric tracheostomy hemorrhage

Joshua A. Stramiello, Tzyynong L. Friesen, Aparna Rao, Kanishka Ratnayaka, John Moore, Howaida El-Said, Matthew T. Brigger

Publication date 29-04-2022


To report a single-institution's experience of symptomatic aortopulmonary collaterals presenting as tracheostomy tube hemorrhage. Retrospective case series and Contemporary Review. Tertiary care children's hospital. Retrospective review, from 2015 to 2020, of patients <18 years old who were treated for tracheostomy hemorrhage with endovascular embolization of aortopulmonary collateral (APC) vessels. 4 patients were identified, 2 males and 2 females, ages 15 months-to 14 years-old, with a range of cyanotic congenital heart diseases. Direct laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy were necessary for excluding proximal airway sources. Chest computed tomography angiography did not localize pulmonary hemorrhage, but helped identify aortopulmonary collaterals. Cardiac catheterization was both diagnostic and therapeutic with use of endovascular embolization techniques by pediatric interventional cardiology and interventional radiology. Previously reported APC-related pulmonary hemorrhages occurred in significantly different settings compared to our patients, and evaluation by an otolaryngologist was key to rule out upper airway etiologies. Symptomatic aortopulmonary collaterals is an important etiology in pediatric tracheostomy tube hemorrhage in patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease.

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Effectiveness of pediatric nasal irrigation solution with or without xylitol

Yücel Kurt, YAVUZ Selim Yildirim

Publication date 27-05-2022


/Hypothesis: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and outcome of daily hypertonic saline irrigation versus saline/xylitol for treating pediatric chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). This was a prospective, randomized, single-blinded study. One hundred and twenty-five children diagnosed with CRS were enrolled in this study. The patients were randomized to twice-daily hypertonic irrigations with saline or saline/xylitol for 6 weeks.
The treatment outcomes were measured using: Sinonasal Quality of Life Survey (SN-5) completed at baseline and after 6 weeks of irrigation. There were statistically significant improvements in the hypertonic nasal saline group's (reduction in SN-5 domain scores) four domains and an increase in the overall QoL score within each group after 6 weeks of treatment compared to baseline; however, there were no differences in the activity limitation (p = 0.1803). The xylitol solution groups had no differences between the two groups in the SN-5 scores in any of the domains or the overall score at baseline, and post irrigation treatment. Due to low tolerance, compliance, and the side effects, xylitol irrigation is not recommended as a first-line treatment for pediatric CRS. The use of a large volume of low pressure, twice-daily intranasal hypertonic irrigation for 6 weeks is safe and effective in the treatment of pediatric CRS; therefore, it can be used as a baseline treatment for pediatric CRS before considering surgical interventions.

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Predictors of prolonged stay after laryngeal surgery for benign neoplasms in children

Alison C. Ma, Cathleen C. Kuo, Ellen L. Ferraro, Michele M. Carr

Publication date 21-05-2022


Pediatric benign laryngeal tumors can often be treated as same-day surgeries. This study identified factors associated with prolonged hospital stay in children undergoing laryngeal surgery for benign tumors. A retrospective analysis of records of pediatric patients who underwent laryngeal surgery with a post-op diagnosis of benign tumor was performed with the American College of Surgeons Pediatric National Surgery Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP-P) database (2014-2018). Clinical variables analyzed included comorbidities, total length of stay (LOS), readmission, and reoperation. 1775 patients were identified with a mean age at time of surgery of 8.95 years (95% CI 8.76-9.14). 966 (54.4%) were males and 809 (45.6%) were females. Mean LOS was 0.22 days (95% CI 0.12-0.32). Only 128 (7.3%) patients had a LOS of one day or more. Children with a variety of comorbidities, including premature birth, oxygen support, tracheostomy, developmental delay, and cardiac risk factors, had a significantly prolonged LOS (P < .001). Additionally, younger children were significantly more likely to stay overnight (β = -0.041, P < .001). Twenty-three (1.3%) patients were readmitted, 2 (0.1%) were reintubated, and 13 (0.7%) underwent reoperation for related reasons. Despite the association of premature birth, ventilator dependence, oxygen support, tracheostomy, esophageal/GI disease, developmental delay, seizure, neuromuscular disorders, congenital malformations, and steroid use with LOS, only younger age and ventilator dependence were associated with readmission. This study suggests that laryngeal surgery for benign tumors is safe but recognizes that patients with comorbidities or young children may require a prolonged stay. Awareness of these implications may help guide management.

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Re-thinking congenital piriform aperture stenosis: Modern imaging demonstrates narrowing of the full nasal cavity length

Katherine Pollaers, Emma Herbert, Neil Giblett, Andrew Thompson, Shyan Vijayasekaran, Hayley Herbert

Publication date 21-05-2022


Measure the width of the nasal cavity in cases of piriform aperture stenosis using computerised tomography scans. Retrospective study performed at a paediatric tertiary referral centre in Australia. Comparison nasal cavity widths (measured on computerised tomography scans in the axial plane) at the piriform aperture, choana and points 25, 50 and 75% along the length of nasal cavity, between cases with piriform aperture stenosis and controls. In cases of piriform aperture stenosis the piriform aperture along with the nasal cavity is statistically significantly narrower than controls, measured at 25, 50 and 75% along the distance between the piriform aperture and the choana. This modern imaging review has illustrated the need for a change in the treatment paradigm for neonates with this condition, suggesting the need for further investigation of techniques that treat narrowing beyond the aperture.

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Factors impacting therapy duration in children and adolescents with Paradoxical Vocal Fold Movement (PVFM)

Robert Brinton Fujiki, Amanda Edith Fujiki, Susan Thibeault

Publication date 21-05-2022


Geen abstract beschikbaar

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Treatment of sialorrhea with botulinum toxin injections in pediatric patients less than three years of age

Timothy Fan, Robert Frederick, Ahmad Abualsoud, Anthony Sheyn, Jennifer McLevy-Bazzanella, Jerome Thompson, Cem Akkus, Joshua Wood

Publication date 21-05-2022


To determine the patient demographics and the efficacy and safety profile of botulinum toxin (BTX) injections for sialorrhea control in patients under the age of three. This is a retrospective chart review study. Patients under three years of age who received BTX injections for sialorrhea management from 2010 to 2021 were assessed. Patient demographics, comorbidities, medical and surgical histories, indications, BTX injection details, and post injection complications were documented. Forty-nine patients met inclusion criteria. The most common patient under three years of age with sialorrhea to receive BTX injections were white (51.0%) male (51.0%) with congenital (73.5%) and/or neurologic (53.1%) comorbidities. Thirty-six (73.5%) patients were from medically underserved areas/populations. Our patients on average received 1.7 injections, with 44.9% requiring multiple BTX injections. Bilateral parotid and bilateral submandibular glands (four-gland) BTX injections were associated with significant decrease in admissions for pneumonia and cessation of anticholinergics usage (both P < 0.05). Post BTX injections, 15 (30.6%) patients required additional surgeries for sialorrhea control. No adverse outcomes due to BTX injections were reported. Pediatric sialorrhea was commonly associated with congenital and/or neurologic comorbidities and disproportionately impacted medically underserved black patients. BTX injections offered multifaceted benefits for controlling sialorrhea in patients under the age of three. Four-gland BTX injections led to reduction of unnecessary hospitalization, usage of anticholinergics, and additional surgeries for sialorrhea management.

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The learning curve of BiZact™ tonsillectomy

Kiren Dulku, Edward Toll, Jin Kwun, Graeme van der Meer

Publication date 19-05-2022


To evaluate the learning curve of Bi Zact™ tonsillectomy amongst trainees and fellows as a further technical skill. Prospective audit of consecutive Bi Zact™ tonsillectomies undertaken by a trainee and fellow at Starship Children's Hospital. Primary outcomes measured were operative time from gag open to gag closed, readmission and post tonsillectomy bleed rates. Secondary outcomes included need for bipolar rescue dissection, bipolar haemostasis including site and side, tonsil size (Brodsky grade 1-4) and depth (shallow or deep). Operative time was plotted against number of procedures performed and moving averages was used to investigate the learning curve. Generalised linear model was applied to examine the association between operation time and tonsil depth. Mean operative time for the trainee and fellow was similar (07 min 34 s versus 07min and 37 s). We observed a trend of decreased operative time over number of procedures performed by the trainee but the learning curve was short. The fellow's initial time was lower than the trainee's and remained similar over time. No bipolar rescue dissection was required. Additional bipolar haemostasis was required 95% of the time, but the majority involved the superior pole only (87.5%, p = 0.0001). The overall operative time for shallow tonsils was shorter than for deep tonsils (06 min 31 s versus 08 min 09 s, p = 0.0066). A learning curve was evident for both shallow and deep tonsils for both surgeons combined but was steeper for deep. There were no primary bleeds and the secondary haemorrhage rate was 5.8% (3/51 cases) with no returns to theatre. This is the first study to investigate the Bi Zact™ tonsillectomy learning curve. Bi Zact™ tonsillectomy is safe and easy to learn. We observed a clear trend of shallow tonsils being quicker to remove than deep tonsils using this technique. The secondary bleed rate of 5.8% is comparable to the previously published Starship rate of 4.7% for all tonsillectomies performed over a 10 year period. Moving averages is a useful method to assess operative learning curves during training and beyond.

