International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 2022-07-13

Assessment of outcome measures after audiological computer-based auditory training in cochlear implant children

Adel Abdel Maksoud Nassar, Samia Bassiouny, Tayseer Taha Abdel Rahman, Karim Mohamed Hanafy

Publication date 12-07-2022


To validate the clinical use of acoustic change complex (ACC) as an objective outcome measure of auditory training in Egyptian cochlear implant (CI) children and explore how far electrophysiological measures could be correlated to behavioral measures in assessing training outcome. Also to explore the efficacy of computer-based auditory training programs (CBATP) in the rehabilitation process of CI children. Sixty Arabic speaking children participated in the present study. Forty children using monaural CI device served as study group (20 children in subgroup A and 20 children in subgroup B). Both subgroups received traditional speech therapy sessions, additionally subgroup (A) children received computer-based auditory training program (CBATP) at home for three months. Their age ranged from 8 to 17 years. 20 age and sex-matched normal hearing children served as control group as a standardization for the stimuli used to elicit ACC. The study group children were subjected to detailed history taking, parent reported questionnaire (MAIS, Arabic version), aided sound field evaluation, psychophysical evaluation using auditory fusion test (AFT), speech perception testing according to language age, ACC in response to gaps in 1000 Hz tones and language evaluation. This work-up was repeated after 3&6 months for both study subgroups. Children of study subgroup (A) showed improvement of auditory fusion test (AFT) thresholds at 3 & 6 months post-training follow up. As regards acoustic change complex (ACC), it can be detected in 85% of subgroup (A) children, 85% of subgroup (B) children and 100% of control group children. Lower ACC gap detection thresholds were obtained only after 3 months in subgroup (A), while after 6 months in subgroup (B). There were statistically significant differences between initial assessment and 3 & 6 months follow up as regards ACC P1 and N2 latencies and amplitudes in both study subgroups, however in subgroup (A), ACC P1 amplitude at 6 months post-training was significantly larger than values of 3 months follow up. There was highly significant correlation between thresholds of AFT and ACC gap detection threshold. ACC can be used as a reliable tool for evaluating auditory training outcome in CI children. ACC gap detection threshold can predict psychophysical temporal resolution after auditory training in difficult to test population. CBATP is an easy and accessible method which may be effective in improving CI outcome.

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A novel sleep oximetry scoring tool for pediatric laryngomalacia

Jin Soo Song, Janelle Sloychuk, Hamdy El-Hakim, André Isaac

Publication date 12-07-2022


Despite being a more accessible and less resource intensive modality than polysomnography, the utility of sleep oximetry (SO) in pediatric laryngomalacia (LM) is not well understood or validated. We aimed to retrospectively evaluate the utility of overnight home based SO in children with LM by developing and internally validating the Modified Laryngomalacia Oximetry Score (MLOS) scoring system to triage severity and guide clinical decision making. We evaluated pediatric patients with a diagnosis of LM at our tertiary referral centre. Data from initial and post-treatment SO including mean oxygen saturation (spO2) nadir and mean oxygen desaturation index (ODI) were aggregated. The MLOS ranging from I-VI (inconclusive to severe) was created by two otolaryngologists to incorporate bradycardia associated desaturation events during SO. Corresponding Mc Gill Oximetry Score (MOS) was also determined. 172 patients were included in final analysis. The average age was 9.2 ± 14.3 months. 98 (57%) of patients were identified as Thompson severity score 1, and 87 (50.6%) of patients underwent supraglottoplasty. The surgical cohort had a significantly higher MLOS and MOS scores of 4 and 2 respectively, and higher mean ODI and spO2 nadir metrics. When evaluating post-supraglottoplasty SO tracings, all parameters improved significantly, including median MLOS score from 4 to 1. Only the mean ODI improved in the non-surgical cohort. Patients with Thompson severity score 2/3 had significantly higher MLOS. We present a simple scoring system based on overnight SO, the MLOS, to help triage severity of pediatric LM and guide decision-making. MLOS is associated with worse clinical severity and a need for surgery, and shows significant improvement after surgery.

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High frequency (1000\xa0Hz) tympanometry in six-month-old infants

Sreedevi Aithal, Joseph Kei, Venkatesh Aithal

Publication date 09-07-2022


High frequency tympanometry (HFT) using a 1000 Hz probe tone is recommended for infants from birth to six months of age. However, there is limited normative HFT data outside the newborn period. The objective of this study was to describe HFT data in healthy six-month-old infants. HFT and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) tests were performed on 168 six-month-old full-term healthy infants. Ears that passed DPOAEs and had a single-peaked tympanogram were included for analysis. The tympanometric measures included in the normative HFT data were tympanometric peak pressure (TPP), peak compensated static admittance (Y A total of 118 ears from 118 infants who passed DPOAE and had single-peaked tympanograms were included in the analysis. Normative data were presented for TPP, Y Significant differences in HFT findings between neonates and six-month-old infants suggest a developmental trend and confirm the need for separate age-appropriate norms for the tympanometric measures. Normative HFT data described in the present study may provide useful information for optimizing the diagnosis of conductive conditions in six-month-old infants.

