Journal of Laryngology and Otology

Journal of Laryngology and Otology

Most cited manuscripts and rate of second lung primaries in head and neck cancer

15-11-2019 – Fishman, Jonathan,Hussain, Musheer,Fisher, Edward

A comprehensive review of otorhinolaryngological global health concerns

21-10-2019 – Murphy, Declan C

Journal Article

Background
ENT disease prevalence, risk factors and treatment vary between developed and developing countries. Health provision, particularly disease prevention strategies and surgery, in developing countries is poor, manifesting as a high frequency of common and preventable diseases. Healthcare systems in developing countries are unsustainable, and the technological advances that provide ENT surgery with novel diagnostic and treatment opportunities are inaccessible.
Conclusion
A multifaceted approach is essential to improve the care of patients with ENT diseases in developing countries. Public health efforts must focus on educating the local community, reducing high-risk behaviours and decreasing the frequency of preventable diseases. Governments must be pressured to prioritise the funding of long-term, sustainable efforts with effective disease prevention strategies. Providing local healthcare professionals with high-quality ENT training so that self-sustaining and low-cost care can be delivered, mainly in a primary care setting, is key.

The 100 most cited manuscripts in head and neck cancer: a bibliometric analysis

31-10-2019 – Chu, T S M,Kwok, H T,Chan, J,Tse, F Y F

Journal Article

Objective
This study aimed to highlight the key studies that have led to the current understanding and treatment of head and neck cancer.
Method
The Thomson Reuters Web of Science database was used to identify relevant manuscripts. The results were ranked according to the number of citations. The 100 most cited papers were analysed.
Results
A total of 63 538 eligible papers were returned. The median number of citations was 626. The most cited paper compared radiotherapy with and without cetuximab (3205 citations). The New England Journal of Medicine had the most citations (23 514), and the USA had the greatest number of publications (n = 66). The most common topics of publication were the treatment (n = 45) and basic science (n = 19) of head and neck cancer, followed by the role of human papillomavirus (n = 16).
Conclusion
This analysis highlighted key articles that influenced head and neck cancer research and treatment. It serves as a guide as to what makes a ‘citable’ paper in this field.

Blunt neck trauma at a level I trauma centre: six-year retrospective case note review

14-10-2019 – Zakaria, B A,Muzaffar, J,Orr, L E,Coulson, C J,Sharma, N

Journal Article

Background
Blunt neck trauma can cause serious morbidity and mortality rates of up to 40 per cent, but there is a paucity of literature on the topic.
Method
A retrospective case note review was performed for all blunt neck trauma cases managed at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham between 1st January 2011 and 31st December 2017.
Results
Seventeen cases were managed, with no mortality and limited morbidity. Most patients were male (70.6 per cent) and road traffic accidents were the most common cause of injury (41.2 per cent). The median age of patients was 40.6 years (range, 21.5–70.3 years). Multidetector computed tomography angiography of the neck was performed in 9 patients (52.9 per cent) with ‘hot’ reports made by on-duty radiology staff matching consultant reports in all but 1 case. Six patients underwent operative exploration yielding a negative exploration rate of 33.3 per cent. Imaging reports matched operative findings in 3 cases (60 per cent).
Conclusion
Blunt neck trauma is uncommon but usually presents in polytrauma. Imaging has inaccuracies when compared with operative findings, regardless of radiological experience.

Magnetic resonance imaging for vestibular schwannoma: cost-effective protocol for referrals

22-10-2019 – Mettias, B A D,Lyons, M

Journal Article

Objective
Vestibular schwannoma is the most common neoplasm in the cerebellopontine angle, and fast spin-echo T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging is the most sensitive test for diagnosing it. This study evaluated the financial and time costs of unnecessary magnetic resonance imaging referrals before and after the application of a magnetic resonance imaging protocol.
Method
A full audit cycle was used for the assessment. The first cycle in January 2012 was retrospective and evaluated the financial impact of current selection criteria for magnetic resonance imaging referral against standard guidelines. The second cycle in January 2014 was prospective after implementation of the protocol.
Results
There were 46 and 112 patients who had magnetic resonance imaging during first and second cycle, respectively. Of the referrals for magnetic resonance imaging, 65 per cent versus 81 per cent of the referrals were appropriate in the first and second cycles, respectively. The relative risk was reduced from 0.5 to 0.2. The waiting times for magnetic resonance imaging scans improved.
Conclusion
Selection criteria for magnetic resonance imaging referral are important in reducing waiting times for scans, patient anxiety and conserving trust resources.