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Long term outcome of laryngeal mobility disorder and quality of life after pediatric cardiac surgery

Thomas Biot, Maxime Fieux, Roland Henaine, Eric Truy, Aurelie Coudert, Sonia Ayari-Khalfallah

Publication date 18-05-2022


Laryngeal mobility disorder after a pediatric heart surgery is common (between 5 and 10% of cases), and has important consequences on swallowing, breathing and speaking. After reviewing the literature, the recovery rate is variable and the postoperative follow-up is often done on a short time frame. The primary objective of the study is to describe the recovery from laryngeal mobility disorder with a follow-up time of at least 5 years. The secondary objective is to describe of the quality of life of the child in terms of phonation and swallowing, and to identify potential risk factors for a lasting laryngeal mobility disorder. We collected data (morphological characteristics and details of the procedures and medical care) on children who had undergone a heart surgery with risks of complications, between 2010 and 2015, and with a laryngeal mobility disorder detected after the surgery through nasal flexible laryngoscopy. During a follow-up consultation, carried at least 5 years after the surgery, we performed a nasal flexible laryngoscopy to assess whether or not the patient had recovered a full mobility of the larynx. Two questionnaires were also given to the patients, the pVHI and the PEDI EAT-10, to assess respectively the quality of their speech and of their swallowing function. The recovery rate for a laryngeal mobility disorder more than 5 years after surgery was found to be 65% (9 children out of the 14 included in the study).
We identified a risk factor for the persistence of a laryngeal mobility disorder after surgery: the presence of an associated genetic syndrome, p = 0.025. Children with persistent laryngeal mobility disorder have an impaired quality of life score, using the pVHI scale, which correlates well with the flexible laryngoscopy findings, p = 0.033. Children with a lasting laryngeal mobility disorder have disabling respiratory and vocal symptoms in their daily lives. Nasal flexible laryngoscopy should therefore be systematically performed postoperatively after a surgery carrying risks. For improved patient management, early detection of these disorders by pharyngolaryngeal nasal flexible laryngoscopy in the aftermath of high-risk cardiac surgery is strongly advised, with prolonged follow-up.

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Motion sickness and postural control among Danish adolescents

Mathias Hald, Louise Devantier, Therese Ovesen

Publication date 18-05-2022


Easily available clinical tests to evaluate postural control are needed. Furthermore, motion sickness (MS) and postural control are correlated. The aims of this study were to compare the internal validity of a set of clinical tests of postural control with the internal validity of static posturography and to evaluate possible associations between postural control and MS. We included healthy subjects from a primary school in Denmark who completed questionnaires about MS and underwent two rounds of clinical tests of postural control and static posturography using a Tetrax Interactive Balance System two weeks apart. For clinical tests of postural control, subjects were observed for up to 30 s standing on both legs, on one leg, on a pillow both with their eyes open and again with their eyes closed. Twenty-one subjects were included: 71% males with an average age of 13.7 years. Agreement rates ranged from 62% to 95% between test and retest in clinical tests.; lowest for subjects standing on their non dominant leg with their eyes open and highest for subjects performing Romberg's test with their eyes closed along with subjects standing on a pillow with their eyes open. For several of these tests, almost all subjects were able to hold their balance for the full 30 s. Test-retesting using static posturography by Bland Altman plot showed datapoints scattered equally above and below the mean line indicating no systematic bias. Results of clinical tests and static posturography were not associated. MS was reported from 43% of subjects and a trend was observed with high sway scores from subjects suffering from MS. This was statistically insignificant. Due to a ceiling effect, subjects achieved the same scores in both rounds of testing in several of the clinical tests, reducing the clinical importance of these tests. Compared to clinical tests, static posturography seemingly remains the superior method when it comes to evaluation of postural control, although not as easily applicable in a daily clinical setting. When comparing MS and postural control a trend was observed, indicating higher sway scores in subjects suffering from MS.

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Surgery for adenotonsillar hypertrophy and otitis media in children is less demanded in quarantine times

Konstantinos Kourelis, Maria Angelopoulou, Anastasios Goulioumis, Sotirios Fouzas, Theodoros Kourelis

Publication date 14-05-2022


In the COVID-19 era, extreme measures of social distancing have contained the spread of common viral respiratory infections, which are involved in the pathogenesis of Adenotonsillar Hypertrophy (ATH), and Chronic Otitis Media with Effusion (COME), the two commonest chronic ENT diseases of childhood. This study examines the lockdown effect on the number of procedures performed for these two conditions. The consecutive charts of 650 and 195 children being operated respectively for ATH and COME during the quarantine (05/2020-02/2021) and unrestrained (05/2019-02/2020) periods were retrospectively reviewed. Surgical treatment of ankyloglossia, performed in 103 patients during the same periods was employed as a control procedure. Adenotonsillectomies and tympanostomies significantly decreased in the lockdown phase by 52% (P < 0.001) and 74% (P < 0.001), respectively, whereas control procedure counts increased by 25%. In terms of seasonal variation, ATH-related surgeries were significantly reduced during the winter season of the pandemic by 73% (P < 0.001), in comparison with the corresponding months of the unrestrained period. School-aged children received significantly fewer operations for ATH (-59%) than preschoolers (-42%), as a result of the lockdown (P = 0.044). When the child's exposure to respiratory pathogens is minimal, as in the case of lockdown, a noticeable decline occurs in the incidence of ATH and COME indicated for surgical treatment. Chronic low-grade inflammation, boosted by repetitive viral infections seems to underlie both conditions. Timely, effective isolation measures might reverse the disease process and keep the child away from the Operating Room.

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Comparison of pediatric nasal foreign body removal by care setting: A systematic review and meta-analysis

W. Nicholas Jungbauer, Michael Shih, Shaun A. Nguyen, Clarice S. Clemmens

Publication date 14-05-2022


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Pediatric olfactory home testing using regular household items: A cross-over validation study

Lawrence Jaramillo, Andreas van Egmond-Froehlich, David T. Liu, Bernhard Prem, Bertold Renner, Christian A. Mueller, Gerold Besser

Publication date 14-05-2022


To develop an olfactory test that can be conducted by an untrained person using common household items and to introduce a German version of the Chemosensory Pleasure Scale for Children (CPS-C(de)). This olfactory home test was developed in phases including evaluation of odors for suitability in a home setting. Parents of 50 children (ages 6-17) were then equipped with instruction manuals and participants were tested twice in a cross-over design. A validated pediatric olfactory test (the Universal Sniff test (U-Sniff)) served as the comparative gold standard. Additionally, a Chinese-English-German "back-and-forth" translation was conducted to establish the CPS-C(de) and was tested for empirical validity. Fourteen items were tested for feasibility, and all were identified on a sufficient rate (≥66%, mean ± SD of 93.3% ± 9.5%). Bland Altman Plot analysis between home testing and the U-Sniff test was nearly identical (bias = 0.04). CPS-C(de) showed similar results to the original Chinese version and a moderate correlation was found between CPS-C(de) scores and Body Mass Index of children (r Remote olfactory testing in children using household items is feasible. The CPS-C(de) may be of value for future olfactory studies.

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Investigating the association of electrically-evoked compound action potential thresholds with inner-ear dimensions in pediatric cochlear implantation

Samuel Söderqvist, Ville Sivonen, Satu Lamminmäki, Jere Ylönen, Antti Markkola, Saku T. Sinkkonen

Publication date 12-05-2022


A narrow bony cochlear nerve canal (BCNC), as well as a hypoplastic and aplastic cochlear nerve (CN) have been associated with increased electrically-evoked compound action potential (eCAP) thresholds in some studies, suggesting poorer neural excitability in cochlear implantation. Also, in large cochleae the extent of activated spiral ganglion neurons with electrical stimulation is less than in smaller ones. However, a detailed description of the relationship between eCAP thresholds for a lateral-wall electrode array and dimensions of the inner-ear structures and internal auditory canal (IAC) is missing. The study subjects were 52 pediatric patients with congenital severe-to-profound hearing loss (27 females and 25 males; ages 0.7-2.0 years; 1.0 ± 0.3 years, mean ± SD) implanted bilaterally with Cochlear Nucleus CI422, CI522, or CI622 implants with full insertion of the Slim Straight electrode array. Diameters of the cochlea and the BCNC as well as the widths and heights of the IAC and the CN were evaluated from preoperative computed tomography and magnetic resonance images. These anatomical dimensions were compared with each other and with the patients' intraoperative eCAP thresholds. The eCAP thresholds increased from the apical to basal direction (r = 0.89, p < 0.001). After sorting the cochleae into four size categories, higher eCAP thresholds were found in larger than in smaller cochleae (p < 0.001). With similar categorization, the eCAP thresholds were higher in cochleae with a larger BCNC than in cochleae with a smaller BCNC (p < 0.001). Neither IAC nor CN cross-sectional areas affected the eCAP thresholds. Correlations were found between cochlea and BCNC diameters and between IAC and CN cross-sectional areas (r = 0.39 and r = 0.48, respectively, p < 0.001 for both). In the basal part of the electrode array, higher stimulation levels to elicit measurable neural responses (eCAP thresholds) were required than in the apical part. Increased eCAP thresholds associated with a larger cochlear diameter, but contrary to the earlier studies, not with a small size of the BCNC or the CN. Instead, the BCNC diameter correlated significantly with the cochlea diameter.

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Cochlear nerve deficiency is an important cause of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder at a population level in children

Karen Liddle, E. Jane Fitzgibbons, Rachael Beswick, Carlie Driscoll

Publication date 14-05-2022


To determine the incidence, prevalence and describe risk factors and etiology for childhood Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder using population level data from a statewide universal newborn hearing program. A retrospective statewide universal newborn hearing screening database review and descriptive analysis from 2012 to 2019 of demographic, risk factors and hearing loss etiology for babies with sensorineural hearing loss and ANSD was completed. A 2 stage aABR protocol was used and ANSD was classified when click evoked ABR were absent or grossly abnormal but otoacoustic emissions and or cochlear microphonics were present. Medical evaluation and investigation by a pediatrician or otolaryngologist was performed and etiology was assigned using a coding scheme. Next generation genetic sequencing was not available. From 2012 to 2019, 487 636 babies were screened for congenital hearing loss (99.1%) and 1150 were confirmed to have permanent SNHL, 80 of whom were diagnosed with ANSD (52 unilateral and 28 bilateral). The prevalence of ANSD was 7.0% and population prevalence was 0.16 per 1000 live births. The only demographic or risk factor significantly more likely to be associated with ANSD than SNHL was hyperbilirubinemia. The most common etiology for ANSD was hypoplasia or absence of the cochlear nerve with 37 cases (46.3%), and it was significantly more likely with unilateral than bilateral ANSD. At a population level, ANSD was more likely to be unilateral and the only perinatal risk factor significantly associated was hyperbilirubinemia. Cochlear nerve deficiency was the most common etiology. Given that this can occur in well babies, this provides further evidence for aABR as a preferred mode for newborn hearing screening.