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Therapeutic outcomes of laryngeal closure and laryngostomy in children with recurrent pneumonia

Daizo Murakami, Satoru Miyamaru, Kohei Nishimoto, Momoko Ise, Yasuhiro Samejima, Shiro Ozasa, Kimitoshi Nakamura, Yorihisa Orita

Publication date 08-07-2022


Children with medical complexity frequently experience difficulty breathing and swallowing and occasionally develop aspiration pneumonia. Long-term intubation may cause fatal trachea-innominate artery fistula (TIF). In the present study, we retrospectively evaluated the efficacy of laryngeal closure and laryngostomy in children with medical complexity. Laryngeal closure and laryngostomy were performed in eight children with severe neuromuscular disorders who were incapable of oral ingestion and verbal communication. The laryngostoma was placed at a higher position compared to that in conventional tracheostomies for easier management of the airway and to prevent TIF. Aspiration was successfully prevented postoperatively in all cases. Laryngocutaneous fistula formation was not observed. Two patients successfully achieved oral ingestion capability and tracheal cannulas were removed in two patients. Among the six patients who needed a mechanical ventilator before surgery, two patients were weaned from mechanical ventilation. Five patients were successfully discharged from the hospital. Although two patients died because of their primary condition, pneumonia exacerbation was not observed in any of the patients. Compared to the conventional tracheostomy, our procedure improved airway management and function in children with medical complexity and reduced the risk of TIF.

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Artificial intelligence and tele-otoscopy: A window into the future of pediatric otology

Rami Ezzibdeh, Tina Munjal, Iram Ahmad, Tulio A. Valdez

Publication date 12-07-2022


Telehealth in otolaryngology is gaining popularity as a potential tool for increased access for rural populations, decreased specialist wait times, and overall savings to the healthcare system. The adoption of telehealth has been dramatically increased by the COVID-19 pandemic limiting patients' physical access to hospitals and clinics. One of the key challenges to telehealth in general otolaryngology and otology specifically is the limited physical examination possible on the ear canal and middle ear. This is compounded in pediatric populations who commonly present with middle ear pathologies which can be challenging to diagnose even in the clinic. To address this need, various otoscopes have been designed to allow patients, their parents, or primary care providers to image the tympanic membrane and middle ear, and send data to otolaryngologists for review. Furthermore, the ability of these devices to capture images in digital format has opened the possibility of using artificial intelligence for quick and reliable diagnostic workup. In this manuscript, we provide a concise review of the literature regarding the efficacy of remote otoscopy, as well as recent efforts on the use of artificial intelligence in aiding otologic diagnoses.

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Clinical effectiveness of treating laryngotracheal stenosis with free hyoid bone reconstruction of the cricoid cartilage: A case series

Shumei Chen, Chenling Shen, Xiaoyan Li

Publication date 08-07-2022


We reported the free hyoid bone reconstruction of the cricoid cartilage to treat LTS in children. This retrospective case series study included LTS children who underwent hyoid bone separation and T tube implantation. Thirty-four children were included. Twenty-five children were with good outcomes after free hyoid bone reconstruction of the cricoid cartilage. Specifically, the cure rate was 92.8% for the children with mixed stenosis, followed by 63.6% in children with glottis stenosis and 55.6% in children with subglottic stenosis. Free hyoid bone reconstruction of the cricoid cartilage for the management of LTS is feasible, with good outcomes and few complications.

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Efficacy of endoscopic repair for CSF otorrhoea in children with recurrent meningitis due to incomplete partition type 1

Yash Mittal, Preetam Chappity, Mohnish Grover, Gaurav Gupta, Pradeep Pradhan, Pradipta Kumar Parida, Abhijeet Mishra

Publication date 08-07-2022


To review the efficacy of endoscopic management with or without cochlear implantation in a pediatric population presenting with recurrent meningitis due to inner ear incomplete partition type 1 (IP-1). A multicentric report of 6 patients with a history of recurrent meningitis due to IP-1 was done. Radiological evaluation was performed to confirm the diagnosis. Transcanal endoscopic repair of the defect was performed in 3 cases, 2 cases underwent endoscope-assisted repair followed by cochlear implantation in the contralateral ear later, and 1 patient underwent endoscopic repair along with simultaneous cochlear implantation. Radiology confirmed the diagnosis and identified the site of the leak. A leak was detected in all cases from the stapes footplate. Two patients with unilateral deformity had a CSF-filled cyst protruding through a defect in the stapes footplate, and the rest of the four had a high flow CSF leak from the footplate. Five patients who underwent repair have had no further episodes of meningitis. One patient who received simultaneous implantation and repair developed postoperative meningitis managed successfully with antibiotics. Hearing loss due to inner ear deformity can be easily missed as a cause for recurrent meningitis, especially if unilateral. A high index of suspicion, audiological screening and radiology are essential to clinch the diagnosis. In such cases, a pure endoscopic or endoscopic assisted transcanal approach to repair CSF otorrhoea is an effective alternative to more radical procedures like subtotal petrosectomy with obliteration. In patients with bilateral profound hearing loss, simultaneous cochlear implantation and repair of the defect can be performed successfully.

