Current Opinion in Otolaryngology

Editorial introductions

01-02-2020 –

No abstract available

The relationship of chronic rhinosinusitis and depression

01-02-2020 – Smith, Kristine A.; Alt, Jeremiah A.

Journal Article

Purpose of review The aim of this article is to identify and describe the relationship between chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and comorbid depression, including the patient factors that may increase the risk of depression. The impact of comorbid depression on quality of life, response to treatment and healthcare utilization will also be assessed.
Recent findings CRS is associated with a significantly increased prevalence of depression, where 9–26% of patients with CRS will have physician-diagnosed depression. An additional 40% will have undiagnosed depression that can be identified through screening tools. Patients without polyps are more likely to experience comorbid depression, as are patients with significant sleep dysfunction, olfactory dysfunction, and pain. CRS symptoms do improve with medical and surgical therapy in depressed patients, though baseline and posttreatment scores are worse. A similar degree of benefit from therapy is seen in both depressed and nondepressed patients. CRS treatment does seem to improve depression, whereas the effect of depression specific therapy is unknown. Depressed patients have a significantly larger economic burden because of their increased healthcare utilization and productivity losses.
Summary Depression is a highly prevalent and impactful comorbidity in patients with CRS. Increased awareness of this relationship may improve patients’ overall quality of care.

What is the evidence for macrolide therapy in chronic rhinosinusitis?

01-02-2020 – Cavada, Marina N.; Grayson, Jessica W.; Sacks, Raymond

Journal Article

Purpose of review To assess the most recent evidence for macrolide therapy in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS).
Recent findings Macrolides play a significant role in a select group of patients with CRS. Low-serum and tissue eosinophilia in patients who do not respond to corticosteroid therapy appeared to be an effective predictor of a CRS phenotype suitable for a trial of long-term macrolide therapy. Therapies using half a dose for longer than 12 weeks have noted good outcomes.
Summary The anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of macrolides have been demonstrated in several studies. Macrolides have shown an important role in patients who are nonresponsive to corticosteroid therapies, therefore patient selection is key. Previous inconsistencies in results may be due to poor patient selection.

Chronic rhinosinusitis and sleep quality

01-02-2020 – Papagiannopoulos, Peter; Kuan, Edward C.; Tajudeen, Bobby A.

Journal Article

Purpose of review To review the recent literature describing the association between chronic rhinosinusitis and its effects on sleep quality.
Recent findings Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) causes significantly worse sleep by both subjective and objective measures. CRS is also strongly associated with obstructive sleep apnea. Treating CRS surgically improves subjective sleep scores.
Summary CRS worsens sleep quality both subjectively and objectively. Sleep quality is improved after endoscopic sinus surgery.

What is the evidence for fluticasone exhalation delivery system in chronic rhinosinusitis?

01-02-2020 – Kovacs, Alexander J.; Goshtasbi, Khodayar; Kuan, Edward C.

Journal Article

Purpose for review The aim of this article is to review the current literature regarding a novel method of topically delivering nasal steroids, namely exhalation delivery system-fluticasone (EDS-FLU), for the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS).
Recent findings Recent Food and Drug Administration approval of EDS-FLU and increasing evidence surrounding its efficacy and safety has led to an additional tool for the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis. Compared with placebo, EDS-FLU has demonstrated significant improvements in patients’ sinonasal symptoms and overall inflammatory control as well as quality of life measures. Additionally, using EDS-FLU can lead to polyp grade improvement and polyp elimination in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with polyps. Furthermore, compared with controls, patients who received EDS-FLU were less likely to meet predefined surgical criteria at the conclusion of the study.
Summary EDS-FLU has demonstrated significant improvement in managing symptoms and polyps in CRS. Receiving EDS-FLU was associated with a significant reduction in the proportion of patients meeting surgical criteria. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the long-term outcomes of EDS-FLU, especially as compared with steroid sprays and topical steroid irrigations, in management of CRS.

Updates on current evidence for biologics in chronic rhinosinusitis

01-02-2020 – Nasta, Melina S.; Chatzinakis, Vasileios A.; Georgalas, Christos C.

Journal Article

Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to present the most important recent developments concerning biologics as a therapeutic option for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS).
Recent findings m
Ab anti-IL-4 receptor α (Dupilumab) was recently approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for patients with CRSw
NP and four other biologics are under investigation, with promising preliminary results.
Summary CRS is a disease associated with a significant symptom burden and high-indirect costs. Despite recent advances in combined approaches, persistent symptoms or recurrences are not uncommon. Monoclonal antibodies, used mainly to treat asthma, have recently been shown to have a positive impact on controlling the symptoms of CRS and reducing the need for endoscopic sinus surgery. Dupilumab, mepolizumab, reslizumab, benralizumab and omalizumab are discussed and their mechanism of action, risk and current evidence on efficacy are presented. Preliminary studies show encouraging results with relatively few side effects. Once the high cost of such therapies is addressed, they could prove an important adjuvant therapy for patients with CRS. Large-scale clinical trials designed to evaluate them are called for.

Latest developments on topical therapies in chronic rhinosinusitis

01-02-2020 – Tan, Neil C.W.; Psaltis, Alkis J.