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Vestibulo-ocular reflex evaluation of the children with acquired esotropia

Başak Mutlu, Merve Torun Topçu, Ahmet Mutlu, Mustafa Hepokur, Medine Güneş, Halit Oğuz, Mahmut Tayyar Kalcıoğlu

Publication date 11-05-2022


This study aims to evaluate the effects of acquired esotropia on vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain in children using video (vHIT) and functional head impulse (fHIT) tests. A total of 62 children aged 6-18 years, with acquired esotropia and normal vision, were evaluated in the study. The patients were divided into two sub-groups: accommodative and non-accommodative. VOR gains were analyzed by performing lateral canal vHIT and fHIT with monocular and binocular recordings by a single examiner. Seventeen (10 male, 7 female) children with accommodative esotropia, 24 (14 male, 10 female) children with non-accommodative esotropia, and 21 (8 male and 12 female) healthy controls were included in this study. The vHIT findings did not differ between the groups (p˃.05). In the non-accommodative esotropia group, the location of the camera in both binocular and monocular vHIT recordings made a significant difference in the left VOR gain (p = .025, z = -2.243, p = .032, and z = -2.143, respectively), but no difference was observed in the right VOR gain. In the accommodative esotropia group, while the camera was on the left there was a significant difference in the right VOR gain between binocular and monocular recordings (p = .016, z = -2.413) but no difference was observed in the left VOR gain. No overt or covert saccade was detected in any group. The statistical differences found in vHIT and fHIT in acquired esotropia patients are thought to be sporadic and based on the results of this study no correction or change in recording technique is required for vHIT or fHIT in children with acquired esotropia.

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Incidence of thymic tissue in pediatric thyroidectomy

Grace Sahyouni, Beth Osterbauer, Soyun Park, Connie Paik, Juliana Austin, Daniel Kwon, Gabriel Gomez

Publication date 12-05-2022


The nuances in the technical approach to pediatric thyroidectomy have been sparsely reported in the literature. No previous studies have reported on the rates of unintentional thymic tissue excision during pediatric thyroidectomy. In this study, we sought to describe the rates of thymic tissue excision noted on surgical specimens from pediatric thyroidectomies and investigate any correlations with preoperative factors and long-term outcomes. A retrospective chart review was conducted of patients who underwent thyroidectomy at a tertiary care children's hospital between January 2010 and October 2020. Presence of thymic tissue (PTT) was defined as any pathologist-documented evidence of thymic tissue in the surgical specimen. Patient characteristics, operative details, and disease related datapoints were investigated for any correlation with PTT. Of the 209 patients who underwent thyroidectomy in the study period, 53 (25%) had PTT. After conducting a stepwise multivariate analysis, those with a concomitant central neck dissection had 3.3 times the odds of having PTT as compared to those with no neck dissection (p = 0.013, 95%CI: 1.3, 8.3). Additionally, patients with evidence of incidental parathyroidectomy had 8.99 times the odds of also having PTT as compared to those without IPE (p < 0.001, 95%CI: 4.0, 20.1). This is the first report analyzing the rate of thymic tissue excision during pediatric thyroidectomy. Thyroid surgeons should be prepared to encounter thymic tissue during pediatric cases and be aware of its associated risk of incidental parathyroid gland excision and dissection of tissue beyond intended surgical limits.

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Post-operative MRI detection of residual cholesteatoma in pediatric patients - The yield of serial scans over a long follow-up

Eyal Yosefof, Dan Yaniv, Sharon Tzelnick, Meirav Sokolov, David Ulanovski, Eyal Raveh, Liora Kornreich, Ohad Hilly

Publication date 09-05-2022


Non-echo-planar diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (Non-EPI DWI MRI) is commonly used for follow-up after cholesteatoma surgery. MRI has a critical role in the evaluation of residual disease, where physical examination will commonly demonstrate an intact tympanic membrane. The aim of our study was to assess the timing of residual cholesteatoma identification on serial MRI scans and the yield of MRI follow up after canal wall up tympano-mastoidectomy. A retrospective chart review of children that underwent canal wall up tympano-mastoidectomy due to cholesteatoma in Schneider Children's Medical Center during 2004-2016, and were followed up both clinically and with MRI. Seventy-seven children (89 ears) were included, who altogether underwent 166 surgeries (77 revisions). Average follow-up was 66 ± 34.4 months. During follow up, 244 scans were performed; 19 cases of residual disease were diagnosed by MRI and confirmed in surgery. The mean time from surgery and an MRI positive for residual disease was 29.7 ± 16 months (range: 10-66). In 9/19 cases (47%), at least one negative MRI preceded the scan positive for residual disease, and in 4 cases at least two initial scans were negative. MRI plays an important role in the diagnosis of residual disease after cholesteatoma surgery. In our cohort. Almost half of the cases diagnosed with residual disease had at least one negative scan prior to the positive one, emphasizing the importance of close radiological follow-up with serial scans after surgery.

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"Characteristics associated with caregiver willingness to consider tonsillectomy for a childs obstructive sleep disordered breathing: Findings from a survey of families in an urban primary care network"

Jennifer N. Cooper, Swapna Koppera, Alessandra J. Bliss, Meredith N. Lind

Publication date 14-05-2022


Tonsillectomy use is lower among Black children than White children in the U.
S. despite their higher prevalence of obstructive sleep disordered breathing (oSDB). We aimed to identify factors associated with parents' willingness to consider tonsillectomy for their child's oSDB and to identify whether parents of Black children are less willing than parents of non-Black children to be willing to consider the procedure. Prospective cohort study. Primary care network of a tertiary children's hospital. We surveyed parents/guardians of children aged 2-10 years with oSDB, to assess their knowledge about oSDB and tonsillectomy, perceived severity of their child's oSDB, perceived level of their child's sleep disturbance, perceived risks and benefits of tonsillectomy, stress, trust in their child's primary care physician and physicians in general, and health literacy. We also assessed child clinical and sociodemographic characteristics. Associations between these characteristics and parent/guardian willingness to consider tonsillectomy for their child's oSDB were assessed. Of the 59 parents/guardians included, 90% were mothers and 71% were Black. Only 58% of caregivers of Black children but 85% of caregivers of non-Black children were willing to consider tonsillectomy (p = 0.04). Caregivers with another child who had undergone tonsillectomy and caregivers who perceived their child's sleep to be more disturbed were more often willing to consider tonsillectomy (both p = 0.02). Parents of Black children are less willing to consider tonsillectomy for their child's oSDB, but this was not explained by any factors assessed in this study. Future studies should evaluate additional factors that may explain this difference and that might be targeted to ensure appropriate and equitable access to tonsillectomy among children with oSDB.

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Poor correlation between airway fluoroscopy and rigid bronchoscopic evaluation in paediatric tracheomalacia

S. Emmett, A. Megow, C. Woods, J. Wood

Publication date 04-05-2022


Tracheomalacia is a common congenital condition causing stridor in young children. However, the evaluation of these children remains poorly standardised across institutions. We conducted a retrospective review of all children undergoing an elective laryngotracheobronchoscopy at a single tertiary paediatric institution between March 2010 and December 2018. Emergency bronchoscopies and children with tracheostomies were excluded. 1163 children undergoing an elective bronchoscopy were included in this study, and 545 children also had an airway fluoroscopy. The median age at bronchoscopy was 17 months, and the majority of children were male. Tracheomalacia was diagnosed in 21.6% of children at bronchoscopy, of these 48.5% had tracheomalacia diagnosed on a previous airway fluoroscopy. Overall, airway fluoroscopy had a low sensitivity (62.3%) and a low specificity (67.5%) for diagnosis of tracheomalacia when compared with bronchoscopy. Increasing severity of tracheomalacia on airway screen significantly predicted a diagnosis of tracheomalacia on bronchoscopy. Airway fluoroscopy has a low sensitivity and specificity in diagnosis of tracheomalacia and should be used judiciously rather than as a screening tool for children with stridor. However, this imaging technique may be beneficial in investigating children with severe symptoms who have had other conditions such as laryngomalacia excluded.

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Improving emergency airway cart efficiency in compliance with Joint Commission standards

Margaret Heller, Noah Worobetz, Jonathan Grischkan, Meredith Lind, Kris R. Jatana, Erin R.S. Hamersley

Publication date 16-05-2022


Emergency Airway Carts (EAC) are essential for pediatric otolaryngologists to provide rapid bedside care for emergent airway scenarios. At many institutions, EAC bronchoscopy equipment is individually peal-packaged due to Joint Commission (JC) standards, creating significant inefficiency in equipment assembly during time sensitive clinical settings. The objective of this quality improvement initiative was to improve the efficiency of use of our emergency airway cart equipment. Individually peel-packaged bronchoscope equipment was replaced with JC compliant sets. Otolaryngology trainees (N = 8) and pediatric otolaryngology attending physicians (N = 11) were tested in a simulated airway emergency scenario, requiring bronchoscope assembly. Complete bronchoscope assembly and time to tracheal visualization (TTV) was measured for each participant, which started with initial clinical scenario presentation and ended with successful visualization of the trachea using the rigid bronchoscope. Pre-airway cart interventions, 68.4% of participants built a complete bronchoscope with no missing pieces, which improved to 100% with the new cart organization. Post-EAC interventions, all 19 participants reduced TTV significantly by a mean of 177.7 s (p < 0.001). Trainees reduced TTV by a mean of 251.2 s (46.2%, p < 0.0001) and attendings by 124.2 s (31.5%, p < 0.0022). All participants found the new airway cart sets easier to use and improved equipment setup efficiency. Compiling bronchoscope equipment into sterile sets allowed for improved TTV and bronchoscope quality for trainees and attending physicians while maintaining JC standards. Simulation improved confidence among both trainees and attending surgeons in providing optimal patient care in airway emergencies.

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What are the risk factors for acute otitis media treatment failure?