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A quality assessment of online patient information regarding tonsillitis using the EQIP tool

Lok Yin Kwan, Ho Cheung Anthony Yip, Sen Tan, Ka Siu Fan

Publication date 06-07-2022


Tonsillitis is a common paediatric condition. The decision to seek medical attention and consent to treatment is usually made by parents or guardians. With increased accessibility of the internet, online medical information plays an increasingly significant role in the decision-making process. Little is known regarding the quality of online patient information on tonsillitis, as this has not been previously studied. The aim of our study was to identify the quality of information regarding tonsillitis on websites intended for the public.
We conducted a systematic review of online information on tonsillitis using the following search terms: "Tonsillectomy", "Tonsillitis", "Adenotonsillectomy" and "Tonsil". The first three pages of returned websites were captured and each website was examined using the validated Ensuring Quality Information for Patients (EQIP) tool (score 0-36). A total of 92 websites met the inclusion criteria for analysis. The overall median EQIP score was 19 with an interquartile range of 17-22 and a maximum of 32. More than half of all websites originated from the USA (61%) and hospitals were the most common source of information (29%). Most websites failed to describe the quantitative benefits or address the medical intervention costs and insurance issues. Half of the websites included both tonsillectomy and antibiotics as treatments for tonsillitis. Only 68% included complications of tonsillitis or tonsillectomy. The assessment of the quality of online patient information websites regarding tonsillitis by the EQIP tool indicates that most websites were of poor credibility, with minimal information regarding treatment choices and complications. To improve awareness of tonsillitis, there is a need for more informative and patient-centred websites that are compatible with the international quality standard for patient information.

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Indicators of pediatric peripheral vestibular disorder: A retrospective study in a tertiary referral center

Nina Božanić Urbančič, Domen Vozel, Špela Kordiš, Manja Hribar, Jure Urbančič, Saba Battelino

Publication date 06-07-2022


This study aims to present characteristics of pediatric patients with peripheral vertigo and dizziness and their clinical workup results in the tertiary otorhinolaryngology center. We wanted to investigate whether the detailed history could replace the extensive vestibular testing and whether the clinical presentation could guide the first contact physician to appropriately directed specialist referral. Retrospective case review of consecutive pediatric vertigo and dizziness patients referred to the tertiary otorhinolaryngology center from 2015 to 2020. The data about the signs and symptoms of vertigo and dizziness and the results of audiological and vestibular tests were collected. Of 257 children aged 10.9±4.3 years (R: 1-17 years), 32 (12.5%) had peripheral, and 49 (19%) had central vertigo and dizziness. Acute vestibulopathy was diagnosed in 22/257 (8.5%) children, sudden sensorineural hearing loss and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in 5/257 (2%) children each. 60% of children with peripheral vertigo and dizziness had emesis, and 55.6% had nausea. 8% of children had spontaneous horizontal-rotatory nystagmus that followed Alexander's law. Goodman and Kruskal's л for determining whether the type of nystagmus could predict the type of vertigo and dizziness (central or peripheral) was 0.481 (p = 0.001). 12/26 (60%) of children with peripheral vertigo and dizziness had emesis compared to 14 (30.04%) children without emesis, a difference in proportions of 0.296 (p = 0.024, chi-square test of homogeneity). Binomial logistic regression to ascertain the effects of duration, nausea and emesis on the likelihood of the presence of peripheral vertigo was statistically significant (χ2(3) = 10.626, p = 0.014). Unlike adults, peripheral vestibular causes of vertigo and dizziness in children may be rare but have the same typical signs and symptoms. The detailed history and careful clinical examination are crucial in differentiating between peripheral and central causes. This guides the first contact physician for further referral to appropriate specialists included in a multidisciplinary workup. Namely, nausea, emesis, horizontal nystagmus and a longer duration of symptoms in a child with vertigo and dizziness indicate a peripheral etiology. Therefore, a referral to an otorhinolaryngologist is reasonable.

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Extended genetic diagnostics for children with profound sensorineural hearing loss by implementing massive parallel sequencing. Diagnostic outcome, family experience and clinical implementation

Johanna Elander, Tove Ullmark, Hans Ehrencrona, Tord Jonson, Paul Piccinelli, Sofie Samuelsson, Karolina Löwgren, Karolina Falkenius-Schmidt, Johannes Ehinger, Karin Stenfeldt, Maria Värendh

Publication date 03-07-2022


The aim of this study was to investigate genetic outcomes, analyze the family experience, and describe the process of implementing genetic sequencing for children with profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) at a tertial audiological center in southern Sweden. This is a prospective pilot study including eleven children with profound bilateral SNHL who underwent cochlear implant surgery. Genetic diagnostic investigation was performed with whole exome sequencing (WES) complemented with XON-array to identify copy number variants, using a manually curated gene panel incorporating 179 genes associated with non-syndromic and syndromic SNHL. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from blood was examined separately. A patient reported experience measures (PREM) questionnaire was used to evaluate parental experience. We also describe here the process of implementing WES in an audiology department. Six female and five male children (mean 3.4 years, SD 3.5 years), with profound bilateral SNHL were included. Genetic variants of interest were found in six subjects (55%), where three (27%) could be classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic. Among the six cases, one child was found to have a homozygous pathogenic variant in MYO7A and two children had homozygous likely pathogenic variants in SLC26A4 and PCDH15, respectively. One was carrying a compound heterozygote frameshift variant of uncertain significance (VUS) on one allele and in trans, a likely pathogenic deletion on the other allele in PCDH15. Two subjects had homozygous VUS in PCDH15 and ADGRV1, respectively. In five of the cases the variants were in genes associated with Usher syndrome. For one of the likely pathogenic variants, the finding was related to Pendred syndrome. No mtDNA variants related to SNHL were found. The PREM questionnaire revealed that the families had difficulty in fully understanding the results of the genetic analysis. However, the parents of all eleven (100%) subjects still recommended that other families with children with SNHL should undergo genetic testing. Specifically addressed referrals for prompt complementary clinical examination and more individualized care were possible, based on the genetic results. Close clinical collaboration between different specialists, including physicians of audiology, audiologists, clinical geneticists, ophthalmologists, pediatricians, otoneurologists, physiotherapists and hearing habilitation teams was initiated during the implementation of the new regime. For all professionals involved, a better knowledge of the diversity of the genetic background of hearing loss was achieved. Whole exome sequencing and XON-array using a panel of genes associated with SNHL had a high diagnostic yield, added value to the families, and provided guidance for further examinations and habilitation for the child. Great care should be taken to thoroughly inform parents about the genetic test result. Collaborations between departments were intensified and knowledge of hearing genomics was increased among the staff.

