American Journal of Sports Medicine

American Journal of Sports Medicine

Out of Control

27-11-2019 – Braden C. Fleming

Editorial

Presidential Address of the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine: Journey to Excellence—Lessons From Our Mentors

27-11-2019 – Neal S. ElAttrache

Journal Article

Thank You, Reviewers!

27-11-2019 –

The Association Between Tibial Slope and Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Patients ≤21 Years Old: A Matched Case-Control Study Including 317 Revisions

21-10-2019 – Joseph D. Cooper,Wei Wang,Heather A. Prentice,Tadashi T. Funahashi,Gregory B. Maletis

Journal Article

There is evidence that tibial slope may play a role in revision risk after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR); however, prior studies are inconsistent. To determine (1) whether there is a difference in lateral tibial posterior slope (LTPS) or medial tibial posterior slope (MTPS) between patients undergoing revised ACLR and those not requiring revision and (2) whether the medial-to-lateral slope difference is different between these 2 groups. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. We conducted a matched case-control study (2006-2015). Cases were patients aged ≤21 years who underwent revision surgery after primary unilateral ACLR; controls were patients aged ≤21 years without revision who were identified from the same source population. Controls were matched to cases by age, sex, body mass index, race, graft type, femoral fixation device, and post-ACLR follow-up time. Tibial slope measurements were made by a single blinded reviewer using magnetic resonance imaging. The Wilcoxon signed rank test and Mc
Nemar test were used for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. No difference was observed between revised and nonrevised ACLR groups for LTPS (median: 6° vs 6°, We failed to observe an association between revision ACLR surgery and LTPS, MTPS, or medial-to-lateral slope difference. However, there was a greater proportion of patients in the revision ACLR group with an LTPS ≥12°, suggesting that a minority of patients who have more extreme values of LTPS have a higher revision risk after primary ACLR. A future cohort study evaluating the angle that best differentiates patients at highest risk for revision is needed.

Return to Play and Long-term Participation in Pivoting Sports After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

21-10-2019 – Line Lindanger,Torbjørn Strand,Anders Odd Mølster,Eirik Solheim,Eivind Inderhaug

Journal Article

Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a common and feared injury among athletes because of its potential effect on further sports participation. Reported rates of return to pivoting sports after ACL reconstruction (ACLR) vary in the literature, and the long-term consequences of returning have rarely been studied. To examine the rate and level of return to pivoting sports after ACLR, the duration of sports participation, and long-term consequences of returning to pivoting sports. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. All primary ACLRs with a bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft between 1987 and 1994 (N = 234) in athletes participating in team handball, basketball, or soccer before injury were selected from a single-center quality database. A long-term evaluation (median, 25 years; range, 22-30 years) was performed using a questionnaire focusing on return to pivoting sports, the duration of sports activity after surgery, later contralateral ACL injuries, revision surgery, and knee replacement surgery. Participants were stratified into 2 groups depending on the time between injury and surgery (early, <24 months; late, ≥24 months). A total of 93% of patients (n = 217) responded to the questionnaire. Although 83% of patients returned to pivoting sports after early ACLR, only 53% returned to preinjury level. Similar return-to-sport rates were observed in males and females ( ACLR does not necessarily enable a return to preinjury sports participation. By returning to pivoting sports after ACLR, athletes are also facing a high risk of contralateral ACL injuries. Long-term evaluations in risk assessments after ACLR are important, as a significant number of subsequent ACL injuries occur later than the routine follow-up.