Dan Michael Ron, Sharon Ovnat Tamir, Tal Marom

Publication date 06-05-2022


To identify risk factors associated with acute otitis media treatment failure (AOMTF) among 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) immunized children. In this retrospective study, we identified children <12 years who were admitted to our hospital November 2017-October 2020. Children were categorized either as acute otitis media treatment failure (AOMTF), if they received adequate pre-admission antibiotics, or as AOM without treatment failure (AOMwTF), if they did not receive any pre-admission antibiotics. We collected demographics, clinical behavior, laboratory results, length and hospitalization course. Hospitalization was justified if previously treated properly. The AOMTF group included 84 children (43 boys, mean age: 1.30 ± 0.83 years), whereas the AOMwTF group included 251 children (132 boys, mean age: 1.20 ± 0.89 years). AOMTF accounted for 25% of all AOM admissions. Among the AOMTF group, 46 (54.8%) were treated with amoxicillin and 24 (28.6%) with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Risk factors for AOMTF included recurrent AOM episodes history (30.9% vs 5.5%, OR 7.6, 95%CI 3.5-15.4, p < 0.001), otorrhea (29.4% vs 9.5%, OR 4, 95%CI 2.1-7.5, p < 0.001), tympanic membrane perforation (14.2% vs 4.3%, OR 3.6, 95%CI 1.5-8.6, p < 0.0019). Children with AOMTF were treated more with 2nd- or 3rd-line antibiotics (90.2% vs 65.9%, OR 4, 95%CI 2.2-10.4, p < 0.001), and underwent more myringotomy/ventilation tube insertions (14.4% vs 6.9%, OR 2.3, 95%CI 1.0-5.0, p = 0.037).
Mean admission durations were similar: 3.83 ± 1.6 days in the AOMTF group vs 3.37 ± 2.77 days in the AOMwTF group (p = 0.15). Risk factors associated with AOMTF should be identified early during the AOM course to reduce complication rates and surgery referral.

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A comparative study for the clinical features in children with PFAPA syndrome who were diagnosed before and after the age of five

Ali Kanık, Kayı Eliaçık, Esra Toprak Kanık, Yavuz Demirçelik, Belde Kasap Demir

Publication date 03-05-2022


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Pediatric temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthritis, an elusive complication of acute mastoiditis

Smadar Cohen Atsmoni, Anusha Hennedige, David Richardson, Sujata De

Publication date 03-05-2022


Septic arthritis of the Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a rare complication of acute middle ear infection. Presentation is elusive and could be easily missed. Often diagnosis is made only with consequential development of TMJ ankylosis. This study intends to characterize patients and course of disease and suggest a diagnostic and therapeutic strategy. Retrospective review of all children diagnosed with TMJ arthritis and/or TMJ ankylosis secondary to acute middle ear infection, treated in a tertiary pediatric medical center between the years 2005 and 2021. Seven patients were identified with otogenic TMJ arthritis. Median age at presentation was 1.14 years (IQ range 1.1-1.5). All seven were diagnosed with acute mastoiditis. CT scans demonstrated TMJ related collections in 5/7 and intracranial complications in 3/7. Treatment included cortical mastoidectomy for 5/7. One patient had a concomitant surgical washout of the TMJ. Two patients had drainage only of subperiosteal collections. Six of the seven patients went on to develop TMJ ankylosis that presented within a median of 2.8 years (IQ range 2.6-3.9) after the episode of acute mastoiditis. All six patients presented with trismus and facial growth anomalies, and all but one required surgery to release the ankylosis. Otogenic TMJ arthritis develops mostly in young children with acute mastoiditis and intratemproal and/or intracranial suppuration. Imaging is helpful in making the diagnosis, with TMJ related collections on CT being the most common finding. TMJ ankylosis can develop within a few years and present with trismus and abnormal facial growth. Cortical mastoidectomy does not seem to prevent ankylosis. It remains unclear whether focused treatment to the TMJ or physiotherapy could be beneficial in that.

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A single center retrospective comparison of post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage between BiZact and Coblator

Garrett Ni, Danielle McAuliffe, Harleen K. Sethi, Punam Patel, Alyssa Terk

Publication date 03-05-2022


Over 550,000 tonsillectomies are performed every year. While post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage (PTH) has been studied in the coblator, bovie, and cold steel technique, there is a dearth of studies examining the post-tonsillectomy outcome using Bi Zact. This study examines the rate of Bi Zact PTH requiring control of hemorrhage in the OR and assess resident comfort using the device. Retrospective chart review for all tonsillectomies performed between January 2018 and December 2020 were performed. Rates of PTH were analyzed. In addition, a 7-question Bi Zact resident experience survey was administered to 25 otolaryngology residents. 1384 patients were included in this study; 444 (32%) Bizact and 940 (68%) Coblation. 11 (2.48%) Bi Zact patients had PTH requiring OR for control of hemorrhage, compared to 44 (4.68%) Coblation patients. There were no patient deaths because of PTH. The mean age of patients with PTH was 7.44 (SD 4.07) years old. 22 (88%) residents responded to the survey. 17 (77.27%) felt more confident with Coblator while performing tonsillectomy most commonly reported for ease of use, followed by Bi Zact 4 (18.18%), most commonly reported for improved surgical plane. Bi Zact is a safe and effective addition. At our institution, the rate of secondary PTH requiring OR intervention for Bi Zact is comparable to the national average for other tonsillectomy devices. The rate of Bi Zact PTH requiring OR intervention in our experience was nearly half of those done with Coblator. Overall residents at SCHC preferred Coblator over Bi Zact mainly attributed to Coblator's versatility and ability to control intraoperative tonsil bleeding without additional instruments despite Bi Zact's shorter operative time.

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PICU admission and complications following adenotonsillectomies in pediatric patients: A retrospective cohort study

Kathleen Than, Connie Mun-Price, Margaret J. Klein, Patrick A. Ross, Gabriel Gomez, Makoto Nagoshi

Publication date 15-05-2022


Children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have higher risks of post-operative respiratory complication after adenotonsillectomy. However, there is no clinical standard criteria for pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission following adenotonsillectomy. The purpose of this study was to identify perioperative risk factors associated with the need for PICU level care after adenotonsillectomy. We performed a retrospective chart review of children with severe OSA (apnea hypopnea index on polysomnography; AHI ≥10) and/or post-operative PICU admission at a tertiary academic center from May 2010 to September 2018. We collected demographics, pre-existing comorbidities, perioperative medications, and post-operative complications. We defined a primary outcome as escalation of airway management while in the PICU or PICU stay >48 h. Airway escalation included the need for an invasive airway, new CPAP application, increased CPAP setting, or increased supplemental oxygen. Analysis included 278 children with severe OSA and/or PICU admission. Median age was 6.6 years old; 181 (65%) were admitted to the PICU, and 60 (21.5%) had the composite outcome of escalation of airway management or prolonged stay. In patients with an escalation of airway management, 28 needed intubation or mechanical ventilation. Multivariable logistic regression showed intraoperative respiratory complications, polysomnography (PSG) peak end-tidal CO For children following adenotonsillectomy, PSG EtCO

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The surgical treatment of acquired subglottic stenosis in children with double-stage laryngotracheal reconstruction

Filippo Carta, Nicoletta Piras, Cinzia Mariani, Valeria Marrosu, Melania Tatti, Natalia Chuchueva, Almat Bekpanov, Aigul R. Medeulova, Sanjana Ashik Shetty, Roberto Puxeddu

Publication date 02-05-2022


The aim of this study is to report our experience with double-stage laryngotracheal reconstruction with anterior or antero-posterior cartilage grafting in the management of acquired laryngotracheal stenosis in children. Patients were treated by the same surgeon at the UMC National Research Center for Maternal and Child Health of Astana (Kazakhstan), and Sfendiyarov Kazakh National Medical University, Almaty (Kazakhstan). From November 2011 to September 2019, 9 children underwent surgery for grade III and IV laryngotracheal stenosis according to the European Laryngological Society classification (mean age of 6 years, range of 2-12 years). Six patients underwent double-stage laryngotracheal reconstruction with anterior and posterior cartilage graft, and 3 patients underwent double-stage laryngotracheal reconstruction with single anterior cartilage graft. In all patients, a T-tube was used to stabilize the airway (mean time of 5.8 months, range of 5-9 months). One patient required additional dilation with bougies to obtain a viable laryngotracheal diameter. No postoperative complications were observed. One patient experienced recurrence of the stenosis 5 months after double-stage laryngotracheal reconstruction with double anterior and posterior cartilage grafts and is waiting for revision surgery. After a mean follow-up of 14 months (range of 4-36 months), 8 patients are tracheostomy-free, and all patients are feeding tube-free. Double-stage laryngotracheal reconstruction with a single or double cartilage grafting represents a safe and effective option in the management of complete or severe laryngotracheal stenosis.

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The relationships between language, working memory and rapid naming in children with mild to moderate hearing loss

Merve İkiz, Esra Yücel

Publication date 02-05-2022


Hearing loss is associated with reduced quality and quantity of auditory input, and difficulty in cognitive and language skills. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between language, working memory, and rapid naming skills in children with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss (MMHL). Twenty children with MMHL with the same auditory experience and demographical conditions using bilateral hearing aids were included. Verbal memory subscale of the Working Memory Scale (WMS), consisting of verbal short-term memory (V-STM) and verbal working memory (V-WM) subtests, was administered to all participants. They also completed rapid automatized naming tasks and standardized language measures. The language score showed a moderate and significant correlation with verbal memory (VM) score (p = 0.03, r = 0.48) and a moderate and negative correlation with rapid automatized naming (RAN) duration (p = 0.06, r = -0.61). The VM score showed a moderate and significant negative correlation with RAN duration (p = 0.01, r = -0.67). The language level has a strong and significant positive correlation with V-STM (p = 0.007, r = 0.60), V-WM (p = 0.009, r = 0.58), and VM level (p = 0.003, r = 0.65). VM subtests levels have a strong and significant positive correlation with each other (p = 0.017, r = 0.53). RAN level has a strong and significant negative correlation with VM (p = 0.001, r = -0.70), V-WM (p = 0.001, r = -0.76), V-STM (p = 0.001, r = -0.69), and language level (p = 0.001, r = -0.77). The results suggest that the language, verbal working memory, and rapid naming skills of children with MMHL are closely related. It is recommended that the relationship between verbal short-term memory, verbal working memory, rapid naming skills, and language skills should be considered in therapeutic and educational settings. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the relationships between verbal-short-term -working memory, duration of rapid automatized naming, and language skills in children with MMHL.

