ORL 2021-07-30

Learning Curve of Upper Aerodigestive Tract Foreign Body Management for Otorhinolaryngology Residents

Publication date 30-07-2021

Introduction: Foreign body ingestion is the most common reason for otolaryngology specialist consultations in emergency departments. Among the different types of foreign bodies, fish bones are the most common, particularly in Asian populations. In Taiwan, upper aerodigestive tract foreign bodies (UADT-FBs) are mostly managed by residents in the otorhinolaryngology (ORL) department. Considering the learning curve required for all procedures, different management types between residents, and possible resulting safety issues, this study explored the outcomes of UADT-FB management by residents in different years of ORL training.
Materials and Methods: The medical records of 2,283 patients who visited Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital’s Emergency Department for UADT-FB during June 2013–August 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. The reviewed data included the demographic data of enrolled patients, outcomes of foreign body management, and follow-up chart records of the patients.
Results: Among the 2,283 patients, 1,324 (58%) were found to be negative for foreign bodies, and foreign bodies in 951 (41.7%) were removed immediately. In the negative finding (NF) group, 2 (4.9%) patients were later found to be positive for foreign bodies during follow-up in the outpatient department. One (2.4%) patient developed a deep neck infection and esophageal perforation. The percentage of NFs decreased from 62.58% in residents in the first half of their first year (R1a) to 54% for third-year residents (R3). Comparing R1a with R3, the number needed to harm for retained UADT-FBs after patients visited the emergency department was 12.2. Discussion/Conclusion: This study provides data from 1 referral center regarding the management of UADT-FBs. With increasing resident training, the percentage of NFs declined from 62.58 to 54%. Young residents, especially those in the first 6 months of their training, should have senior residents perform a second examination if UADT-FBs are not found in suspected cases. ORL

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A Cross-Sectional Evaluation of Outcomes of Pediatric Thyroglossal Duct Cyst Excision

J Mattioni,S Azari,T Hoover,D Weaver,SK Chennupati

Publication date 29-07-2021

Introduction: Thyroglossal duct cysts (TGDCs) are the most common form of congenital neck cysts. They may become infected causing dysphagia or respiratory distress. Accordingly, the treatment is always surgical removal.
Objectives: The objectives of this article were to examine complications following TGDC excision by surgical specialty, demographics, and comorbid conditions.
Methods: A retrospective review of the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was performed. Pediatric cases from January 1, 2014 to November 1, 2015 with a current procedure terminology code of 60,280 (excision of TGDC or sinus) were included. Statistical analysis was performed to assess associations between complications and surgical specialty, demographics, and comorbidities.
Results: Of the 867 cases that met inclusion criteria, the median age was 4 years. There were 448 males (52.3%) and 408 females (47.7%). Thirty-six patients (4.2%) experienced at least one 30-day complication. The most predominant complications were reoperation (19 patients, 2.2%), readmission (18 patients, 2.1%), and surgical site infection (16 patients, 1.9%). There was no statistically significant difference between complications and surgical specialty. In those experiencing a complication, there was a statistically significant difference between males (86.1%) and females (13.9%). Of patients with at least one comorbidity, 36.67% had a complication, while 17.22% did not have a complication. There was also a statistically significant difference in the percentage of patients with a past medical history of asthma between those with at least one complication (16.67%) compared to those without any complications (4.76%).
Conclusions: excision is a generally safe procedure across surgical specialties. There is a higher complication rate in males compared to females as well as those with a history of at least one medical comorbidity and those with asthma. The most common 30-day complications are reoperation, readmission, and surgical site infection. ORL

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Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor of the Submandibular Gland: A Case Report and Literature Review

