ORL 2020-10-19

Feasibility of Powered Intracapsular Tonsillectomy in Pediatric Patients with Tonsil Problem, Including Recurrent Tonsillitis: A Single Surgeon’s Experience

Publicatie 19-10-2020

Introduction: Powered intracapsular tonsillectomy (PIT) is a technique that protects the tonsillar capsule by using a microdebrider, resulting in faster wound-healing and reduced suffering. Many studies have found PIT to be effective, particularly in pediatric patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, previous studies have not included patients with a history of recurrent tonsillitis. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of PIT in pediatric patients even with a history of recurrent tonsillitis, and therefore, we want to expand the indication for PIT and reveal its safety. Methods: A total of 886 pediatric patients underwent PIT between February 2013 and March 2016. All patients rated their postoperative pain using a visual analog scale (VAS) and completed the Korean obstructive sleep apnea (KOSA)-18 questionnaire for assessment of their quality of life (QOL). There were 539 males and 347 females. Their mean age was 6.2 years (range 2–14 years). The majority (77.7%) underwent the operation for OSA, and the rest (22.3%) had a history of recurrent tonsillitis. To compare the efficacy of PIT with traditional tonsillectomy, we selected 191 patients who underwent extracapsular tonsillectomy (ECT), a conventional technique, during the same time period. The median follow-up period was 16.7 months. During the follow-up period, instances of delayed bleeding and recurrent pharyngitis were monitored. Results: In comparison to the patients who underwent ECT, the PIT group showed significantly fewer cases of postoperative bleeding (p = 0.027). Thirteen patients in the PIT group (1.5%) visited the hospital during the follow-up period for pharyngitis, while 8 in the ECT group (4.2%) visited for pharyngitis. The mean postoperative pain score, as assessed by a VAS, was 4.6 ± 3.2, and pain improved within an average of 2.9 days after surgery in the PIT group. The mean KOSA-18 score for the QOL of the patients was 65.9 preoperatively and 35.6 postoperatively in the PIT group. Conclusions: Pediatric tonsillectomy using PIT is valid for reducing postoperative pain and improving the QOL of OSA patients. PIT is also effective and safe for patients with a history of recurrent tonsillitis. ORL

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Aspiration Prevention Surgery under Local Anesthesia for Palliative Care in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer: A Report of Two Cases

Publicatie 19-10-2020

Aspiration prevention (AP) surgery may improve the quality of life (QOL) of patients with severe dysphagia. However, not all patients can endure this type of surgery under general anesthesia because of their poor status. Herein, we describe the cases of 2 patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) who underwent AP surgery for palliative care. Although both patients had tracheostomy due to severe dysphagia and respiratory impairment and frequently needed suction, they were successfully managed with AP surgery under local anesthesia. A tracheostoma was reshaped to be sufficiently large for an airway to be secured without a cannula. Their respiratory failure gradually improved, and suction frequency markedly decreased after surgery; thus, they could receive medical treatment at home. When patients with HNC under palliative care have a tracheal cannula and cannot vocalize, AP surgery under local anesthesia is an option to improve their QOL. ORL

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Short-Term Follow-Up of Self-Isolated COVID-19 Patients with Smell and Taste Dysfunction in Greece: Two Phenotypes of Recovery

I Konstantinidis,A Delides,E Tsakiropoulou,P Maragoudakis,S Sapounas,S Tsiodras

Publicatie 13-10-2020

Introduction: The course of anosmia and ageusia in COVID-19 patients is not yet clearly known. We present short-term follow-up data concerning mild to moderate disease in home-quarantined COVID-19 patients in Greece. Methods: We provided a symptom questionnaire and instructions for a self-administered home smell-and-taste test to 79 positive COVID-19 patients from 2 tertiary hospitals in Greece. The patients recorded their subjective symptoms before and during infection as well as 4 weeks after the diagnosis. The patients also underwent the home test during infection and 4 weeks later. Results: Twenty-nine patients (36.7%) reported a loss of smell, and 21 (27.8%) reported a loss of taste, with equal prevalences between genders. We observed 2 types of recovery, i.e., a rapid, almost complete recovery, and a second slower and partial recovery. The type of recovery was not age related. A rapid recovery was observed in two thirds of the patients, with their olfactory ratings presenting a trend towards significance in correlation with nasal obstruction. A slow recovery in olfaction was correlated with low intensity ratings in odors with a trigeminal compound. The loss of taste was more pronounced in sweet and salty intensity ratings. Conclusion: Chemosensory deficits associated with COVID-19 infection were quite frequent among the Greek patients with mild or moderate disease who, in most cases, returned to normal within 4 weeks. However, 1 in 3 patients presented with persistent olfactory and gustatory dysfunction in the short term. ORL