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Suture lateralization in congenital bilateral vocal cord immobility in neonates and infants: A hybrid approach

R.B. Speaker, L. Woods-Geyer, R. Mehanna, J. Russell

Publication date 02-05-2022


Bilateral vocal cord immobility (BVCI) is a leading cause of stridor and airway obstruction in neonates which may arise idiopathically, as a result of birth trauma, or in the setting of Central nervous system lesions such as Arnold-Chiari malformation. Although many children with BVCI may be managed conservatively, surgical intervention may be necessary in those patients with ongoing upper airway obstruction. Many interventions have been described including, tracheostomy, cordotomy, cricoid splitting procedures, and arytenoidectomy. Vocal cord suture lateralization has the advantage of being both reversible and less morbid than other surgical interventions for BVCI. This study describes a novel variation of the suture lateralization procedure which aids in correct placement of the suture thus minimizing multiple needle passes and associated laryngeal edema. A retrospective chart review was undertaken of five patients undergoing suture lateralization of the vocal cord for BVCI at a single institution over a 10 year period. Post-operative voice and swallow outcomes were recorded. Of five patients undergoing this procedure four returned to normal diet. One was diagnosed with a progressive neurological disorder and was persistently fed via gastrostomy tube. Three of the five patients spontaneously recovered vocal cord function and went on to have normal voice after suture removal. Suture lateralization is a safe and effective means of alleviating upper airway obstruction in BVCI. It has the advantages of being reversable and minimally invasive; however, optimal suture placement is both vital and challenging. The novel technique described in this study allows identification of landmarks as and aid to suture placement thus reducing the need for multiple needle passes into the lumen of the larynx.

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Chronic care handoffs in otolaryngology: Pediatric to Adult Care Providers

Jennifer Shearer, Claudia I. Cabrera, Todd Otteson, Nelson Scott Howard

Publication date 01-05-2022


The transfer of care from pediatric to adult otolaryngology remains unexplored. Our study investigated practice patterns among pediatric otolaryngologists. Twenty-question survey administered to otolaryngologists at the Society for Ear Nose and Throat Advancement in Children (SENTAC) and American Society of Pediatric Otolaryngology (ASPO) in December 2020 and July 2021 respectively. Data analyzed in Red Cap including demographics, frequencies, means, and standard deviations. The survey was completed by 48 participants. The majority of respondents practiced for at least 16 years (n = 28) at a University-based practices (n = 38), serving an entirely pediatric population (n = 44). Providers' expertise included chronic ear disease, voice disorders, and laryngeal stenosis. Few respondents (n = 12) had a transfer of care policy formalized at their practice. However, 38.8% of respondents were interested in developing one. Respondents rarely discussed topics such as drugs, tobacco, or alcohol use (mean 30.1%, SD 30.18%) with patients; and only 55.5% (SD 32.98) of providers asked patients 14 years and older to describe their condition, medications, or treatment plans. None of the providers were familiar with standardized transition of care tools. The majority of providers transferred patients between 18 and 25 years old to adult care. There is significant variation between otolaryngology providers' awareness and clinical practice patterns surrounding pediatric to adult transfer of care. Further studies are needed to evaluate the implications of these biases for patient outcomes and the opportunities for a standardized approach.

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Erratum to “Determination of language performance by discriminant function analysis in Mandarin-speaking preschoolers with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder” Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol. 155 (2022) 111088

Pei-Hua Chen, Tang Zhi Lim

Publication date 08-05-2022


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Non-involuting congenital hemangioma with delayed hypertrophy: A case series

Anisha Konanur, Joaquin E. Jimenez, Megan Kochin, Andrew McCormick, Claudia Salgado, Sabri Yilmaz, Michael Bykowski, Reema Padia

Publication date 01-05-2022


Noninvoluting congenital hemangiomas (NICH) are rare and poorly understood vascular tumors that are present at birth, characterized by lack of growth after birth and lack of involution. We report uncharacteristic cases of NICH hypertrophy occurring later in life. This is a case series describing the clinical presentation, management, and histologic characteristics of two cases of NICH hypertrophy. Two patients with a NICH of the scalp experienced lesion hypertrophy in teenage or early adult life. Case 1 is a 14-year-old female who presented with a flat left parietal scalp lesion that at first grew slowly with the patient; however, over the span of months grew substantially resulting in an exophytic lesion. The patient had the lesion surgically excised. Case 2 is a 26-year-old female with NICH of left occipital scalp and posterior neck who noted new nodules on the inferior border of the lesion. MRA/MRI showed extension into the occipital calvarium, level V of the neck, and paraspinal musculature. The patient elected to observe given the extent of the lesion and her minimal symptoms. Although postnatal growth of NICH have been described, cases usually occur during the pre-adolescent period where growth is usually proportional to overall growth of the patient. This study describes two cases of rapid onset NICH hypertrophy occurring later in life. Knowledge of the potential for delayed hypertrophy may lead families to seek earlier intervention or opt for more definitive interventions. Additionally, recognition of these variable distinctions will contribute to a better understanding of CH and its various subtypes.

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Evaluating the management timeline of tracheoesophageal fistulas secondary to button batteries: A systematic review

Nicolas S. Poupore, Michael C. Shih, Shaun A. Nguyen, Emily A. Brennan, Clarice S. Clemmens, Phayvanh P. Pecha, Lucas A. McDuffie, William W. Carroll

Publication date 07-05-2022


During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the incidence of pediatric button battery (BB) ingestions has risen. Children have spent more time at home from school, while many parents try to balance working from home and childcare. Additionally, the amount of electronics powered by BB has increased. Tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) secondary to a retained aerodigestive BB is a devastating development. Management is challenging, and the clinical timeline of watchful waiting versus surgical intervention for TEF is poorly defined in the literature. In accordance with PRISMA guidelines, databases searched include Pub Med, Scopus, and CINAHL from database date of inception through August 13, 2021. All study designs were included, and no language, publication date, or other restrictions were applied. Case series and reports of TEFs secondary to BBs were included. Clinical risk factors and outcomes were compared between the spontaneous closure and surgical repair groups. A total of 79 studies with 105 total patients were included. Mortality was 11.4%. There were 23 (21.9%) TEFs that spontaneously closed and 71 (67.6%) that underwent surgical repair. Median time to spontaneous closure compared to surgical repair was significantly different (8.0 weeks [IQR 4.0-18.4] vs. 2.0 weeks [IQR 0.1-3.3], p<0.001). Smaller TEFs were more likely to spontaneously close versus being surgically repaired (9.3 mm ± 3.5 vs. 14.9 mm ± 8.3, p=0.022). Duration of symptoms before BB discovery, BB size, time between BB removal and TEF discovery, and location of the TEF were not statistically different between the spontaneous closure and surgical repair groups. A TEF secondary to BB ingestion is a potentially deadly complication. Timing of reported TEF spontaneous closure varies significantly. While smaller TEFs may be amenable to healing without surgical repair, no other significant factors were identified that may be associated with spontaneous closure. If clinical status permits, these data suggest a period of observation of at least 8 weeks prior to surgical intervention may be practical for many BB-induced TEFs.

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Nationwide disparities in transportation related delays to care experienced by children with frequent ear infections

Tarun K. Jella, Thomas B. Cwalina, Rishi R. Sachdev, Jenna E. Schmidt, Jay R. Shah, Todd Otteson

Publication date 03-05-2022


Acute otitis media (AOM), or ear infection, is the most common reason for pediatric medical visits in the United States [1]. Additionally, transportation barriers are a significant driver of missed and delayed care across medical specialties [2,3]. Yet, the role of transportation barriers in impeding access for children with frequent ear infections (FEI) has not been investigated. Assessing the prevalence of transportation barriers across sociodemographic groups may help clinicians improve outcomes for children with FEI. A retrospective analysis of the U.
S. National Health Interview Survey was completed to examine associations between sociodemographic characteristics among children with FEI and transportations barriers to seeking care between 2011 and 2018. Multivariable logistic regression found that income level, insurance status, and health status were linked to disparities in transportation barriers among children with FEI. Those in the middle (aOR 3.00, 95% CI 1.77-5.08, p < 0.001) and lowest income brackets (aOR 6.33, 95% CI 3.80, p < 0.001), who were publicly insured (aOR 3.24, 95% CI 2.00-5.23, p < 0.001) or uninsured (aOR 3.46, 95% CI 1.84-6.51, p < 0.001), and with Poor to Fair health status were more likely to face transportation delays than patients who were in the highest income bracket, privately insured, or had Good to Excellent health status. Children with FEI from families that were lower-income, less insured, and less healthy faced more transportation barriers when accessing care than their counterparts. Future interventions to improve health-related transportation should be targeted toward these patient subgroups to reduce gaps in outcomes.

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"Training speech pathology students in the perceptual evaluation of speech in patients with cleft palate: Reliability results and the students perspective"

Laura Bruneel, Astrid Danhieux, Kristiane Van Lierde

Publication date 26-04-2022


Listener training is necessary to achieve agreement between perceptual ratings. However, evidence is limited regarding the effect of a training in the perceptual evaluation of cleft palate speech on the reliability of students in speech pathology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term and longer-term effect of a training using the Belgian Dutch outcome tool for cleft palate speech on reliability and the students' experiences. A 2-h training was provided during a specialist course for 31 first year master students in speech pathology. Information regarding listener characteristics, speech documentation and speech analysis (speech parameters and rating scales) was discussed. This last part focused on the Belgian Dutch outcome tool for speech in patients with cleft palate, including reference samples and consensus listening exercises. Pre training (T1) and post-training reliability (immediately following the training (T2) and one month later (T3)) were collected for the speech variables speech understandability, speech acceptability, hypernasality, hyponasality, nasal emission and nasal turbulence that were rated by means of ordinal scales. Inter-rater reliability was determined with interclass correlation coefficients whereas percentages of agreement were calculated for the intra-rater reliability. Qualitative inter-rater ICC categories improved for hyponasality and speech acceptability at T2 and T3, whereas the inter-rater reliability of the other variables remained stable regarding their interpreted categories. All ICC values quantitatively improved at T2, except hypernasality and nasal emission. At T3, three of those variables showed a small drop one month later. Regarding intra-rater reliability, a significant decrease for hypernasality and nasal turbulence was found at T2, whereas a significant increase was observed for nasal turbulence and speech acceptability at T3. All variables, except hypernasality, had improved intra-rater reliability at T3 in comparison with T1. Students experienced fewer difficulties with most variables after training. Evaluation of nasal emission and nasal turbulence remained however difficult and required, in the students' opinion, more attention. Overall a positive training effect was noted, especially regarding the inter-rater reliability and the students' confidence in perceptual ratings. However, it remains a challenge to achieve a positive training effect for all target variables that is maintained over-time.