Q Li,X Yuan

Publication date 28-07-2021

Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare and aggressively malignant tumor mostly occurring in the abdominal and pelvic cavity of young patients. However, few cases had been reported concerning DSRCT occurring in the head and neck region. We presented a rare case of DSRCT of the right submandibular in a 25-year-old man. MRI revealed a 3 × 2-cm solid nodule located in the right submandibular, and physical examination showed no other occupying lesion elsewhere. Histologically, the tumor was composed of various-sized small round cell nests, embedded in an abundant desmoplastic stroma. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were typically positive for epithelial (CK and EMA), mesenchymal (vimentin and desmin), and neuroendocrine (CD56, NSE, Syn, and CgA) markers, but negative for WT1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed the presence of a break apart involving the Ewing sarcoma (EWS) gene. The patient received chemotherapy and radiotherapy and relapsed after 19 months of follow-up. DSRCT of the submandibular gland is rare, and the diagnosis of this tumor in an uncommon location relies on the histomorphology, immunophenotype, and EWS gene translocation detection. Differential diagnosis including primary salivary gland tumors and the other small round cell tumors needs to be excluded. ORL

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Associations among Audiometric, Doppler Hydroacoustic, and Subjective Outcomes of Venous Pulsatile Tinnitus

YL Hsieh,Y Wu,H Wang,X Xu,P Guo,X Wang,YD Hsieh,H Lu,W Wang

Publication date 26-07-2021

Objective: Venous pulsatile tinnitus (PT) has received increasing attention recently. As analyses of psychophysical and neuropsychological dimensions of venous PT are lacking, this study aimed to quantitatively and qualitatively investigate the correlation among audiometric, hydroacoustic, and subjective outcomes in patients with PT.
Methods: Fifty-five venous PT patients, with or without sigmoid sinus wall anomalies (SSWAs), were subdivided into SSWAs (n = 30) and non-SSWAs (n = 25) groups. Audiometric and hemodynamic evaluations were assessed. Questionnaires including the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) were deployed to evaluate the psychological impacts of PT.
Results: Among 55 subjects, PT frequency-related pure-tone audiometry (PTA) was significantly different between ipsilesional non-PT frequency-related PTA (p #x3c; 0.01), ipsilateral jugular vein compression PTA (p #x3c; 0.01), and contralesional ear PTA (p #x3c; 0.01). In contrast with the pulsatility index and flow velocity, bilateral EOET and flow volume were significantly different (p #x3c; 0.01). Of the 3 questionnaire types, there was a strong correlation between HADS anxiety and AIS scores (r = 0.658, p #x3c; 0.01). The duration of PT was not correlated with subjective outcomes, and there was no statistical significance found among audiometric, hemodynamic, and subjective outcomes between SSWAs and non-SSWAs groups.
Conclusions: (1) The duration of PT was irrelevant to the increase of PTA. (2) Venous PT is the perception of vascular flow sound, in which hydroacoustic characteristics can be highly independent. (3) Anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders commonly prevail among PT patients. ORL

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Possibility of Pseudo-Obstruction in Lacrimal Canalicular Obstruction Diagnosed with Dacryocystography

WS Shim,MJ Cho,Y Kang,SH Lee,JY Lee,HJ Jung

Publication date 23-07-2021

Introduction: Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) is the treatment of choice for patients with lacrimal drainage system obstruction. Dacryocystography (DCG) is one of the most common preoperative studies and considered as a useful test demonstrating the anatomy of lacrimal drainage systems.
Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of DCG for canalicular obstruction and to compare surgical outcomes between true-obstruction versus pseudo-obstruction diagnosed with DCG.
Methods: A retrospective study was performed on 45 consecutive patients with lacrimal canalicular obstruction who had underwent endoscopic DCR with silicone tube insertion from January 2009 to December 2014 at a single tertiary hospital. A review of medical records included demographic data, preoperative symptoms and signs, results of intraoperative canalicular probing, and surgical outcomes including the postoperative symptom improvement and endoscopic finding.
Results: Of 45 patients, 34 patients (75.6%) had true-canalicular obstructions and 11 patients (24.4%) had pseudo-canalicular obstructions. The success rate of endoscopic DCR was 50% (17 of 34) in cases with true-canalicular obstruction while 90.9% (10 of 11) in pseudo-canalicular obstruction (p value #x3c;0.05). No intraoperative or postoperative complications including sinusitis or synechia were found.
Conclusions: About a quarter of lacrimal canalicular obstruction cases diagnosed with DCG seem to be pseudo-obstruction. The success rate of endoscopic DCR in pseudo-canalicular obstruction is similar to that of saccal and nasolacrimal ductal obstruction. ORL