Long-term quality of life in patients with vestibular schwannoma managed with microsurgery

31-10-2019 – Santa Maria, C,Santa Maria, P L,Bulsara, V,Jayawardena, J,Caldow, J D,Png, L H,Atlas, M D

Journal Article

Objective
Little is known about the long term (greater than 10 years) quality of life in patients with vestibular schwannoma. This study aimed to evaluate long-term outcomes in patients with vestibular schwannoma.
Method
A retrospective cohort study was performed across 2 academic institutions, with patients followed at least 10 years after vestibular schwannoma surgery (2000 to 2007). Telephone interviews were used to assess quality of life using the Glasgow Benefit Inventory and short form 12 item (version 2) health survey.
Results
A total of 99 out of 110 patients were included. Increasing age and symptom burden were associated with poorer quality of life (p = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively). The presence of imbalance, headache and facial nerve dysfunction were all associated with poorer quality of life scores (p = 0.01, 0.04 and 0.02, respectively).
Conclusion
Identifying and managing post-operative symptoms may improve quality of life in vestibular schwannoma patients and can guide clinical decision making.

Improving clinical undergraduate experience in otolaryngology: an audit of practice

31-10-2019 – Mayer, A W,Carrie, S

Journal Article

Background
Otolaryngology is under-represented in UK medical schools. This presents challenges in terms of exposing students to the diversity of otolaryngology, as well as ‘showcasing’ the specialty as a career option. This study aimed to audit the impact of a change in the delivery of final year tuition on student satisfaction.
Method
Participants were final year medical students completing a 2-day otolaryngology placement. A novel teaching programme was developed in response to feedback from students who completed a baseline teaching programme. The novel programme was evaluated over a 10-week period using questionnaires.
Results
Fifty-eight participants completed the novel programme questionnaire. Overall, there was a positive impact on student satisfaction. Students completing the novel programme expressed a desire for increased otolaryngology placement.
Conclusion
This approach is an effective means of teaching otolaryngology to undergraduates. A mutual desire for greater exposure to otolaryngology in the undergraduate curriculum is held by medical students and otolaryngologists.

Feasibility of ovine and synthetic temporal bone models for simulation training in endoscopic ear surgery

16-10-2019 – Okhovat, S,Milner, T D,Iyer, A

Journal Article

Objective
Comparing the feasibility of ovine and synthetic temporal bones for simulating endoscopic ear surgery against the ‘gold standard’ of human cadaveric tissue.
Methods
A total of 10 candidates (5 trainees and 5 experts) performed endoscopic tympanoplasty on 3 models: Pettigrew temporal bones, ovine temporal bones and cadaveric temporal bones. Candidates completed a questionnaire assessing the face validity, global content validity and task-specific content validity of each model.
Results
Regarding ovine temporal bone validity, the median values were 4 (interquartile range = 4–4) for face validity, 4 (interquartile range = 4–4) for global content validity and 4 (interquartile range = 4–4) for task-specific content validity. For the Pettigrew temporal bone, the median values were 3.5 (interquartile range = 2.25–4) for face validity, 3 (interquartile range = 2.75–3) for global content validity and 3 (interquartile range = 2.5–3) for task-specific content validity. The ovine temporal bone was considered significantly superior to the Pettigrew temporal bone for the majority of validity categories assessed.
Conclusion
Tympanoplasty is feasible in both the ovine temporal bone and the Pettigrew temporal bone. However, the ovine model was a significantly more realistic simulation tool.

Second primary lung cancer following laryngeal cancer: retrospective study of incidence and multivariate analysis of risk factors in 209 patients

31-10-2019 – Adams, M,Gray, G,Kelly, A,Toner, F,Ullah, R

Journal Article

Objective
To analyse the incidence of second primary lung cancer following treatment for laryngeal cancer and to identify risk factors for its development.
Method
Retrospective case series.
Results
The five-year actuarial incidence of second primary lung cancer was 8 per cent (1.6 per cent per year). This was associated with a very poor median survival of seven months following diagnosis. Supraglottic tumours were associated with an increased risk of second primary lung cancer compared to glottic tumours in both univariate (hazard ratio = 4.32, p = 0.005) and multivariate analyses (hazard ratio = 4.14, p = 0.03).
Conclusion
Second primary lung cancer occurs at a rate of 1.6 per cent per year following a diagnosis of laryngeal cancer, and this is associated in a statistically significant manner with supraglottic primary tumour. The recent National Lung Cancer Screening Trial suggests a survival advantage of 20 per cent at five years with annual screening using low-dose computed tomography scanning of the chest in a comparable cohort to ours. These findings have the potential to inform post-treatment surveillance protocols in the future.