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Conservative management of posterior tracheal wall injury by endoscopic stent placement in children: Preliminary data of three cases

P. Serio, V. Fainardi, R. Coletta, A. Grasso, R. Baggi, P. Rufini, S. Avenali, Z. Ricci, A. Morabito, F. Trabalzini

Publication date 28-06-2022


The management of tracheal wall lacerations is debated. Current treatments are mainly derived by the experience on adults and include conservative or surgical treatments depending on the clinical condition of the patient. We report our preliminary data with removable tracheal stents in 3 children with tracheal tears and respiratory failure. If performed in specialized centers with appropriate endoscopic and clinical follow-up, airway stents can be considered a valid and safe conservative treatment for tracheal tears and an alternative to intubation or tracheostomy. Further studies are needed to compare different therapeutic options and better define the management and duration of stent treatment.

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Can a flexible surgical robot be used in the pediatric population: A feasibility study

Neerav Goyal, David Goldenberg, Nicole Ruszkay, Jacqueline Tucker, Jason May, Meghan N. Wilson

Publication date 28-06-2022


Transoral robotic surgery in adults confers excellent results and decreased morbidity. Application of these techniques has not yet been rigorously investigated in children. The goal of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of a flexible robotic surgical system in a pediatric population. This was a non-randomized, non-blinded, prospective clinical trial. An Investigational Device Exemption was obtained from the FDA. Patients 8-12 years old scheduled for tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy between February and December 2019 at an academic tertiary care children's hospital were included. Exclusion criteria included pulmonary or vascular conditions posing risks for extended anesthesia, or a smaller mouth opening than the instrumentation (28 mm × 15 mm). Tonsillectomy was completed with standard monopolar cautery. After the surgery was complete, the robot was utilized for evaluation and assessment of exposure. A pediatric anesthesiologist screened patients for tolerance of additional anesthesia (up to 15 min). A flexible robotic surgical system, the Med Robotics Flex® Robotic System, was used to visualize and access the tonsillar fossa, posterior pharynx, base of tongue, epiglottis and false vocal folds. Visualization and access were graded on a five-point Likert scale. A total of ten patients, eight males and two females, with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) or sleep disordered breathing (SDB) were recruited in 2019. One patient did not complete the study due to equipment malfunction.
The average patient demographics were: age 10.1 years (8.6-11.8 years), height 142.4 cm (127-164.9 cm), weight 47.5 kg (24.4-84.5 kg), and BMI 22.6 (13.9-31.0). Study time averaged 10.3 min (5-13 min). The tonsillar fossa, base of tongue, and posterior pharynx were visualized completely and easily accessed with the robotic instruments. The epiglottis and false vocal folds were visualized and accessed in 66% and 55% of patients, respectively. There were no adverse effects. This study demonstrated that a flexible robotic surgical system is feasible for use in children 8-12 years of age when performing otolaryngology - head and neck surgery procedures of the oropharynx and larynx.

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Effect of modified programming parameters on sound field thresholds, speech perception and CAEP among children using CP802 processor

Muthuselvi Thangaraj, Ravikumar Arunachalam, Madhuri Gore, AjithKumar Uppunda

Publication date 25-06-2022


Optimizing and validating programming parameters of Thresholds(T) and most comfortable levels(C) is very important in young children using a cochlear implant who may not be able provide behavioral responses. The present study attempts to describe the changes in T/C level with behavioral and Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials (CAEP) responses. Twenty participants using CI24RE (ST) implant with CP802 speech processor participated in the study. Three experimentally 'sham' programs were created by a) decreasing T levels, b) raising T levels or c) decreasing C levels in the 'everyday' program. Sound field thresholds and speech perception at 50dBHL were measured for all experimental and everyday programs. Acoustically evoked CAEP measures, namely thresholds for three different stimuli of/ba/,/da/and/ga/, along with amplitude and latency at 80d BnHL were recorded for all programs. The results indicated that modification of T levels did not have significant effect on CAEP threshold, latency, amplitude as also on behavioral measures of sound field thresholds and speech perception. However, reduction of C levels resulted in significantly poor sound field thresholds, speech perception as well as CAEP thresholds. Furthermore, it was found that there was a significant correlation between behavioral measures of sound field threshold and speech perception with CAEP measures. Thus, from the present study it may be concluded that behavioral and CAEP responses can be used as indicator to reflect changes in C levels resulting changes in behavioral measures in users of CP802 speech processors.