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Intraoral Hirudotherapy for Venous Congestion following Free Flap Head and Neck Reconstruction: Novel Intraoral Technique

A Amanian,O Butskiy,K Zhao,DW Anderson

Publication date 22-07-2021

Intraoral hirudotherapy is traditionally used for venous congestion following head and neck free flap reconstruction. Many institutions and healthcare teams have been reluctant to use intraoral leech therapy due to risks such as migration into the airway, increased infection from intraoral manipulation, and patient discomfort. Several protocols recommend blocking the path to the oropharynx via gauze or leaving a tracheotomy in place to protect the airway. This report pre­sents a novel technique for intraoral hirudotherapy that is safe and simple for treatment of free flap venous congestion. The base of a clear cup or a plastic lid is utilized, and the leech is attached onto the inside of the lid with 2 sutures near each end. Several cups with leeches attached are made at a time to reduce delay and difficulty of application by less experienced clinical staff. The leech is then applied onto the compromised flap and then simply removed once it has unlatched from the flap. This method allows the leech to be applied with ease by multiple members of the healthcare team, decreases the need for intraoral manipulation, and reduces the risk of migration into the aerodigestive tract. Future prospective studies are warranted to assess the efficacy of this technique. ORL

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Assessment of the Use of Humidified Nasal Cannulas for Oxygen Therapy in Patients with Epistaxis

J Liu,T Chen,Z Lv,D Wu

Publication date 21-07-2021

Introduction: In China, nasal cannula oxygen therapy is typically humidified. However, it is difficult to decide whether to suspend nasal cannula oxygen inhalation after the nosebleed has temporarily stopped. Therefore, we conducted a preliminary investigation on whether the use of humidified nasal cannulas in our hospital increases the incidence of epistaxis.
Methods: We conducted a survey of 176,058 inpatients in our hospital and other city branches of our hospital over the past 3 years and obtained information concerning their use of humidified nasal cannulas for oxygen inhalation, nonhumidified nasal cannulas, anticoagulant and antiplatelet drugs, and oxygen inhalation flow rates. This information was compared with the data collected at consultation for epistaxis during these 3 years.
Results: No significant difference was found between inpatients with humidified nasal cannulas and those without nasal cannula oxygen therapy in the incidence of consultations due to epistaxis (χ2 = 1.007, p #x3e; 0.05). The same trend was observed among hospitalized patients using anticoagulant and antiplatelet drugs (χ2 = 2.082, p #x3e; 0.05). Among the patients with an inhaled oxygen flow rate ≥5 L/min, the incidence of ear-nose-throat (ENT) consultations due to epistaxis was 0. No statistically significant difference was found between inpatients with a humidified oxygen inhalation flow rate #x3c;5 L/min and those without nasal cannula oxygen therapy in the incidence of ENT consultations due to epistaxis (χ2 = 0.838, p #x3e; 0.05). A statistically significant difference was observed in the incidence of ENT consultations due to epistaxis between the low-flow nonhumidified nasal cannula and nonnasal cannula oxygen inhalation groups (χ2 = 18.428, p #x3c; 0.001). The same trend was observed between the 2 groups of low-flow humidified and low-flow nonhumidified nasal cannula oxygen inhalation (χ2 = 26.194, p #x3c; 0.001). Discussion/Conclusion: Neither high-flow humidified nasal cannula oxygen inhalation nor low-flow humidified nasal cannula oxygen inhalation will increase the incidence of recurrent or serious epistaxis complications; the same trend was observed for patients who use anticoagulant and antiplatelet drugs. Humidification during low-flow nasal cannula oxygen inhalation can prevent severe and repeated epistaxis to a certain extent. ORL

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The Study of Association between Laryngopharyngeal Reflux and Vocal Fold Leukoplakia Requires Pepsin and Bile Salt Tissue Analyses