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Protection of Medical Staff during Tracheotomy: Lessons Learned from the COVID-19 Pandemic

DH Lee,S Kim,JS Kim,BG Kim,KH Chang,JO Park

Publicatie 08-10-2020

Background: During the ongoing pandemic of COVID-19, tracheotomy under emergency situation is considered a high-risk procedure that causes probable expose to aerosolized secretion. Summary: We reviewed our case and previous reports, and summarized a detailed protocol that is needed to protect medical staffs who perform tracheotomy under the COVID-19 pandemic, considering the patient’s condition, experience of medical staff members, and available facilities and equipment. Key Messages: For efficient protection of medical staff who perform tracheotomy under the COVID-19 pandemic period, we suggest that the following needs to be considered: assessment of patient’s condition (COVID-19 infection and the airway problem), route (safest route to the operating room), experienced surgical team, negative-pressure isolation facility and appliance (personal protective equipment) availability, and safe and appropriate post-tracheotomy care. ORL

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Management of a Unique Sinonasal Undifferentiated Carcinoma Subtype in the Era of SARS-CoV-2

JE Douglas,AC Kaufman,K Rajasekaran

Publicatie 05-10-2020

The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has influenced the timeliness of care for patients with both common and rare conditions, particularly those affecting high-risk operative sites such as the upper aerodigestive tract. Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC) represents a rare malignancy of the sinonasal tract, a unique subset of which has never been previously reported in the otolaryngology literature and is characterized by inactivation of the SMARCB (INI-1) tumor suppressor gene. This subtype exhibits a particularly poor prognosis and is characterized pathologically by its rhabdoid appearance. Here we present the case of an individual who was diagnosed with a sinonasal mass during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, which was ultimately found to be SMARCB (INI-1)-deficient sinonasal carcinoma. Advanced imaging was deferred in the interest of limiting the patient’s exposure to the virus, and expedited operative management was performed which facilitated prompt referral for adjuvant chemoradiation. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic presents unique challenges, but the work-up of high-risk lesions must be prioritized; this continues to be paramount as SARS-CoV-2 resurges in many cities across the USA. ORL

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The Effect of Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation in the Rehabilitation of Patients with Vestibular Disorders

DŞ Ceylan,A Ataş,M Kaya

Publicatie 29-09-2020

Introduction: The aim of the study was to increase the participants’ satisfaction with the unilateral peripheral vestibular pathology, in addition to the exercise program, with galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS). Methods: Participants were divided into 2 groups: study group (41 subjects) and control group (32 subjects). Participants who underwent videonystagmography and sensory organization testing, which were objective test methods at the beginning, were invited to check in every week for 6 weeks to perform GVS and/or exercise in the exercise program. Objective tests were repeated at the end of the sixth week. A visual analog scale (VAS) was administered every week. Results: Unilateral weakness, balance scores 4, 5, 6; visual, vestibular, preference and strategy scores 5, 6; center of gravity 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6; composite scores were different between the groups after rehabilitation (p #x3c; 0.05). In terms of VAS, the study group began to feel better at the end of the first week than the control group (p #x3c; 0.01). Discussion/Conclusion: It was found that the study group benefited both from an objective and a subjective point of view more than participants in the control group. ORL

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Individualized Treatment of Tinnitus during Sleep Using Combined Tinnitus Signal and Music

H Deniz,YA Bayazit,ET Sarac

Publicatie 23-09-2020

Introduction: Tinnitus is a widely seen otological symptom that interferes with daily activities and causes discomfort. Tinnitus treatments can be classified into 4 main groups: pharmacological treatments, cognitive and behavioral therapy, psychological treatments, and combined treatment approaches made up of at least 2 of these 3 treatment methods. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess whether it would be possible to develop an individualized treatment method of tinnitus by application of a combined tinnitus signal and music during sleep. Methods: Forty-three ears of 30 patients who had subjective tinnitus were included. The patients were evaluated using Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, Visual Analogue Scale, and Beck Depression Inventory. The psychoacoustic parameters of tinnitus, such as tinnitus frequency and loudness, and minimal masking levels, were determined. The patients were asked to select musical melodies that they liked. The tinnitus frequency of each patient was taken as the central frequency according to ANSI 2004. All sound files were prepared as stereo channels, with 16-bit resolution and 44,100 Hz sampling rate. The root mean square power value of the music and the band noise’s average root mean square power value were equalized with the “Amplification” command, and 70% of the music and 30% of wide/narrow-band noise were mixed as a stereo channel by the “Mix Paste” command. The patients were instructed to listen to that individualized music/narrow-band noise (tinnitus signal) for 2 h during sleep for a duration of 6 months. Results: Tinnitus frequencies of the patients measured prior to treatment and at the second, fourth, and sixth months of follow-up were not significantly different. A statistically significant decrease was seen in tinnitus loudness, minimal masking levels, and residual inhibition during the follow-up. Tinnitus Handicap Inventory scores decreased significantly during follow-up, and the number of patients who complained of tinnitus decreased (p #x3c; 0.05). The Visual Analogue Scale scores significantly decreased during follow-up (p #x3c; 0.05). Beck Depression Inventory scores decreased significantly during follow-up (p #x3c; 0.05). Conclusion: Stimulation of the auditory and limbic systems during sleep by the tinnitus signal combined with individualized musical melodies seems an alternative, effective, and cheap method in the treatment of tinnitus. ORL