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Role of leptin/ILC2 axis in allergic rhinitis in obese children

Xiaoqiang Wang, Yang Shen, Xia Ke, Houyong Kang, Suling Hong

Publication date 26-04-2022


Since the leptin participates in the upregulation of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s). We investigated the role of the leptin/ILC2 axis in AR pathogenesis in Chinese paediatric patients with obesity. Seventy AR paediatric patients with or without obesity and 30 healthy obese subjects were enrolled. The levels of leptin, its receptor and ILC2 milieu were measured, and correlations between them and clinical symptom severity and between ILC2 milieu and leptin levels were assessed. Changes of ILC2 milieu in AR patients after leptin stimulation were also detected. Levels of leptin, its receptor and ILC2 milieu levels were significantly higher in the disease than in the controls, and highest in the obese-AR group. The leptin/ILC2 axis and severity of clinical symptoms in obese patients with AR were significantly correlated, similarly to what was observed between leptin/leptin receptors and ILC2 milieu. Recombinant leptin could significantly increased the levels of ILC2 milieu in the obese-AR group. These findings suggest the unique function ofthe leptin/ILC2 axis in obese paediatric AR patients. The mechanism by which obesity promotes AR in paediatric patients may be related to the leptin/ILC2 axis.

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Follow-up on children with suspected bilateral congenital hearing loss identified through universal newborn hearing screening program in Taiwan: A national-based population study

Wen − Hui Hsieh, Hung − Ching Lin

Publication date 24-04-2022


This investigation was to ascertain the performance of the UNHS in Taiwan. The predefined questionnaire was delivered on the phone in 2016. The descriptive analysis was applied to the research data. 941 neonates in birth cohorts 2013-2014 who were documented as a bilateral referral in the national UNHS tracking system were targeted. The respondents were either caregivers or family members. 40.3% of 941 children were lost to follow-up, and 66.24% of 363 children were diagnosed with SNHL. 45.15% of 163 children used hearing amplification device(s). 77.46% of hearing amplification device users and 7.51% of non-users participated in the auditory training courses. By six months of age, 38.51% and 22.58% of children diagnosed with bilateral SNHL commenced the hearing amplification device fitting and the auditory training courses, respectively. More efforts are needed to enhance the performance of the UNHS to achieve national goals stated in the 2014 Taiwan UNHS Revised Guidelines and the well-known benchmarks set by the JCIH in 2007. The development of an electronic tracking system for storing and sharing information on the follow-up on children with congenital hearing loss was as significant as the improvements in the understanding of early hearing detection and intervention of the public and stakeholders.

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Customizable interdental splinting for repair of pediatric mandibular fractures in children with mixed dentition: A novel technique

Julie Highland, Gabriel Dunya, Charles Teames, Jordan Peacock, Duane Yamashiro, Harlan Muntz, Albert Park

Publication date 25-04-2022


Repair of pediatric mandibular fractures (PMFs) can be challenging due to the lack of permanent dentition for immobilization, and the presence of unerupted teeth and growth plates in the mandible limiting the space for fixation. Interdental splinting (IDS) has been advocated to provide temporary fixation without the need for mandibular plating; however, there is sparse description of the surgical methodology, and data on long term outcomes are even more limited. The aim of this study is to present our technique and outcomes using a novel technique for IDS repair of pediatric mandible fractures. Observational retrospective chart review. Tertiary care pediatric hospital. Pediatric patients requiring operative repair for mandibular fracture at our tertiary care institution between 2004 and 2021 were included. Patients over 18 years of age, those who died due to associated injuries, or those who underwent non-IDS repairs were excluded. Subjects with at least 3 months of follow-up were assessed for efficacy of surgical repair and short-term adverse outcomes, and at least 1 year for long-term adverse events. Descriptive statistics were obtained. Twenty-three children were included in the study with an average age of 7.4 years (range 2-17 years). Fifty-two percent (52.2%) were female. The most common fracture site was the condyle, occurring in 16 children (70%). The indication for operative repair in all cases was malocclusion. The average duration of maxillomandibular fixation (MMF) with the novel IDS was 21 days (range 12-42 days). The average length of follow up was 1.6 years (range 3 months-11 years). All children had restored, functional occlusion at follow up with none requiring further orthodontic or dental intervention. Three children of the total cohort (13.0%) had prolonged hospitalization beyond 48 h for poor oral intake. Five children (21.7%) experienced minor long-term complications including persistent temporomandibular joint pain (n = 1, 4.3%), infection (n = 2, 8.7%), hypertrophic scar (n = 1, 4.3%) and exposure of hardware (n = 1, 4.3%). PMFs resulting in malocclusion are safely and effectively managed with operative repair utilizing a customizable IDS, with few observed short- and long-term complications.

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Hedonic perception of odors in children aged 5–8 years is similar across 18 countries: Preliminary data

A. Oleszkiewicz, V.A. Schriever, C. Valder, E. Agosin, A. Altundag, H. Avni, H. Cao Van, C. Cornejo, G. Fishman, M. Guarneros, N. Gupta, R. Kamel, A. Knaapila, I. Konstantinidis, B.N. Landis, M. Larsson, J.N. Lundström, A. Macchi, F. Marino-Sanchez, E. Mori

Publication date 21-04-2022


Olfactory preference emerges very early in life, and the sense of smell in children rapidly develops until the second decade of life. It is still unclear whether hedonic perception of odors is shared in children inhabiting different regions of the globe. Five-hundred ten healthy children (N = 510; n The hedonic perception of odors in children aged between 5 and 8 years was rather consistent across 18 countries and mainly driven by the qualities of an odor and the overall ability of children to label odorants. Conclusions from this study, being a secondary analysis, are limited to the presented set of odors that were initially selected for the development of U-Sniff test and present null findings for the cross-cultural variability in hedonic perception of odors across 18 countries. These two major issues should be addressed in the future to either contradict or replicate the results presented herewith. This research lays fundament for posing further research questions about the developmental aspects of hedonic perception of odors and opens a new door for investigating cross-cultural differences in chemosensory perception of children.

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Tragal remnant flap reconstruction method for congenital tragal malformation in children

ZhengHua Huang, Qi Li

Publication date 21-04-2022


To explore the clinical effect of tragal remnant flap for congenital tragal malformation in children. The clinical data of 23 children with congenital tragal malformation hospitalized in our department from May 2017 to May 2021 were retrospectively reviewed. Congenital tragal malformation has various names and clinical manifestations. It is a kind of rare congenital auricle malformation, which can exist alone or in combination with other malformations. About 78.3% of the children with congenital tragal malformation had a natural tragal remnant flap; The rest of the children without tragal remnant flap were repaired by skin flap&cartilage reconstruction method (SFC-RM). For the depressed deformity around the tragus, the cartilage and fascia tissue around the tragus were used for filling. The overall effect was satisfactory. Most children with congenital tragal malformation have natural tragal remnant flap. Tragal remnant flap reconstruction method (TRE-RM) not only has shorter operation time, less trauma, faster healing,fewer complications, but also can obtain more natural tragus appearance.

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Early audiological phenotype in patients with mutations in the USH2A gene

T.G. Markova, M.R. Lalayants, N.N. Alekseeva, O.P. Ryzhkova, O.L. Shatokhina, N.M. Galeeva, E.A. Bliznetz, M.E. Weener, O.A. Belov, S.S. Chibisova, A.V. Polyakov, G.A. Tavartkiladze

Publication date 23-04-2022


Nowadays, due to universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) the number of children with mild-to-moderate hearing loss diagnosed in the first year of life has increased significantly. Aside from that, identification of the genetic cause improves the genetic counselling of the families and allows to reveal possible comorbidities which may need a special approach. To present the characteristics of the early audiologic phenotype in hearing impaired patients with biallelic mutations in the USH2A gene based on systematic analysis of the audiological data. 13 patients with mutations in the USH2A gene underwent audiological examination. Most of them were found among a large group of infants with bilateral nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) examined under 12 months. Eight out of eleven children failed UNHS and were initially diagnosed as having bilateral nonsyndromic SNHL. Seven children underwent an audiological assessment before the age of 9 months. The earliest audiological examination was carried out at 1 and 3 months. The children with pathogenic variants in the USH2A gene in our examined group were identified in the first year of life via UNHS. The hearing threshold levels (HTL) for the USH2A group are compactly distributed between 51.25 dB and 66.25 dB, quartiles are 54 dB and 63.4 dB, with a median of 60 dB. The audiological profile of patients with biallelic USH2A mutations differs from audiograms of patients who had STRC-related hearing loss. We have not found any significant elevation in hearing thresholds in the first decade of life. We also estimated the prevalence of the USH2A and STRC mutations among GJB2-negative infants with bilateral nonsyndromic SNHL examined under 12 months, and it was 7.5% and 16.1%, respectively. According to our results, the early hearing phenotype in pediatric patients with biallelic mutations in the USH2A- gene is characterized by nonsyndromic mild-to-moderate SNHL in the first decade of life. Our results indicate that the presence of mutations in the USH2A or STRC genes can be expected in a child with congenital mild-to-moderate nonsyndromic SNHL. This information is of practical importance for parents, as they have to know the prognosis of hearing loss for their child from the very beginning. Post-screening follow-up should include adequate clinical, genetic, and social support for children and their parents.

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Predictors of future academic productivity in pediatric otolaryngology fellowship applicants

Jeremy Cha, Diego Preciado, Hannah Mann, Hengameh Behzadpour, Yeshwant Chillakuru, Alexandra G. Espinel

Publication date 21-04-2022


To investigate which components of pediatric otolaryngology fellowship applications are more closely predictive of future academic productivity in applicants who go on to complete their fellowship training. Applications to our institution's ACGME accredited pediatric otolaryngology fellowship program through the SF Match program for the years 2011-2016 were reviewed. Applicant files on record were utilized to extract independent variables including sex, mean USMLE score, residency program Doximity ranking, military experience, number of national honors/awards, AOA status, total number of publications listed on application, number of first author publications listed on application, and AAOHNS Committee involvement. Academic productivity was determined by number of Pub Med indexed publications per year, practice setting, and H-index (Scopus). Statistical analysis consisted of multivariate and univariate regression models, with p < 0.05 being considered statistically significant. Multivariate regression showed that USMLE Step 1 and 2 mean score and number of publications listed on application exhibited statistically significant correlations with a higher number of future post fellowship publications per year. Residency program Doximity rank, applicant number of awards and honors, AOA status, and number of first author publications were not predictive of future academic productivity. No statistically significant associations were found between any variables and the faculty position outcome variable. Quantifiable criteria in pediatric otolaryngology fellowship applications, such as number of listed publications and mean USMLE scores are strongly correlated with future academic productivity metrics.