JR Lechien,MP Circiu,S Hans,S Saussez

Publication date 15-07-2021


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Safety and Complications of Sedation Anesthesia during Pediatric Auditory Brainstem Response Testing

S Urfali,B Urfali,ET Sarac,O Koyuncu

Publication date 12-07-2021

Objective: The auditory brainstem response (ABR) test has been widely used in childhood. Although it is a painless procedure, sedation can be needed in pediatric patients. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate safety and complications of sedation anesthesia applied in pediatric patients during ABR testing.
Methods: Medical records of 75 children who underwent ABR testing between 2018 and 2020 were evaluated retrospectively in terms of applicability, safety, and complications of sedation anesthesia.
Results: The ages ranged from 3 to 9 (mean 6.2) years. Comorbidity was detected in 20% (n = 15); 3 had multiple comorbidities, and the most common comorbidity was Down syndrome (4%). The drugs used in sedation anesthesia were midazolam in 81.3% (n = 61), a combination of propofol and ketamine in 14.7% (n = 11), and only propofol in 4% (n = 3) of the patients. An additional drug use was needed in 44% (n = 33). The mean procedure time was 40 (range 30–55) min. The mean anesthesia duration was 45 (range 35–60) min. The mean recovery time was 10 (range 5–15) min. Complications related to anesthesia developed in 4 (5.33%) of the patients; respiratory distress, agitation, cough, and nausea-vomiting were seen in one of the patients, respectively. Complications like bradycardia and respiratory or cardiac arrest were not seen at all.
Conclusions: The complication rate of sedation anesthesia performed during ABR testing of pediatric patients is quite low. It may be more beneficial to use combinations of sedation drugs instead of using a single sedation drug. Although sedation anesthesia appears to be safe in general, the potentially life-threatening complications of sedative agents should be remembered, especially in children who have comorbidities. ORL

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Deep Neck Infections: Demographic and Clinical Factors Associated with Poor Outcomes

JL Treviño-Gonzalez,F Maldonado-Chapa,A González-Larios,JA Morales-Del Angel,GA Soto-Galindo,JM Zafiro García-Villanueva

Publication date 08-07-2021

Introduction: Deep neck infections (DNIs) are abscesses located in the profound spaces of the neck and constitute one of the most common otolaryngological life-threatening emergencies. The aim of this study is to review the clinical and demographic data of patients with DNI and identify factors associated with prolonged hospitalization, reoperation, and mortality.
Methods: Retrospective review and analysis of 75 patients with DNI admitted from January 2015 to December 2019 in a tertiary referral hospital.
Results: Of 75 patients, 50 (66.6%) were males and 25 (33.3%) females. Age ranged from 18 to 91 years with a mean of 41.79 (±15.48). DNIs were odontogenic in 49 patients (65.3%). History of diabetes mellitus (DM) was positive in 26 patients (34.6%). The submandibular space was involved in 57 patients (76%). Streptococcus spp. were isolated in 35 patients (46%). Intubation for airway preservation was needed in 21 patients (28%) and tracheostomy in 6 (8%). Mediastinitis presented in 8 patients (10.67%), with a mortality rate of 62.5% (n = 5). Mean hospital stay was 9.13 days (±7.2). DM (p = 0.016), age (p = 0.001), BMI classification 3, 4, and 6 (p = 0.041), and intensive care unit (ICU) admission (p = 0.009) were associated with a longer stay. Surgical drainage was performed after 1.71 days (±1.65). Surgical reintervention was needed in 6 cases (8%) and was associated with temporal (p = 0.001) and masticator (p = 0.002) space involvement and DM (p = 0.009). Overall mortality was 8% and decreased to 1.5% when mediastinitis was excluded. Mediastinitis (p = 0.001), ICU admission (p #x3c; 0.0001), Streptococcus spp. (p = 0.019), and low hemoglobin levels (p = 0.004) were associated with mortality. Discussion/Conclusion: DNIs are entities associated with high morbimortality. Mediastinitis and airway obstruction are life-threatening possible complications and should be promptly evaluated. Low HB could be used as a predicting factor for mortality. ORL

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