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Associations of respiratory mechanic instability with respiratory parameters in pediatric patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

Gwanghui Ryu, Hyo Yeol Kim, Ji Ho Choi

Publication date 22-06-2022


This study aimed to identify the effectiveness of respiratory mechanic instability (RMI) in the diagnosis of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). We sought to evaluate the correlations of RMI with sleep-related parameters and determine the effectiveness of using RMI for diagnosing OSAS in children. Children who underwent polysomnography (PSG) for various reasons were enrolled in this study. Patients' clinical and PSG data at two university hospitals were reviewed retrospectively. During PSG, RMI parameters were automatically calculated according to the phase relationship between thoracic and abdominal movement signals. Among 263 children who underwent PSG, 183 (70.4%) were diagnosed with OSAS (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 1). RMI parameters were higher in the OSAS group than in the control group. They also tended to increase with disease severity. RMI scores were well correlated with respiratory parameters, showing a stronger correlation in those with moderate or severe OSAS without central apnea. Areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves (AUROCs) of RMI indicators were over 0.65. The percentage of RMI in stage duration showed the highest value of the AUROCs. Paradoxical thoraco-abdominal movement assessed by RMI provides additional information. It may be useful in diagnosing OSAS in children.

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How long do tympanostomy ventilation tubes last in pediatric patients with otitis media with effusion or adhesion? A study using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis

Shintaro Otsuka, Ryusuke Imai, Takefumi Kamakura, Hiroshi Nishimura, Yasuhiro Osaki, Masashi Furukawa, Toshimichi Yasui, Maki Yamashita, Megumi Nakamura, Yoriko Iwamoto, Kimi Kanazu, Shinichi Yonei, Suzuyo Okazaki, Masayuki Hirose

Publication date 21-06-2022


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional duration and survival rate of tympanostomy ventilation tubes and the complications associated with their use in pediatric patients who underwent tube insertion for otitis media with effusion (OME). Complications were analyzed including recurrence and tympanic membrane perforation after the tube removal or extrusion. Altogether, 447 ears from 234 pediatric patients younger than 15 years of age were studied retrospectively. All patients had undergone long-term tympanostomy ventilation tube: the Goode T-tube insertion for OME at the Osaka Women's and Children's Hospital, which is the pediatrics specialty hospital between April 2014 and March 2016. They were typically followed up every 3-4 months or more frequently if necessary due to otorrhea or tube infection. Subsequently, the tube duration, survival rates of the tube especially at 22 months after insertion defined as "full-term placement", and the rates of recurrence and perforation were calculated and statistically evaluated. Of 447 ears, 335 ears from 184 patients underwent their first tube insertion, and 112 ears from 64 patients underwent their second or subsequent tube insertion within the targeted period. Two hundred ears from 106 patients were associated with a cleft palate. The survival rate at full-term placement was 51.7%. The recurrence rate was 56.3%, and the rate of the tympanic perforation was 8.5%. Approximately half of the tubes survived for 22 months. The perforation rate was relatively low; however, recurrence of OME was seen in more than half the ears.

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Feasibility and accuracy of laryngeal ultrasound for the assessment of vocal cord mobility in children

Tzyynong L. Friesen, Gabrielle L. Cahill, Matthew T. Brigger, John Naheedy, Xinlian Zhang, Wen Jiang

Publication date 21-06-2022


Geen abstract beschikbaar

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Sustaining standardized opioid prescribing practices after pediatric tonsillectomy

Holly Cordray, Kristan Alfonso, Clarice Brown, Sean Evans, Steven Goudy, Nandini Govil, April M. Landry, Nikhila Raol, Kathleen Smith, Kara K. Prickett

Publication date 25-06-2022


Opioid prescribing patterns after pediatric tonsillectomy are highly variable, and opioids may not improve pain control compared to over-the-counter pain relievers. We evaluated whether a standardized, opioid-sparing analgesic protocol effectively reduced opioid prescriptions without compromising patient outcomes. A quality improvement project was initiated in July 2019 to standardize analgesic prescribing after hospital-based tonsillectomy with/without adenoidectomy. An electronic order set provided weight-based dosing and defaulted to non-opioid prescriptions (acetaminophen and ibuprofen). Patients ages 0-6 received non-opioid analgesics alone. Patients ages 7-18 received non-opioid analgesics as first-line pain control, and providers could manually add hydrocodone-acetaminophen for breakthrough pain. Opioid prescriptions and quantities were compared for 18 months of cases pre- versus post-standardization. Postoperative returns to the system were reviewed as a balancing measure. From 2018 through 2020, 1817 cases were reviewed. The frequency of opioid prescriptions decreased significantly post-standardization, from 64.9% to 33.5% of cases (P < .001). Opioid prescribing for young children steadily decreased from over 50% to 2.4%. Protocol adherence improved over time; outlier prescriptions were eliminated. Opioid quantities per prescription decreased by 16.3 doses on average (P < .001), and variance decreased significantly post-standardization (P < .001). The incidence of returns to the system did not change (P = .33), including returns for pain or decreased intake (P = .28). An age-based and weight-based analgesic protocol reduced post-tonsillectomy opioid prescriptions without a commensurate increase in returns for postoperative complaints. Standardized protocols can facilitate sustained changes in prescribing patterns and limit potentially unnecessary pediatric opioid exposure.