Risk Factors Associated With a Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury to the Contralateral Knee After Unilateral Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in High School and College Female Athletes: A Prospective Study

05-11-2019 – Annabelle P. Davey,Pamela M. Vacek,Ryan A. Caldwell,James R. Slauterbeck,Mack G. Gardner-Morse,Timothy W. Tourville,Bruce D. Beynnon

Journal Article

The incidence of contralateral anterior cruciate ligament (CACL) injuries after recovery from a first-time anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) disruption is high in women; however, little is known about the risk factors associated with this trauma. Patient characteristics, strength, anatomic alignment, and neuromuscular characteristics of the contralateral uninjured leg at the time of the first ACL trauma are associated with risk of subsequent CACL injury, and these risk factors are distinct from those for a first-time ACL injury. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Sixty-one women who suffered a first-time noncontact ACL injury while participating in high school or college sports and underwent measurement of potential risk factors on their contralateral limb soon after the initial ACL injury and before reconstruction were followed until either a CACL injury or an ACL graft injury occurred, or until the last date of contact. Follow-up information was available for 55 (90.0%) of the 61 athletes and 11 (20.0%) suffered a CACL injury. Younger age, decreased participation in sport before the first ACL disruption, decreased anterior stiffness of the contralateral knee, and increased hip anteversion were associated with increases in the risk of suffering a CACL injury. A portion of CACL injury risk factors were modifiable (time spent participating in sport and increasing anterior knee stiffness with bracing), while others were nonmodifiable (younger age and increased hip anteversion). The relationship between younger age at the time of an initial ACL injury and increased risk of subsequent CACL trauma may be explained by younger athletes having more years available to be exposed to at-risk activities compared with older athletes. A decrease of anterior stiffness of the knee is linked to decreased material properties and width of the ACL, and this may explain why some women are predisposed to bilateral ACL trauma while others only suffer the index injury. The risk factors for CACL injury are unique to women who suffer bilateral ACL trauma compared with those who suffer unilateral ACL trauma. This information is important for the identification of athletes who may benefit from risk reduction interventions.

Combined Transphyseal and Lateral Extra-articular Pediatric Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Novel Technique to Reduce ACL Reinjury While Allowing for Growth

06-11-2019 – Philip L. Wilson,Charles W. Wyatt,K. John Wagner,Nathan Boes,Meagan J. Sabatino,Henry B. Ellis

Journal Article

Treatment of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in the adolescent population continues to be complicated by an unacceptably high rate of secondary ACL injury. To describe the failure rate and outcomes after a hybrid pediatric ACL reconstruction (ACLR) employing transphyseal hamstring (TPH) autograft combined with an extra-articular technique using an iliotibial band (ITB) autograft. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Consecutive patients undergoing combined TPH-ITB ACLR between January 2012 and April 2017 with a minimum 2-year follow-up were reviewed. With the goal of decreasing ACL graft injury in this high-risk group, this technique employed anteromedial portal drilling for TPH with an extraosseous femoral ITB technique and intra-articular TPH-ITB grafts fixed within the tibial bone tunnel. Demographics, bone age, standing alignment radiograph for growth and mechanical axis grade, return to sport, graft failure, and patient-reported outcome measures were analyzed. A total of 61 knees in 60 adolescents underwent the combined TPH-ITB ACLR, with 57 knees (93.4%) meeting inclusion criteria with a mean follow-up of 38.5 months (range, 24-78 months). Only 3 of 57 knees (5.3%) sustained ACL reinjury. The mean age was 13.0 years (range, 11-16 years) with 36 male patients (mean bone age, 14.2 years) and 21 female patients (mean bone age, 13.3 years), and 91% of patients (52 of 57) returned to sport. Participants demonstrated a high functional level at final follow-up, with a mean score of 91.2 (range, 46.7-100) on the Pediatric International Knee Documentation Committee (Pedi-IKDC) Subjective Knee Evaluation Form and mean score of 22.4 (range, 4-30) on the Pediatric Functional Activity Brief Scale (Pedi-FABS). To critically assess growth, a cohort with ≥18 months of growth remaining at surgery was evaluated at maturity. No difference was seen in mean operative and nonoperative leg growth (49.7 mm and 49.8 mm). Although no family reported cosmetic or functional alignment or length concerns, 1 of 18 (5.5%) had a final limb length discrepancy >10 mm (12 mm) and a perioperative alignment difference (0-Grade II valgus). Combined TPH-ITB ACLR in adolescents resulted in high activity levels (Pedi-FABS, 22.4; median, 25) and a low (5.3%) graft failure rate at a mean 38.5 months.