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Anamnesis as a Prognostic Factor in Cochlear Implantation in Adults

E Savvas,K Heslinga,CO Spiekermann,M Stenner,C Rudack

Publicatie 18-09-2020

Introduction: This study aims to analyze possible preoperative factors taken from the medical history that may assist the otolaryngologist in counseling an adult patient before cochlear implantation (CI). Objective: Analysis of preoperative factors taken during the initial patient presentation for a possible prognostic role in the auditory rehabilitation outcome. Methods: A cohort of 232 (272 CI implantations) postlingually deafened adults was evaluated in this study. Hearing results at 1, 2, and up to 3 years postoperatively were compared with various preoperative factors: living status, cause of deafness, gender, side of implantation, residual hearing, and duration of deafness. Postoperative hearing performance was measured based on the German Freiburg monosyllabic word test and the Oldenburg sentence test. Results: Duration of deafness showed a negative correlation to word recognition and a positive correlation to increased speech reception threshold in sentence testing. A significant decline in hearing outcome was shown starting around the second decade of deafness. Residual hearing as defined in our cohort and side of implantation showed limited benefit in speech understanding. Living status, gender, and cause of deafness did not show any prognostic value. Conclusion: In this retrospective review it could be shown that simple case history information can only provide limited prognostic insight before CI. The duration of deafness is the most reliable anamnestic factor present on initial patient evaluation. ORL

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Effects of Craniosacral Osteopathy in Patients with Peripheral Vestibular Pathology

F Atay,K Bayramlar,ET Sarac

Publicatie 09-09-2020

Introduction: Vertigo appears as a result of a sudden neural activity imbalance of the vestibular system. The vertigo prevalence is higher in patients over 60 years of age compared to patients under 40 years of age. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of craniosacral osteopathy on dizziness and balance in individuals who have peripheral vestibular pathology. Methods: A total of 30 individuals, aged 24–50 years, participated in this study. Twenty-four of the participants were female (80%) and 6 were male (20%). The participants were separated into 2 groups, with 15 patients included in the cranial osteopathy treatment group (study group) and 15 patients included in the group that used dimenhydrinate (control group). The individuals were evaluated in terms of dizziness and balance. A visual analog scale was used to evaluate dizziness. Balance was evaluated using the Berg balance scale and the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence scale. The craniosacral treatment program was applied once per week for 6 sessions. All of the individuals included in this study were evaluated 3 times, i.e., prior to treatment, on the third week of treatment, and on the sixth week of treatment. Results: Significant improvement was noted within each group in terms of dizziness and balance (p #x3c; 0.05). When the groups were compared with each other, it was observed that craniosacral osteopathy was more effective than dimenhydrinate treatment for dizziness and balance (p #x3c; 0.05). Conclusion: Craniosacral osteopathy is an effective treatment choice in individuals who have chronic peripheral vestibular pathology. In individuals who have resistant and chronic vestibular pathology, craniosacral osteopathy should be evaluated among the treatment choices. ORL

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Exceptional Response to PD-1 Blockade as First-Line Therapy in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

T Kumai,H Komatsuda,Y Minami,Y Harabuchi

Publicatie 03-09-2020

The effect of PD-1 blockade as a first-line therapy in nonmetastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains unknown. We report a case of an exceptional response to PD-1 blockade as a first-line therapy in a patient with HNSCC and lung cancer. A 59-year-old man presented with cheek swelling and chest pain. He was diagnosed with maxillary sinus carcinoma (squamous cell carcinoma) and lung cancer (non-small-cell lung cancer, not otherwise specified). The maxillary sinus carcinoma was completely resolved after 8 cycles of pembrolizumab. Immune checkpoint blockade warrants further evaluation in previously untreated patients with HNSCC. ORL

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