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Evaluation of the relationship between nasal septal deviation and development of facial asymmetry with anthropometric measurements depending on age

Muhammed Furkan Arpacı, Davut Özbağ, Şükrü Aydın, Deniz Şenol, Rabia Aydoğan Baykara, İpek Balıkçı Çiçek

Publication date 19-06-2022


It was aimed to determine the change of facial asymmetry resulting from nasal septal deviation (SD) depending on age, gender, degree of deviation and the affected area besides the effect of SD on somatotype and craniofacial morphology. 171 volunteers (90 males, 81 females), 27 individuals aged 9-13, 44 individuals aged 14-18, 44 individuals aged 19-23 and 56 individuals in control group participated in the study conducted in otorhinolaryngology polyclinic.11 photometric, 16 anthropometric measurements were taken from the participants. SD affects facial asymmetry formation, although not statistically significant compared to healthy individuals asymmetry rates (p˃0.05). It was determined that the degree of SD affected asymmetry only between the ages of 14-18 (in adolescence) and the development of asymmetry in all SD patients was not statistically dependent on age and gender (p˃0.05). Photometric measurements demonstrated asymmetries in horizontally-extending parameters of 1/3 middle part of face. There was no statistically significant difference in the cranial anthropometric measurements of the upper and lower 1/3 of the face compared to the control group (p˃0.05). The order of the most asymmetrical parameters is Alare-Zygion, Alare-Subnasale, Cheilion-Gonion, Exocanthion-Cheilion, Midsagittal plane-Zygion, Zygion-Cheilion, Zygion-Gonion, Subalare-Cheilion, Glabella-Exocanthion. In all participants were determined that endomorph somatotype was dominant in female and mesomorph somatotype was dominant in male besides SD did not affect somatotype and somatotype did not alter with age. The development of facial asymmetry due to SD is not affected by age and gender furthermore SD does not affect craniofacial asymmetry and somatotype.

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The effects of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) on learn and memory function of 6–12 years old children

Hui Li, Luqiu Chen, Xinhao Wu, Fangyuan Zhu, Xin Bing, Lei Shi, Xiaoming Li, Wenwen Qi, Ming Xia, Xiang Zhang, Xuening Zhao

Publication date 17-06-2022


Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a sleep disorder causing cognitive impairments. We use the auditory verbal learning test (AVLT), clock drawing test (CDT), Wechsler intelligence scale for children (WISC) and Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) to evaluate the memory and spatial impairments of OSHAS in 6-12 years old children patients with different severity. A total of 137 children of snoring were enrolled following the inclusion criteria of this study. According to the apnea-hypopnea indices (AHI), they were divided into three groups. The AVLT, CDT, WISC and MoCA tests were executed by physicians. The self-rating depression scale (SDS) test was performed for depression screening. Compared with the children in the primary snoring group, the other two groups had higher body mass index (BMI), longer periods of snoring and older age. The AHI, oxygen desaturation index (ODI) and 90% oxygen saturation (TS90%) showed increasing trends whereas the lowest blood oxygen saturation (LSaO AVLT had clinical values for evaluation of impaired memory function in OSAHS children, suggesting a correlation between cognitive impairments and nocturnal hypoxia.

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Establishment of two canine models of benign airway stenosis and the effect of mitomycin C on airway stenosis

Feng Li, Peipei Li, Zhigang Cai, Xiaoxu Liu, Linyan Li, Huiran Zhang, Haitao Li, Yanpeng He, Liyun Ye, Xixin Yan

Publication date 15-06-2022


Cuffed endotracheal intubation and stent implantation were employed to simulate two types of benign airway stenosis and further to analysis the different features between them from trachecscopic characteristics, gross anatomy to histopathological changes. In addition, our study explored the therapeutic effect of mitomycin C at different concentrations on granulation tissue caused by stent implantation in order to provide a new therapeutic strategy for clinical treatment of benign airway stenosis. Twelve beagle dogs were randomly divided into four groups, with three dogs in each group.
Group A: Three beagle dogs were intubated through oral trachea after general anesthesia and cuff pressure maintained at 200 mm Hg for 24 h. Group B, Group C and Group D: endotracheal coated self-expanding metal stents were placed after general anesthesia under the guidance of bronchoscope. On the Day7 after stent implantation, Group B, as control group, was injected phosphate buffer solution of 1 ml into granulation tissue at the end of stent; Group C was injected mitomycin C of 1 ml at 0.4 mg/ml and Group D was injected mitomycin C of 1 ml at 0.8 mg/ml into granulation tissue at the end of metal airway stent respectively, the same method as Group B. Bronchoscopy was used to observe tracheal lumen on the seventh day, fourteenth day and twenty-first day after modeling and pathological changes were examined on twenty-first day. Two models of benign airway stenosis can be established by cuffed endotracheal intubation and stent implantation. There was tracheal rupture in the trachea cartiage ring in the cuffed endotracheal intubation group, but was't in stent implantation group. Histopathological characteristics were different between cuffed endotracheal intubation and stent implantation groups. In stent placement groups, we found that the stenosis degree of mitomycin C at 0.4 mg/ml was approximately 19%-32%, mitomycin C at 0.8 mg/ml was approximately 16%-21% and the control group was approximately 36%-47%. The two models of canine benign tracheal stenosis induced by cuffed endotracheal intubation and stent implantation are relatively simple, reliable and reproducible and have different characteristics. Mitomycin C could inhibit proliferation of granulation tissue and attenuate the degree of airway stenosis caused by stent implantation.