The Femoral Footprint Position of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Might Be a Predisposing Factor to a Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture

24-10-2019 – Dimitris Dimitriou,Zhongzheng Wang,Diyang Zou,Tsung-Yuan Tsai,Naeder Helmy

Journal Article

Although the femoral tunnel position is crucial to anatomic single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, the recommendations for the ideal femoral footprint position are mostly based on cadaveric studies with small sample sizes, elderly patients with unknown ACL status, and 2-dimensional techniques. Furthermore, a potential difference in the femoral ACL footprint position and ACL orientation between ACL-ruptured and ACL-intact knees has not been reported in the literature. The femoral ACL footprint position and ACL orientation vary significantly between ACL-ruptured and matched control ACL-intact knees. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Magnetic resonance images of the knees of 90 patients with an ACL rupture and 90 matched control participants who had a noncontact knee injury without an ACL rupture were used to create 3-dimensional models of the femur and tibia. The ACL footprints were outlined on each model, and their positions (normalized to the lateral condyle width) as well as ACL orientations were measured with an anatomic coordinate system. The femoral ACL footprint in patients with an ACL rupture was located at 36.6% posterior and 11.2% distal to the flexion-extension axis (FEA). The ACL orientation was 46.9° in the sagittal plane, 70.3° in the coronal plane, and 20.8° in the transverse plane. The ACL-ruptured group demonstrated a femoral ACL footprint position that was 11.0% more posterior and 7.7% more proximal than that of the control group (all The ACL femoral footprint position might be a predisposing factor to an ACL rupture. Patients with a >30% posterior and <12% distal position of the femoral ACL footprint from the FEA might have a 51.2-times increased risk of an ACL rupture.

Biomechanical Effects of Additional Anterolateral Structure Reconstruction With Different Femoral Attachment Sites on Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

28-10-2019 – Mai Katakura,Hideyuki Koga,Tomomasa Nakamura,Daisuke Araki,Kanto Nagai,Kyohei Nishida,Ryosuke Kuroda,Takeshi Muneta

Journal Article

Recently reported anterolateral structure reconstructions (ALSRs) to augment intra-articular anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) use various femoral attachment sites, and their biomechanical effects are still unknown. ALSR concomitant with ACLR would control anterolateral rotational instability better than ACLR alone, and if ALSR had different femoral attachment sites, there would be different effects on its control of anterolateral rotational instability. Controlled laboratory study. Twelve fresh-frozen hemipelvis lower limbs were included. Anterior tibial translation during the Lachman test and tibial acceleration during the pivot-shift test were measured with a 3-dimensional electromagnetic measurement system in situations with the (1) ACL and ALS intact, (2) ACL and ALS cut, (3) ALSR without ACLR (ALSR alone), (4) ACLR without ALSR (ACLR alone), and (5) ALSR with ACLR. Three femoral attachment sites were used for ALSR: F1, 2 mm anterior and 2 mm distal to the lateral epicondyle; F2, 4 mm posterior and 8 mm proximal to the lateral epicondyle; and F3, over-the-top position for the lateral extra-articular tenodesis. The Steel test and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used for statistical analysis. Anterior tibial translation during the Lachman test in the ACL and ALS-cut state was significantly larger than it was in the ACL and ALS-intact state, while its difference disappeared after ACLR. As for the pivot-shift test, additional ALSR with F2 to ACLR significantly decreased the acceleration ( ALSR with the femoral attachment site 4 mm posterior and 8 mm proximal to the lateral epicondyle in addition to ACLR played a role in reducing anterolateral rotational instability the most effectively among the measured attachment sites. The present data will contribute to determine the appropriate femoral attachment site for ALSR to better control anterolateral rotational instability after ACL reconstruction.