Supra-auricular and post-auricular resection of pre-auricular and post-auricular sinuses

21-10-2019 – Ding, H,Xie, H,Qiao, F,Wang, T,Huang, X,Ning, Q

Journal Article

Objective
This study aimed to classify the pre-auricular sinus before performing radical dissection, so as to achieve optimal aesthetic results.
Methods
The recent five-year clinical data of 53 patients with a congenital pre-auricular sinus and infection treated in the hospital were reviewed. According to the sinus course, pre-auricular and post-auricular types were defined, and regional dissection was performed using the modified supra-auricular or post-auricular approach.
Results
All patients achieved primary intention healing of the incision, and were followed up for six months to five years. No recurrence was found, and the incision scar was completely concealed.
Conclusion
Surgical approaches for regional dissection might be adopted based on the different types of pre-auricular sinuses, and further radical dissection might be performed to achieve optimal aesthetic results.

Surgeon-performed intubation in awake patients utilising an anterior commissure laryngoscope with bougie: a retrospective case series

31-10-2019 – Vasan, N R,Kosik, E,Collins, B,Clampitt, M

Journal Article

Objective
This retrospective case series examined the outcomes of surgeon-performed intubation using the anterior commissure rigid laryngoscope and bougie in adults with a difficult airway, including awake patients.
Methods
This study comprised a series of adult patients who underwent surgeon-performed intubation over a 10-year period. They were identified by a records search for the Current Procedural Terminology (‘CPT’) code 31500 – ‘intubation by surgeon’.
Results
Forty-nine intubations performed in the operating theatre were reviewed. Intubation performed by the surgeon using the rigid anterior commissure laryngoscope was successful in 47 of the cases (96 per cent). Over half of the patients had experienced failed intubation attempts with other methods by other providers prior to the surgeon performing direct laryngoscopy. Twenty intubations were performed without paralytics and with the patient awake.
Conclusion
In properly selected adults who need an urgent, secure airway in the operating theatre, surgeon-performed anterior commissure laryngoscopic intubation using a bougie should be considered a safe, reliable procedure. In most cases, this procedure can be performed in selected patients whilst awake, with sedation.

Clinical landmarks in chronic otitis media with tympanosclerosis: clinical history may have predictive value in the diagnosis of ossicular chain mobility

31-10-2019 – Dinç, A E,Kumbul, Y Ç

Journal Article

Objectives
To evaluate clinical characteristics of tympanosclerosis and to investigate the predictive value of clinical evaluation in diagnosing the ossicular chain status in tympanosclerosis.
Methods
The study included 166 ears operated on for chronic otitis media. Age, gender, duration of symptoms and history of ear drainage were recorded from the patients file. Details of ossicular mobility were obtained from the operation records.
Results
There was no difference in age or disease duration between ears with chronic otitis media with or without tympanosclerosis. The ears with chronic otitis media without tympanosclerosis had a higher rate of middle-ear suppuration compared to those with tympanosclerosis (p < 0.001). In chronic otitis media with tympanosclerosis, the ears with a mobile ossicular chain had a higher rate of active drainage in their clinical history compared to ears with a fixed ossicular chain (p = 0.026). Stapes fixation was present mostly in dry ears with tympanosclerosis (p = 0.005).
Conclusion
Chronic otitis media with tympanosclerosis is characterised by the long-term absence of suppurations. The probability of having a fixed ossicular chain or stapes was higher in tympanosclerosis cases with no ear drainage.

Effect of chronic suppurative otitis media on distortion product otoacoustic emission input–output functions in conventional and ultra-high frequencies

21-10-2019 – Kirubaharane, S I,Palani, S,Alexander, A,Sreenivasan, A

Journal Article

Background
Detection and valid measurements of distortion product otoacoustic emissions are not influenced by cochlear status alone, but also by middle-ear status. There is a need to understand the use of ultra-high frequency distortion product otoacoustic emissions in cases of abnormal distortion product otoacoustic emission findings for conventional frequencies related to the middle-ear condition.
Method
The present study investigated distortion product otoacoustic emission input–output functions in conventional and ultra-high frequencies in: 37 adults with chronic suppurative otitis media (clinical group) and 37 adults with normal hearing sensitivity (control group).
Results
There were significant reductions in distortion product otoacoustic emission amplitude and mean signal-to-noise ratio in the clinical group compared to the control group, especially for conventional frequencies.
Conclusion
There was a significant reduction in the rate of ears with measurable distortion product otoacoustic emissions in the clinical group, especially for conventional frequencies. The effect of chronic suppurative otitis media was more pronounced in the conventional frequency range compared to the smaller effect seen in the ultra-high frequency range.

