JAMA Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery

JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery

01-01-2020 –

Mission Statement:JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery provides timely information for physicians and scientists concerned with diseases of the head and neck. Given the diversity of structure and function based in this anatomic region, JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery publishes clinical, translational, and population health research from an array of disciplines. We place a high priority on strong study designs that accurately identify etiologies, evaluate diagnostic strategies, and distinguish among treatment options and outcomes. Our objectives are to (1) publish original contributions that will enhance the clinician’s understanding of otolaryngologic disorders, benefit the care of our patients, and stimulate research in our field; (2) forecast important advances within otolaryngology–head and neck surgery, particularly as they relate to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease through clinical and translational research, including that of the human genome and novel imaging techniques; (3) address questions of clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness that result from clinical intervention, which grow in importance as health care providers are increasingly challenged to provide evidence of enhanced survival and quality of life; (4) provide expert reviews of topics that keep our readers current with true advances and also to provide a valuable educational resource for trainees in the several disciplines that treat patients with diseases of the head and neck; (5) serve as a forum for the concerns of otolaryngologists such as socioeconomic, legal, ethical, and medical issues; (6) provide helpful critiques that enable contributing authors to improve their submissions. We encourage a concise presentation of information and employ an abstract format that efficiently assesses validity and relevance from a clinical perspective. This approach promotes succinct yet complete presentation for our readers and electronic information resources. We believe this approach typifies the commitment of JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery to providing important information that is easily interpreted by its diverse readership.

Association of Subclinical Hearing Loss With Cognitive Performance

01-01-2020 – Golub JS, Brickman AM, Ciarleglio AJ, et al.

Journal Article

This cross-sectional study investigates whether the association between hearing and cognition is present among individuals traditionally classified as having normal hearing.

Reconsidering Individuals With Normal Hearing

01-01-2020 – Powell DS, Deal JA, Goman AM.

Journal Article

Dementia, called the “greatest global challenge for health and social care in the 21st century,”(p2673) occurs in 47 million persons globally. This number is projected to triple by 2050. With no cure and no treatments to alter its natural history, public health prevention efforts are paramount. Hearing loss (HL) is a novel yet treatable risk factor for dementia. In the article by Golub and colleagues in this issue of JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery, the importance of understanding the association between hearing and cognitive performance for older adults is highlighted. Novel to this study is the focus on adults with hearing in the normal range.

Natural Course of Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis and Optimal Timing of Permanent Treatment

01-01-2020 – Lee D, Lee S, Lee M, et al.

Journal Article

This case series assesses the association of injury level causing unilateral vocal cord paralysis with maximum recovery time to evaluate the optimal timing of permanent phonosurgical treatment.

Error in Figure 2

01-01-2020 –

Journal Article

In the article titled “Association Between Hospital Market Concentration and Costs of Laryngectomy” that was published in the October 2019 issue, the y-axis label of Figure 2 should read “Hospitals, %” not “Patients, %.” The article has been corrected online.

Occult Contralateral Nodal Disease in HPV-Related Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Base of the Tongue

01-01-2020 – Last AS, Pipkorn P, Chen S, et al.

Journal Article

This case series assesses the rate of and risk factors for occult contralateral nodal disease in patients with human papillomavirus−related base of tongue oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma undergoing transoral surgery and bilateral neck dissection.

Cost-effectiveness of Stapedectomy vs Hearing Aids in the Treatment of Otosclerosis

01-01-2020 – Gillard DM, Harris JP.

Journal Article

This cost-effectiveness analysis examines the cost-effectiveness of stapedectomy vs hearing aid use for the treatment of otosclerosis.

Supraomohyoid Neck Dissection for Clinically Node-Negative Neck in Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma

01-01-2020 – Subash A.

Journal Article

To the Editor The basis of an elective neck dissection was given by Weiss et al using a mathematical model, wherein whenever the risk of nodal metastasis was more than 20%, outcomes were poorer and called for a neck dissection.

What If a Stapedectomy Were Not Cost-effective?

01-01-2020 – Kozin ED.

Journal Article

The management of otosclerosis is viewed by many as the sine qua non of an otologic practice. From the elegant otopathologic descriptions by Ádám Politzer in the 19th century to surgical breakthroughs by Julius Lempert and John Shea Jr in the mid-20th century, otosclerosis and its surgical management have inspired generations of students, researchers, and surgeons alike. The allure of stapedectomy may be, in part, the elegant tightrope walk to fix hearing loss along with the anticipation of a surgeon report card that arrives in the form of an audiogram. Although the surgical treatment of otosclerosis has not drastically changed since its description by Shea, otosclerosis and its management remain fertile ground for research, debate, and refinement. Indeed, novel 21st-century diagnoses—such as superior canal dehiscence syndrome; technological refinements, including otoendoscopy; and even inner-ear drug delivery—appear to be viewed in connection to otosclerosis.

Comparative Outcomes of Treatment Options for Patients With Idiopathic Subglottic Stenosis

01-01-2020 – Gelbard A, Anderson C, Berry LD, et al.

Journal Article

This cohort study of 810 patients with idiopathic subglottic stenosis compares the outcomes of the 3 most common surgical treatment procedures: endoscopic dilation, endoscopic resection with adjuvant medication, or cricotracheal resection.

Complicated Blastomycosis of the Skull Base Presenting as Otitis Media

01-01-2020 – Grennan D, Alvi S, Jhaveri MD, et al.