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Cochlear base length as predictor for angular insertion depth in incomplete partition type 2 malformations

Wilhelm Wimmer, Fabio O. Soldati, Stefan Weder, Mattheus Vischer, Georgios Mantokoudis, Marco Caversaccio, Lukas Anschuetz

Publication date 14-06-2022


The preoperative determination of suitable electrode array lengths for cochlear implantation in inner ear malformations is a matter of debate. The choice is usually based on individual experience and the use of intraoperative probe electrodes. The purpose of this case series was to evaluate the applicability and precision of an angular insertion depth (AID) prediction method, based on a single measurement of the cochlear base length (CBL). We retrospectively measured the CBL in preoperative computed tomography (CT) images in 10 ears (8 patients) with incomplete partition type 2 malformation. With the known electrode length (linear insertion depth, LID) the AID at full insertion was retrospectively predicted for each ear with a heuristic equation derived from non-malformed cochleae. Using the intra- or post-implantation cone beam CT images, the actual AID was assessed and compared. The deviations of the predicted from the actual insertion angles were quantified (clinical prediction error) to assess the precision of this single-measure estimation. Electrode arrays with 15 mm (n = 3), 19 mm (n = 2), 24 mm (n = 3), and 26 mm (n = 2) length were implanted. Postoperative AIDs ranged from 211° to 625°. Clinical AID prediction errors from -64° to 62° were observed with a mean of 0° (SD of 44°). In two ears with partial insertion of the electrode, the predicted AID was overestimated. The probe electrode was intraoperatively used in 9/10 cases. The analyzed method provides good predictions of the AID based on LID and CBL. It does not account for incomplete insertions, which lead to an overestimation of the AID. The probe electrode is useful and well established in clinical practice. The investigated method could be used for patient-specific electrode length selection in future patients.

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Noninvasive ear molding in the correction of ear anomalies: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Elias S. Saba, Stanley Mui, Luke J. Schloegel

Publication date 19-06-2022


Ear molding has been used for the treatment of congenital external ear anomalies. The purpose of this study is to systematically review ear molding therapy and perform a meta-analysis to determine its efficacy. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The Pub Med and Embase databases from January 2009 to April 2021 were searched. Individual studies were eligible for inclusion if they evaluated noninvasive ear molding for congenital ear anomalies, featured at least 50 ears, and were published in English. 15 studies (one RCT and 14 clinical series) with a total of 1729 children undergoing molding of 2508 ears were identified and included in the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis of the eight studies with reported success rates as determined by clinician assessment showed an overall success rate in 87.4% of ears. Meta-analysis of the three studies with reported efficacy as assessed by laypersons showed an overall success rate of 92%. All studies reported a variety of minor skin-related complications in the ear, such as eczema, excoriation, infection, irritation, rash (allergic or nonallergic), and ulceration. Generally, complications were not reported to be serious and were noted to resolve with minimal to no intervention. To the authors' knowledge, this study represents the largest modern systematic review and meta-analysis analyzing the efficacy of ear molding. A review of the 15 studies included suggests that ear molding is an effective and safe treatment for congenital ear anomalies with a high success rate. However, the strength of this body of evidence is reduced by a lack of comparative studies, heterogeneous patient populations, treatment protocols, and ear assessment scales.

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"Management of patients susceptible to malignant hyperthermia: A surgeons perspective"

Kevin J. Carlson, Sara A. Sun, Carol Swan, Matthias Koenig, Craig S. Derkay

Publication date 07-06-2022


Malignant hyperthermia (MH) susceptibility caries broad implications for the care of pediatric surgical patients. While precautions must often be taken for only a vague family history, two options exist to assess MH-susceptibility. We evaluate the use of MH precautions and susceptibility testing at a freestanding children's hospital. This single institution retrospective cohort study identified patients of any age who received general anesthetics utilizing MH precautions over a five-year period. The electronic medical record was further queried for patients diagnosed with MH. The indication for MH precautions and uses of susceptibility testing are assessed. Secondary outcomes included a diagnosis of bona fide MH. A total of 125 patients received 174 anesthetics with MH precautions at a mean age of 114 months (0-363 months). Otolaryngology was the procedural service most frequently involved in the care of the cohort (n = 45; 26%). A reported personal or family history of MH (n = 102; 59%) was the most common indication for precautions, followed by muscular dystrophy (n = 29; 17%). No MH events occurred in the cohort and further review of ICD-9 and -10 diagnosis codes found no MH diagnoses. No study subjects received muscle biopsy and contracture testing and only 5 (4%) underwent genetic testing for genomic variants known to cause MH susceptibility. A case example is given to highlight the implications of a reported MH history. Otolaryngologists should maintain a familiarity with the precautions necessary to manage patients at risk for MH and MH-like reactions. Without an accessible test to rule out susceptibility, surgeons must rely on a careful history to appropriately utilize precautions. An inappropriate label of "MH-susceptible" may result in decreased access to care and treatment delays.