“Potts puffy tumour: innovative technique in calvarial reconstruction”

07-10-2019 – Mettias, B,Dow, G,Srinivasan, D,Ramakrishnan, Y

English Abstract, Journal Article

Background
Potts puffy tumour is a rare complication of sinusitis. This osteomyelitis can affect the outer and inner tables of the frontal sinus. The treatment of Potts puffy tumour combines medical and surgical approaches. Surgical approaches have traditionally been open, but endoscopic techniques have been adopted recently in select cases. The bony defect from debridement can be left alone, or closed with autografts or allografts.
Objective
To describe a technique for the reconstruction of a large skull vault after the debridement of extensive osteomyelitis of the anterior cranial vault.
Methods
Modified distraction osteogenesis is used in the cranial vault, to induce new bone formation. This is customarily used to lengthen long bones. The advantages of this technique include avoiding autologous grafts or alloplastic cranioplasty in the infected surgical bed, and allowing primary closure.
Results
Early post-operative imaging results have been encouraging, with no reported complications.
Conclusion
Modified distraction osteogenesis is a novel technique in the primary reconstruction of calvarial bone.

The role of narrow-band imaging in parathyroid surgery: a preliminary evaluation in five parathyroid adenoma cases

18-10-2019 – Saibene, A M,Bulfamante, A M,Lozza, P,De Pasquale, L

Journal Article

Background
Narrow-band imaging uses selective haemoglobin light absorption to emphasise vascular visualisation and capillary networks.
Objective
This study aimed to evaluate the application of this technique to parathyroid surgery.
Method
This preliminary evaluation was carried out on five consecutive patients with single parathyroid adenoma being considered for minimally invasive video-assisted parathyroidectomy. The adenomas were checked for narrow-band imaging vascular patterns. Minimally invasive video-assisted parathyroidectomy was then carried out in accordance with our standard protocol.
Results
In four out of the five cases, narrow-band imaging integrated the white endoscopic light and direct vision, but in one case narrow-band imaging allowed distinction between the hidden neoplastic tissue and the surrounding structures thanks to the different vascular patterns.
Conclusion
Narrow-band imaging was helpful in properly identifying adenoma. It is suggested that this technique be considered as a means for surgeons to improve their confidence in selected surgical treatments and to improve treatment quality.

Gauging the effectiveness of canal occlusion surgery: how I do it

31-10-2019 – Hassannia, F,Douglas-Jones, P,Rutka, J A

Journal Article

Background
Transmastoid occlusion of the posterior or superior semicircular canal is an effective and safe management option in patients with refractory benign paroxysmal positional vertigo or symptomatic superior semicircular canal dehiscence. A method of quantifying successful canal occlusion surgery is described.
Methods
This paper presents representative patients with intractable benign paroxysmal positional vertigo or symptomatic superior semicircular canal dehiscence, who underwent transmastoid occlusion of the posterior or superior semicircular canal respectively. Vestibular function was assessed pre- and post-operatively. The video head impulse test was included as a measure of semicircular canal and vestibulo-ocular reflex functions.
Results
Post-operative video head impulse testing showed reduced vestibulo-ocular reflex gain in occluded canals. Gain remained normal in the non-operated canals. Post-operative audiometry demonstrated no change in hearing in the benign paroxysmal positional vertigo patient and slight hearing improvement in the superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome patient.
Conclusion
Transmastoid occlusion of the posterior or superior semicircular canal is effective and safe for treating troublesome benign paroxysmal positional vertigo or symptomatic superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Post-operative video head impulse testing demonstrating a reduction in vestibulo-ocular reflex gain can reliably confirm successful occlusion of the canal and is a useful adjunct in post-operative evaluation.

Outcomes in two patients with vocal fold palsy who underwent revision arytenoid adduction surgery

07-10-2019 – Matsushima, K,Matsui, H,Ohira, S,Matsuura, K

Journal Article

Objective
This study investigated the position of adduction thread attachment, pulling direction and fixation position in revision arytenoid adduction surgery performed in two patients with left vocal fold palsy in whom satisfactory speech improvement had not been obtained by arytenoid adduction and type 1 thyroplasty.
Methods
Revision arytenoid adduction surgery was performed with the vocal fold in the midline position in both cases. A type 1 thyroplasty procedure was subsequently added in one case because of worsened quality of speech following arytenoid adduction.
Results and conclusion
Although the arytenoid adduction procedure is conceptually well established, there is still room for debate concerning the actual surgical procedures used. The technique described in this report is effective, suggesting that it is worthy of recognition as an index procedure.

Obesity and Voice A-L Hamdan, R T Sataloff, M J Hawkshaw Plural Publishing, 2019 ISBN 978 1 63550 258 9 pp 400 Price US$ 149.95

18-07-2019 – Flood, L M

“Proceedings of the 154th Semon Club, 26 November 2018, ENT Department, Guys and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK”

05-11-2019 – Pai, Irumee,Chevretton, Elfy B,Haikel, Sherif,Sandison, Ann,Connor, Steve,Siddiqui, Ata

JLO volume 133 issue 11 Cover and Front matter

15-11-2019 –

JLO volume 133 issue 11 Cover and Back matter

15-11-2019 –