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Adenoidectomy may decrease the need for a third set of tympanostomy tubes in children

Sarah Hancock, Paul Allen, Angel’Niqua Dixon, John Faria, Nathan Vandjelovic, Margo McKenna Benoit

Publication date 22-04-2022


To determine whether removing or retaining adenoids at the time of placement of a second set of ear tubes impacts the need for a third set of ear tubes later in childhood. Single-institution retrospective case series. Tertiary academic university hospital. We identified pediatric subjects who had undergone a second ear tube placement between 1/1/17 and 9/1/19.
Subjects were stratified into two groups: 1) adenoids removed at time of second tympanostomy tube insertion (TT+A) and 2) adenoids retained at time of second tympanostomy tube insertion (TT-A). A subset of children less than age 4 was also studied independently. The primary outcome was number of patients requiring a third set of tympanostomy tubes. A total of 136 subjects met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Among children less than 4 years of age (n = 99), the incidence of requiring a third set of tubes was significantly lower in the TT+A group <4 (12.8%; 6/47) compared to the TT-A group <4 (44.2%; 23/52) (p = 0.0008) with an odds ratio of 0.18 (95%CI 0.067-0.51) and number needed to treat of 3.2. Performing adenoidectomy in children less than 4 years of age at the second tympanostomy procedure was associated with a reduced incidence of requiring a third set of ear tubes.

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Prevalence and surgical management of cholesteatoma in Down Syndrome children

Anna Poliner, Chenge Mahomva, Chelsea Williams, Kristan Alfonso, Samantha Anne, Mary Musso, Yi-Chun Carol Liu

Publication date 18-04-2022


The objective was to report the outcomes of surgical management of cholesteatoma in Down Syndrome (DS) children and to determine the prevalence of cholesteatoma in DS children at three academic tertiary care centers. A retrospective chart review was performed of all DS children diagnosed with cholesteatoma from three tertiary care academic centers. Demographic data, comorbidities, imaging findings, surgical management, and pre- and postoperative pure tone averages were collected. The prevalence of cholesteatoma in DS patients at these three institutions was calculated to be 8/802 (0.998%), 4/448 (0.893%), and 4/1016 (0.394%), with an average prevalence of 0.762%. Of the 16 patients with cholesteatoma identified, the average age of diagnosis was 10.8 years, and 5/16 (31%) had at least three sets of pressure equalizing tubes (PETs) placed. Of the 13 patients with preoperative CTs, 4/13 (30.8%) had blunting of the scutum, 4/13 (30.8%) had tegmen involvement, 1/13 (7.7%) had erosion of the semicircular canal, 2/13 had facial nerve dehiscence, and 7/13 (53.8%) had ossicular chain erosion. For surgical management, disease control was attained in 4/16 children with tympanoplasty only and canal wall up (CWU) tympanomastoidectomy in 11/16 patients. Available pre- and postoperative audiograms were evaluated; however, there was insufficient audiological data to contribute to outcomes. Cholesteatoma occurs in nearly 1% of DS patients, and the disease tends to be advanced with tegmen involvement in nearly a third of patients, and ossicular erosion seen in more than half the patients. A CWU procedure can be successful in managing DS patients with cholesteatoma when consistent long term follow-up is planned. Close monitoring and a high index of suspicion for cholesteatoma are essential to prevent delays in diagnosis and treatment of DS patients with a history of multiple sets of PET placement.

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Improvement of inattentive and hyperactive symptoms after real-life rhinitis treatment in school-aged children

Chatsuda Thamrongsak, Vilawan Chirdkiatgumchai, Wanlapa Jotikasthira, Potjanee Kiewngam, Watcharoot Kanchongkittiphon, Wiparat Manuyakorn

Publication date 17-04-2022


Rhinitis treatment may improve attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms in children. The current study evaluated changes in inattentive and hyperactive symptoms after treatment in children with chronic rhinitis. Children aged 5-18 years with chronic rhinitis were enrolled in a 3-month prospective study. The nasal provocation test for house dust mites (HDM) and evaluation of allergen sensitization, including the skin prick test and the Phadiatop test, were performed. The severity of rhinitis was assessed according to the ARIA guideline. The total nasal symptom score and the Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Rating Scale (VADRS) score for assessing inattentive and hyperactive symptoms were recorded at baseline and at 1 and 3 months after rhinitis treatment.
Children with rhinitis were classified into the following two groups: HDM-induced allergic rhinitis (AR group) and non-allergic rhinitis to HDM (NAR group) based on the NPT. Overall, 83 children completed the 3-month prospective study, and they had a mean age of 9.12 ± 2.89 years and 44.6% were boys. After rhinitis treatment, VADRS scores assessed by the parents and teachers were significantly decreased compared with those at baseline (p = 0.005). In subgroup analysis, 61 (73.49%) children had AR, and 22 (26.5%) children had NAR. No significant difference in the baseline VADRS score was found between the AR and NAR groups. After treatment, VADRS scores assessed by the parents and teachers were significantly decreased only in the AR group (p < 0.001). Forty-five (54.2%) children had moderate persistent rhinitis, 29 (34.9%) had mild persistent rhinitis, and 9 (10.8%) had mild intermittent symptoms. There were no differences in baseline VADRS scores assessed by the parents and teachers among children with mild intermittent, mild persistent, or moderate persistent symptoms. The total nasal symptom score and VADRS score were significantly decreased after treatment for all severities of rhinitis compared with those at baseline. A greater baseline VADRS score was associated with substantial improvement of inattentive and hyperactive symptoms after treatment. Early treatment for rhinitis may improve inattentive and hyperactive symptoms in school-aged children.

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Acoustic voice and spectrographic measures in children with the phonological process of devoicing

Marcia Simões-Zenari, Giovana Kaila Santos Batista, Luciana de Oliveira Pagan-Neves, Katia Nemr, Haydée Fiszbein Wertzner

Publication date 16-04-2022


Children with speech sound disorders (SSDs) who present the devoicing of plosive and/or fricative sounds may have difficulties with glottal respiratory control. To analyze acoustic vocal measures, spectrographic aspects and the risk of dysphonia among children with devoicing SDDs and compare the results with those of other groups of children. Twenty-five boys aged between six and 12 years participated.
They were divided into four groups: the SSD-devoicing (PPDG), dysphonia (DG), SSDs other than devoicing (PPOG) and control groups (CG). The vocal tasks were recorded, and perceptual-auditory and acoustic voice analyses were performed. The children's parents answered questions about voice-related aspects (to determine a dysphonia risk score). All data were compared among the groups. Due to the sample size, an effect size analysis was considered, and the results showed possible differences between the PPDG and the other groups in measures of fundamental frequency (F0), jitter, shimmer, harmonic-to-noise ratio, maximum frequency of harmonic definition and dysphonia risk score. The PPDG showed a high F0 and abnormal jitter and shimmer values. Although the voices of the children in this group had more harmonics than noise, the maximum frequency for defining the harmonics was very restricted. The PPDG had the lowest dysphonia risk score among all of the groups. Variations in F0, jitter and shimmer may indicate difficulties with controlling vocal adjustments, which appear to be hyperfunctional and not to impact vocal projection or voicing.

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Tolerance of one-way in-line speaking valve trials in ventilator dependent children

Abdulrahman Althubaiti, Noah Worobetz, Justin Inacio, Jordan Lukens, Marike Mousset, Amanda Onwuka, Melanie Stevens, Leslie Justice, Edward G. Shepherd, Gregory Wiet

Publication date 17-04-2022


Despite the advantages of tracheostomy placement in children requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation, vocalization and verbal communication remains limited in this population of children. The lack of these essential elements during a critical period of development can have a negative impact on overall development. In ventilator dependent children, in-line speaking valves (ISV) provide an opportunity for initiating speech and communication. The objective of this study is to examine patient characteristics and risk factors associated with tolerance and success of ISV trials performed with mechanically ventilated children. A retrospective cohort study was conducted at a large, tertiary care children's hospital to evaluate the outcomes of ISV trials in ventilator-dependent children with tracheostomies, from 2009 to 2019. The primary endpoints were tolerance of the initial ISV assessment, and successful completion of a trial. We compared demographic and clinical characteristics among children that had a successful ISV trial to those that did not. Eighty-nine patients were included, 56 (62%) were male and 33 (38%) were female. Overall, 76 (85%) patients completed an ISV assessment and trial successfully during their hospitalization. The number of attempts before completing a successful trial varied with 41 (46%) patients succeeding on the first attempt. Children that underwent a tracheostomy for airway obstruction were more likely to fail. Ventilator-dependent children with complex comorbidities demonstrate excellent tolerance of in-line speaking valves. Patients should be selected for ISV trials in a multidisciplinary setting. Airway obstruction as an indication for tracheostomy placement is a significant predictor of failure for ISV trials.

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Do tonsils regrow after partial tonsillectomy? – Histology of regrown tonsils and predisposing factors for tonsillar regrowth

Anniina J. Sakki, Aino Mutka, Johanna Nokso-Koivisto, Laura K. Mäkinen

Publication date 16-04-2022


It has been suggested that after partial tonsillectomy, referred here as tonsillotomy (TT), the remaining tonsillar tissue might be altered, leading to scarring or chronic tonsillitis. The objectives were to compare the histology of regrown tonsillar tissues with native tonsils and to assess the incidence of reoperations and predictive factors for tonsillar regrowth after TT. Tonsillar tissues of 1) children that underwent TT and later requiring resurgery and 2) children operated on for the first time with TT were prospectively analysed. To assess the incidence of resurgery because of tonsillar regrowth and predictive factors for tonsillar regrowth, the data covering TTs and tonsillectomies performed in 2009-2020 were retrospectively retrieved. Altogether 11 children formed the regrowth group, with the control group consisting of 19 children. In the histological analysis of tonsillar tissues, neutrophil infiltration in the epithelium and crypts and severe lymphoplasmacytic infiltration in the epithelium were significantly more frequent in samples of the regrowth group relative to the control group. The number of germinal centres was greater in the regrowth group. In the retrospective analysis of 3141 children, the incidence of resurgery after primary TT was 1.9%. Logistic regression analysis showed that age was the only significant predisposing factor for resurgery. Inflammatory cells were present more often in regrown tonsillar tissues but there was no evidence of severe chronic inflammation or scarring in the regrown tonsils. The risk of resurgery after TT was low. Young age predisposed to tonsillar regrowth, no other risk factors were found.