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Timbre recognition in Danish children with hearing aids, cochlear implants or normal hearing

Nille Elise Kepp, Christina Schiøth, Lone Percy-Smith

Publication date 07-06-2022


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Clinical characteristics of atelectatic eardrums and adhesive otitis media in children

Saeko Yoshida, Saori Seki, Tomonori Sugiyama, Saori Kikuchi, Yukiko Iino

Publication date 03-06-2022


Atelectatic eardrum and adhesive otitis media in children are related to persistent otitis media with effusion (OME) and eustachian tube dysfunction in infancy. However, the pathogenesis of these diseases is not fully understood, and some cases even progress to pars tensa cholesteatoma. This study analyzed the clinical characteristics of children with atelectatic eardrum and adhesive otitis media to clarify associated causes of and risk factors for progression of these middle ear pathologies in children. This retroactive study included 38 ears of 31 children with atelectatic eardrums (atelectasis group), and 19 ears of 17 children with adhesive otitis media (adhesive OM group). Thirty-two contralateral non-cholesteatoma ears of 32 children with congenital cholesteatoma were also examined as a control group. Participants were aged 15 or younger. Life history (obtained via questionnaire), associated diseases, hearing acuity, aeration and development of the temporal bone were investigated. All children in the atelectasis and adhesive OM groups had a history of recurrent acute otitis media (rAOM) and/or OME. The prevalence of perennial allergic rhinitis was 18 cases (58%) in the atelectasis group and 16 cases (94%) in the adhesive OM group. The prevalence of perennial allergic rhinitis was significantly higher in the adhesive OM group compared to the control group (P < 0.01). The development of mastoid air cells, categorized by MC classification, showed MC0 + MC1 (poor pneumatization) in 19 ears (50.0%) with atelectatic eardrums and 12 ears (63.2%) with adhesive OM. Poor pneumatized mastoid was more frequently observed in the ears of the atelectasis and adhesive OM groups compared to the control group (P < 0.01). No significant difference was found in regards to aeration of the middle ear between the two groups; however, aeration was significantly poorer in both groups compared to the control group (P < 0.01).
Three characteristics were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression: perennial allergic rhinitis (odds ratio [OR] 4.319, P = 0.013), poor mastoid pneumatization (OR 8.457, P = 0.012), and pars flaccida retraction pocket (OR 20.897, P = 0.006). These characteristics were shown to be significant risk factors for atelectatic eardrums and adhesive OM. In addition, the predisposition to perennial allergic rhinitis was shown to be the most important factor in the progression from atelectatic eardrum to adhesive otitis media (OR 16.615, P = 0.012). Children with perennial allergic rhinitis, poor development of mastoid air cells, poor aeration of the temporal bone, and with pars flaccida retraction pocket were at an increased risk of developing an atelectatic eardrum and adhesive OM. In particular, perennial allergic rhinitis was shown to be a significant risk factor in the progression from atelectatic eardrum to adhesive otitis media. Allergic inflammation may affect not only the nasal passages but also the eustachian tube, resulting in persistent middle ear dysfunction. Therefore, children with rAOM/OME who have these risk factors should be carefully monitored and treat over time in effort to prevent progression of pathology.

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Safety profile and efficacy of high-dose topical mitomycin-C for choanal atresia repair: A prospective cohort study

Bshair Aldriweesh, Waleed Alshareef, Albaraa Alsini, Abdullah Aljasser, Ahmed Alammar

Publication date 07-06-2022


To study the effect of dose-adjusted mitomycin-c (MMC) on the recurrence rate of choanal atresia (CA), and the complication rate associated with this concentration. This prospective cohort study was conducted between May 2012 and March 2020 at a tertiary referral center. It included patients of all ages who were diagnosed with CA and scheduled to undergo surgical repair. The MMC group received 4.0 mg/mL of topical MMC. Both groups were followed up for the surgical outcomes and complication rates. Twenty-one patients (15 females) underwent 25 CA repair procedures. The mean age was 44.85 months (standard deviation = 72.85). MMC was used in 12 (57.1%) of 21 patients. Revision CA repair was warranted in three of the nine patients who did not receive topical MMC compared to one of the 12 patients who received topical MMC. The MMC group required 1.08 ± 0.29 surgeries (range, 1-2), whereas the non-MMC group required 1.44 ± 0.73 surgeries (range, 1-3). Functional success was achieved in 17 (81%) patients who remained symptom-free until their last follow-up visit. High-concentration MMC was considered safe in the pediatric and adult populations. Although high-concentration MMC could reduce the need for revision surgery, further studies are required to determine whether the effect is significant in a larger sample population.

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The changing landscape of pediatric salivary gland stones: A half-century systematic review

Tanya Chen, Rachel Szwimer, Sam J. Daniel

Publication date 02-07-2022


To assess the evidence for pediatric sialolithiasis, including its demographic characteristics, diagnosis, and demonstrate the shift in its treatment paradigm. A systematic review of sources from the Medline and Embase databases was conducted from inception to Dec 4, 2020. Two researchers independently extracted data and assessed quality. Patients under the age of 18 with sialolithiasis were included. Study design, cohort size, age, sex, symptoms, stone characteristics, diagnostic modality and intervention were collected data points. Forty-one studies with 243 patients were included in the review, of which 40 were case reports or series. Most stones were found in the submandibular gland (n = 210, 85.4%) and were single stones (n = 101, 71.1%). Average stone size was 7.7 mm. The most common diagnostic imaging modality used was ultrasound (n = 73, 47.4%), shifting from plain radiograph which was favoured in earlier years. Similarly, open gland excision was historically preferred, but since 2000, sialoendoscopy comprised 40.5% of all treatment modalities and continues to increase in prevalence, up to 52.1% by 2020. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy was associated with the highest complication rate of 54.2%. The pediatric sialolithiasis diagnostic and therapeutic landscape has changed with ultrasound replacing plain radiographs, and sialoendoscopy replacing submandibular gland excision. Further high-level quality evidence research is required to refine the indications, effectiveness, and safety of sialoendoscopy in pediatric sialolithiasis.

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