Journal Article

This case report describes a man in his 50s with diabetes mellitus who presented with 2 months of right-sided aural fullness and tinnitus without fever or pain and was subsequently diagnosed with Blastomyces dermatitidis–associated skull base osteomyelitis.

A Painless Retroauricular Mass

01-01-2020 – Itamura K, Swanson M.

Journal Article

A 31-year-old Hispanic woman had a 3-year history of a steadily growing, increasingly pruritic, painless mass behind the right ear. The T1-weighted postcontrast magnetic resonance imaging of the head and neck showed a heterogeneously enhancing mass with irregular borders in the right retroauricular space. What is your diagnosis?

Machine Learning by Ultrasonography for Genetic Risk Stratification

01-01-2020 – Daniels K, Gummadi S, Zhu Z, et al.

Journal Article

This diagnostic study describes an automated machine learning model that uses ultrasonographic images of thyroid lesions to identify and estimate genetic risk or status.

Intractable Cough After Bilateral Tympanostomy Tube Placement

01-01-2020 – Juergens C, Powitzky R.

Journal Article

This case report describes a patient who presented with intractable cough after bilateral tympanostomy tube placement, which resolved after tube removal.

Financial Implications of Site-Neutral Payments for Clinic Visits in Otolaryngology

01-01-2020 – Kondamuri NS, Rathi VK, Naunheim MR, et al.

Journal Article

This cross-sectional study examines the association between site-neutral payment reform and otolaryngologists practicing within the Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment System.

An Unusual Posttraumatic Dysphagia With Special Reference to Cerebellopontine Angle

01-01-2020 – Beucler N, Morvan J, Dagain A.

Journal Article

A woman in her 30s with a medical history of epilepsy and alcohol use disorder who was taking lamotrigine presented with severe head trauma. What is your diagnosis?

Using Confidence Intervals to Quantify Statistical and Clinical Evidence for the Treatment Effect

01-01-2020 – Rabideau DJ, Kim D, Wei L.

Journal Article

This Viewpoint provides additional points that may further enhance proper use and interpretation of the confidence interval for making inference about the treatment effect.

Harms of Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Overdiagnosis—Reply

01-01-2020 – Qian Z, Megwalu UC.

Journal Article

In Reply In our study, we reported that the incidence rate of pediatric thyroid cancer increased more rapidly during 2006 to 2013 than during 1973 to 2006. We proposed that this is likely owing to a combination of enhanced detection and a concurrent true increase in pediatric thyroid cancer incidence based on increased incidences of large tumors and regionally advanced disease. We have read the comments of Murakami et al and wish to address their concerns regarding the interpretation of the later finding.

Harms of Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Overdiagnosis

01-01-2020 – Murakami M, Midorikawa S, Ohtsuru A.

Journal Article

To the Editor We read with interest the article by Qian et al, who reported thyroid cancer incidence among children in the United States. On the basis of similar trends between tumor sizes (0.1-2.0 and >2 cm) and between extent of diseases (localized and regional), they suggested 2 causes of the increase: overdiagnosis, associated with a 2006 recommendation for a similar diagnostic and therapeutic approach in children as in adults by the American Thyroid Association; and environmental risk factors, such as increased exposure to medical radiation. The increase in large-tumor (>2 cm) thyroid cancer is not evidence of a true increase, as ultrasonographic screening of young patients with limited radiation exposure within 3 years after the Fukushima nuclear accident showed that the growth of large-tumor (as large as 5 cm) thyroid cancer was arrested. The increase in regional extended thyroid cancer also does not prove a true increase because of a similar prognosis in adolescents and young adults. Further investigations are warranted to assess associations between thyroid cancer incidence and the number of people screened by sensitive imaging or the rates of fine-needle aspiration biopsies.

A Posterior Neck Mass in a 7-Month-Old Infant

01-01-2020 – Manayan RC, Simmonds JC, Scott AR.

Journal Article

A full-term, 7-month-old male infant presented with a firm, irregularly shaped posterior neck mass; he had been prenatally diagnosed with cerebellar hypoplasia. What is your diagnosis?

Potential Barriers to Timely Access to Pediatric Hearing Aids

01-01-2020 – Zhang L, Links AR, Boss EF, et al.

Journal Article

This cohort study of children who were evaluated and fitted for hearing aids at a large urban tertiary care center explores the associations of sociodemographic and clinical factors with access to pediatric hearing aids.

Vocal Fold Mass in a Middle-aged Woman

01-01-2020 – Howell J, King C, Wiles A, et al.

Journal Article

A 45-year-old woman with a history of a left vocal fold polyp presented with hoarseness. What is your diagnosis?

Cochlear Implant Surgery

01-01-2020 – Mowry SE, Woodson E.

Journal Article

This Patient Page describes the use of cochlear implantation for treatment of hearing loss.

Giant Pituitary Adenoma With Inferior Petrosal Sinus, Jugular Foramen, and Hypoglossal Canal Extension

01-01-2020 – Kuo AH, Nuñez DB.

Journal Article

This case report describes a patient who presented with morbid obesity, progressive headache, double vision, and blurry vision, and was diagnosed with a pituitary adenoma.

Preoperative Risk Index Among Patients Undergoing Thyroid or Parathyroid Surgery

01-01-2020 – Mascarella M, Milad D, Richardson K, et al.

Journal Article

This cohort study uses data from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program to develop and compare preoperative risk indices to determine factors associated with short-term major postoperative adverse events in patients undergoing thyroid or parathyroid surgery.