Journal Article

Purpose of review Topical therapies play an important role in the management of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). A detailed literature review was undertaken to appraise recent evidence surrounding current topical therapies and novel treatments used in the setting of recalcitrant CRS.
Recent findings Effective sinus surgery aids in the delivery of topical therapies. Budesonide nasal rinses delivered by saline irrigation offer clinical and symptomatic improvements pre and postoperatively with a well-proven safety profile. Topical steroids may additionally offer direct antibacterial effects as per in-vitro testing. Topical antibiotics are not recommended in routine practice; however, they may be of benefit for short-term eradication therapy. Novel treatments are under keen investigation and include bacteriophage, colloidal silver and manuka honey. The evidence base for these treatments is not robust enough to recommend their routine use at present.
Summary Topical steroids delivered in conjunction with saline nasal irrigation offer the best combination of treatments in CRS and should be considered a standard of care. Wide surgical access and aggressive surgical debridement of polyposis facilitates the delivery of steroid irrigations to sinonasal mucosa and is associated with improved long-term outcomes following endoscopic sinus surgery. The use of novel treatments remains within the research setting alone.

Indications for Eustachian tube dilation

01-02-2020 – Siow, Jin-Keat; Tan, Jian-Li

Journal Article

Purpose of review Eustachian tube dilation is a controversial surgical procedure because the intended problem for which it is meant to address, obstructive Eustachian tube dysfunction, is a clinical diagnosis without a reliable diagnostic tool to test.
In the past 10 years, balloon dilation Eustachian tuboplasty (BDET) has been the most commonly performed Eustachian tube dilation procedure. The present review seeks to identify the patients who may benefit from this procedure and thus propose the indications.
Recent findings Two randomized controlled trials for BDET published in the past 2 years showed statistically significant improvement in terms of symptomatic relief based on the ETDQ-7 scores and conversion of abnormal tympanograms (type B and type C) to normal tympanograms (type A).
Summary Based on the review of the evidence available so far, the proposed indication for Eustachian tube dilation using BDET is for a patient with ALL of the following: aural fullness greater than 12 weeks; type B or C tympanogram; ETDQ-7 mean score more than 2; and failed medical management including Valsalva maneuver and either 4 weeks of nasal steroids or 1 week of oral steroids.

Multidisciplinary approaches to odontogenic lesions

01-02-2020 – Shanti, Rabie M.; Alawi, Faizan; Lee, Su-Min; Henderson, Aaron J.; Sangal, Neel R.; Adappa, Nithin D.

Journal Article

Purpose of review To give an overview of technical considerations and relevant literature in the management odontogenic pathology with involvement of the maxillary sinus.
Recent findings Infections, cysts, benign neoplasms (odontogenic and nonodontogenic), and inflammatory conditions impact the maxillary sinus in various ways, could result in significant expansion within the maxillary sinus and significant infections.
Summary This manuscript provides an overview of common pathologic entities of the oral cavity proper that impacts the maxillary sinus health, with discussion of the role of the otorhinolaryngologist and the dental specialist.

Update on long-term outcomes for chronic rhinosinusitis in cystic fibrosis

01-02-2020 – Chang, Michael T.; Patel, Zara M.

Journal Article

Purpose of review This article reviews the existing body of literature regarding long-term outcomes of various treatments for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) in the cystic fibrosis population.
Recent findings The management of CRS in cystic fibrosis involves a multitude of medical and surgical therapies. Despite their high usage amongst clinicians, corticosteroids and antibiotics currently have little outcome data supporting their use. There is emerging evidence demonstrating beneficial outcomes for DNAse mucolytics and molecular modulators of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductor regulator (CFTR). Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) improves sinonasal outcomes in cystic fibrosis CRS; however, the benefit on pulmonary outcomes remains unclear.
Summary Successful management of CRS in cystic fibrosis requires multimodal and multidisciplinary care. The long-term outcome data is variable for different treatment modalities. There is recent evidence supporting the role of DNAse mucolytics, CFTR-targeting therapies, and ESS in management of cystic fibrosis CRS.

Frontal sinus fractures and cerebrospinal fluid leaks: a change in surgical paradigm

01-02-2020 – Banks, Catherine; Grayson, Jessica; Cho, Do Yeon; Woodworth, Bradford A.

Journal Article

Purpose of review Traditionally, frontal sinus trauma has been treated using open incisions to access the anterior and/or posterior table. Mounting evidence indicates frontal sinus trauma can be managed using an endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) with less morbidity. Such an approach permits preservation of a functional sinus and less reliance on computed tomography for postoperative follow up. The goal of this article is to highlight a shift in paradigm away from open approaches using external incisions towards an EEA to repair cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks and fractures of the frontal sinus.
Recent findings In a prospective case series of 46 patients undergoing EEA to frontal sinus fractures, 41 patients had active CSF leaks arising from the posterior table of the frontal sinus. A successful endoscopic repair was achieved in 97.6% with only one patient requiring revision Draf IIB surgery. Anterior table fractures were also successfully reduced with excellent cosmesis.
Summary Endoscopic repair of frontal sinus fractures and CSF leaks is effective and well tolerated. In select patients, it is the preferred treatment as it maintains normal sinus structure and function, minimizing both early and late complications.