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The histological and microbiological characteristics of bacterial microcolonies in paediatric tonsillar hyperplasia

Ruyan Chen, Sita Tarini Clark, Sharon Waldvogel-Thurlow, Fiona Jane Radcliff, Michael Leigh Hoggard, James Johnston, Richard George Douglas, Kristi Biswas

Publication date 15-04-2022


Paediatric tonsillar hyperplasia (TH) is associated with a spectrum of presentations ranging from recurrent tonsillitis (RT) to sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). The underlying pathogenesis of tonsillar hyperplasia remains poorly understood. Previous studies have implicated bacterial microcolonies as targets of host inflammatory cells and as a potential driver of the chronic inflammation seen in TH. The role of atopy in tonsillar hyperplasia is also largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to determine the allergic responses and microbial factors that may influence TH in children. Paired tonsils and a serum sample were collected from 21 children undergoing tonsillectomy for RT or SDB in the Auckland region. The disposition of immunoglobulin isotypes (IgG, A, M and E) and local inflammatory cells on histological sections of tonsil tissue were determined using immunohistochemistry techniques. Aeroallergen specific IgE (s IgE) and Staphylococcal enterotoxin C specific IgE (SEC-specific IgE) were measured in serum and tonsil tissue using the ImmunoCAP® system. Finally, tonsil bacterial microcolonies were then excised from histological slides using laser microdissection techniques, before undergoing bacterial and fungal amplicon sequencing. There were no significant differences in any of the measured variables between children with RT and SDB symptoms. IgE staining was not associated with increased levels of mast cells, leukocytes or plasma cells. However, s IgE positivity was more frequently found in local tissue than in serum (p = 0.025). A significant association was observed between tissue s IgE levels and tissue SEC-specific IgE levels (r These results suggest that there is a local IgE response in children with TH. Local IgE production is unrelated to systemic atopy and may play a key role in the pathogenesis of TH. This is the first study to determine the microbial composition of microcolonies in tonsil tissue. These findings enhance current understanding of the microbiology of tonsils in children with TH and have important implications for antibiotic strategies.

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Masseteric-to-facial nerve transfer for treatment of pediatric facial paralysis: An initial report

Alexander P. Marston, John P. Ziegler, Samuel L. Oyer

Publication date 16-04-2022


The indications and outcomes of masseteric-to-facial nerve transfer in pediatric patients with short-term facial paralysis is incompletely understood as compared to its use in adult patients. This report aims to retrospectively quantify outcomes with both clinician-based measurements and objective facial analysis software. Retrospective case series at a single institution. The Sunnybrook Facial Grading System was used for clinician-based measurements and Emotrics software for objective measurements. Four pediatric patients underwent masseteric-to-facial nerve transfers from 2016 to 2018. The mean patient age at the time of surgery was 4.5 years (range = 2-7) and the mean time from paralysis onset to surgical intervention was 12.9 months (range = 10.0-16.2). The mean follow-up was 18.3 months (range = 14.5-23.6). With regards to the Sunnybrook resting nasolabial fold symmetry, 3 of the 4 patients improved from 2 (absent nasolabial fold) to 1 (less pronounced nasolabial fold). Per the Emotrics analysis, the pre- and post-operative mean absolute differences for commissure excursion between the normal functioning and paralyzed sides were 11.8 mm and 6.7 mm, respectively (p = 0.04). The masseteric-to-facial nerve transfer technique leads to an objective improvement in dynamic smile function in select pediatric patients.

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Laryngeal pathologies in dysphonic children with Down Syndrome

Anne F. Hseu, Grant P. Spencer, Stacy Jo, Roseanne Clark, Roger C. Nuss

Publication date 12-04-2022


Down syndrome is the most common chromosomal abnormality and is associated with a higher incidence of congenital heart defects, which often require surgery within the first year of life. Previous studies have found that children with Down syndrome are at higher risk for subglottic stenosis, vocal fold paralysis, and laryngomalacia. The goal of this study is to review children with Down syndrome presenting with dysphonia and to characterize their laryngeal pathologies. A retrospective review was performed of patients with Down syndrome seen at a tertiary pediatric hospital's department of otolaryngology from Jan. 2007-Jul. 2021 for voice-related concerns. Inclusion criteria included age less than 18 years, diagnosis of Trisomy 21, and complaint of dysphonia. The data extracted included history of dysphonia, co-morbidities, demographic information, age at presentation, perceptual voice assessments, voice quality of life scores, acoustic data, laryngoscopic and/or videostroboscopic exams, and surgical procedures. Twenty-three total patients met the study criteria. Of these children, 13 (57%) were male and 10 (43%) were female. The mean age at first presentation was 4.08 years (range 12 days-16.3 years). Eleven of the 23 patients presented within the first 12 months of life. Sixteen patients were diagnosed with vocal fold immobility, 13 of which were left-sided unilateral immobility and the remaining 3 were bilateral immobility. 5 patients were diagnosed with vocal fold nodules. 12 children in the immobility group had a history of cardiothoracic surgery at our institution. Only 3 patients had Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE-V) assessments, though all three showed overall dysphonia ratings of severely deviant, with roughness and strain scores being the most severe. The most common etiology of dysphonia in our Down syndrome patient population was vocal fold immobility and hypomobility, as opposed to vocal fold nodules (which is the most common in the general pediatric population). The higher likelihood of cardiac surgery in patients with Trisomy 21 may result in the increased incidence of vocal fold immobility. There should be a low threshold to refer dysphonic patients with Down syndrome for laryngoscopic evaluation, as treatment options may be available.

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Underinsurance in children is associated with worsened quality of life after cochlear implantation

Apurva Nidgundi Dev, Gabriel Nahas, Alyson Pappas, Tracey Ambrose, Patricia Craun, Emily Fustos, Brian K. Reilly, Diego Preciado

Publication date 11-04-2022


Research has suggested that early cochlear implantation is associated with improved language outcomes. Select studies demonstrate that this translates into a higher quality of life following implantation. Previous work from our group has shown that underinsurance represents a risk factor for worsened auditory and language outcomes for implantees. However, to our knowledge, the effect of insurance status on quality of life outcomes following cochlear implantation has not been evaluated. To assess quality of life outcomes for children receiving cochlear implants, accounting for age at implantation, insurance status, gender, surgeon, number of implants and duration of follow-up since implantation. A retrospective study using the Glasgow Children's Benefit Inventory (GCBI), a validated questionnaire measuring quality of life across four domains: learning, emotion, vitality and physical heath. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the effects of age at implantation, insurance status, number of implants, sex, surgeon, and duration of follow-up on GCBI scores. Age at implantation was assessed as both a continuous and dichotomous variable, comparing children implanted by 12 months of age with those implanted after 12 months. Children's National Health System in Washington, DC, a tertiary academic referral center. The GCBI was administered telephonically to parents/guardians of prelingually deaf children aged 2-16 years who received cochlear implants at the center between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2018. Of 169 prelingually deafened implantee children who met inclusion criteria, parents/guardians of 64 (37.9%) responded to the questionnaire. After excluding children with late implantation (≥7 years age at CI) and missing GCBI responses, the final analytic sample consisted of 57 children. The mean age (SD) of the children at the time of the study was 3.3 (1.9) years, 63.2% were publicly insured, and 73.7% were implanted after 12 months of age. Average duration of follow-up was 3.9 (2.8) years. On a scale of -100 to +100, GCBI scores ranged from 41.7 to 95.8 (mean (SD), 64.0 (10.3)). Public health insurance (β, -5.8 [95% CI, -10.6 to -0.01]), and older age at the time of implantation (β, -0.1 [95% CI, -0.3 to 0.0]), particularly implantation following 12 months of age (p < 0.05), were significantly associated with lower GCBI scores after implantation. Publicly insured recipients of cochlear implants and children implanted at an older age, particularly after 12 months of age, experienced significantly lower quality of life measures.

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Mutational analysis using next generation sequencing in pediatric thyroid cancer reveals BRAF and fusion oncogenes are common

Ron S. Newfield, Wen Jiang, Daniel X. Sugganth, Feras M. Hantash, Euyhyun Lee, Robert O. Newbury

Publication date 10-04-2022


We previously described mutation rates of BRAF Single-center retrospective cohort examining thyroidectomy tissue blocks from consecutive pediatric WDTC patients between 2001 and 2015. Tissues were analyzed at Quest Diagnostics for BRAF, RAS mutations, RET-PTC and PAX8-PPARγ, and additional fusions, using standalone and NGS tests. WDTC included papillary (PTC), follicular (FTC) and follicular-variant PTC (FVPTC). We genotyped 46 samples (36 females). Mean age at diagnosis was 14.7 years and the cohort comprised of mostly Hispanic (60.9%) and Caucasian (26.1%) patients. Mean follow-up was 3.5 years. Genetic alterations (GA) were noted in 69.6%, with BRAF BRAF

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Is chorioamnionitis associated with hearing impairment in preterm infants? A systematic review and meta-analysis

Yuji Wang, Qing Tian, Yan Huang

Publication date 26-04-2022


It has been reported that chorioamnionitis (CA) could increase the risk of hearing impairment in premature infants, but results are inconsistent. A meta-analysis was performed to systematically evaluate the relationship between CA and hearing impairment in premature infants. Search in Pub Med, Embase, Cochrane Library from their inception to May 2020. We concluded all cohort and case-control studies which explored the associations between CA and hearing impairment in preterm infants. Pregnant women with other infections besides CA were excluded. PRISMA guidelines were followed. Fixed-and random-effects models were used, depending on heterogeneity. And we performed to calculate odds ratio (ORs), and 95% CIs using fixed-effects models. Seven studies involving 4134 premature infants were included. There was non-significant association between CA and hearing impairment (adjusted OR 1.43, 95% CI 0.99 to 2.04, P = 0.05; heterogeneity: I This article concludes that CA is not a risk factor for hearing impairment in premature infants, but most of the current studies are retrospective studies with low intensity and lack of high-quality articles to discuss it.

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