The Anterolateral Structure of the Knee Does Not Affect Anterior and Dynamic Rotatory Stability in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury: Quantitative Evaluation With the Electromagnetic Measurement System

28-10-2019 – Daisuke Araki,Takehiko Matsushita,Yuichi Hoshino,Kanto Nagai,Kyohei Nishida,Hideyuki Koga,Tomomasa Nakamura,Mai Katakura,Takeshi Muneta,Ryosuke Kuroda

Journal Article

The biomechanical function of the anterolateral structure (ALS), which includes the anterolateral joint capsule and anterolateral ligament (ALL), remains a topic of debate. The ALS contributes to knee joint stability during the Lachman test and the pivot-shift test in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knees. Controlled laboratory study. Fourteen fresh-frozen hemipelvis lower limbs were used. For 7 specimens, the anterior one-third of the ALS and the residual ALS were cut intra-articularly with a radiofrequency device. Subsequently, the ACL was cut arthroscopically. For the other 7 specimens, the ACL was cut first, followed by the anterior one-third of the ALS and the residual ALS intra-articularly. During the procedures, the iliotibial band (ITB) was kept intact. At each condition, the anterior tibial translation (ATT) during the manual Lachman test and the acceleration of posterior tibial translation (APT) and the posterior tibial translation (PTT) during the manual pivot-shift test were measured quantitatively with an electromagnetic measurement system. The mean values of those parameters were compared among 6 groups (ACL intact, one-third ALS cut, all ALS cut, ACL cut, ACL/one-third ALS cut, and ACL/all ALS cut). The mean ATTs during the Lachman test and the mean APTs and PTTs in the ACL-cut conditions (ACL cut, ACL/one-third ALS cut, and ACL/all ALS cut) were significantly larger than those under the ACL-intact conditions (ACL intact, one-third ALS cut, all ALS cut) ( Intra-articular dissection of the ALS did not increase the ATT during the Lachman test or the APT and PTT during the pivot-shift test under the intact condition of the ITB, regardless of the integrity of the ACL. When the ITB is intact, the ALS does not have a significant role in either anterior or dynamic rotatory knee stability, while the ACL does. Recent growing interest about ALL reconstruction or ALS augmentation may not have a large role in controlling either anterior or dynamic rotatory knee instability in isolated ACL-deficient knees.

Incidence and Healing Rates of Meniscal Tears in Patients Undergoing Repair During the First Stage of 2-Stage Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

06-11-2019 – Nicholas N. DePhillipo,Travis J. Dekker,Zachary S. Aman,David Bernholt,W. Jeffrey Grantham,Robert F. LaPrade

Journal Article

Meniscal tears, including tears at the root attachment, have been associated with tears of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in both primary and revision settings. However, there is a paucity of literature reporting the healing rates of meniscal repair during 2-stage revision ACL reconstruction (ACLR). To evaluate the healing rates of meniscal repairs performed during 2-stage revision ACLR in ACL-deficient knees and to report the incidence of meniscus root tears in patients undergoing primary ACLR as compared with revision ACLR. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Patients who underwent primary and revision ACLR by a single surgeon were retrospectively identified. Revision ACLRs were grouped according to 1- or 2-stage ACLR. Meniscal tears were grouped according to laterality (medial, lateral) and location of tears. Meniscal repair technique was recorded, including transtibial or inside-out. Meniscal repair healing was assessed via second-look arthroscopy at the time of second-stage revision ACLR. There were 1168 patients identified who underwent ACLR: 851 primary and 317 revision procedures. Sixty-four patients underwent meniscal repair during first-stage bone grafting in ACL-deficient knees, with an overall healing rate of 86%. The healing rates were 82.3% for meniscus root tears via the transtibial repair technique and 92.4% for meniscal peripheral tears via the inside-out repair technique. Meniscus root tears had overall incidences of 15.5% and 26.2% in primary and revision ACLRs, respectively. The incidence of lateral meniscus posterior root tears was approximately 4 times higher than of medial meniscus posterior root tears in both primary (12.2% vs 3.2%) and revision (20.5% vs 5.6%) ACLRs. A high incidence of meniscus root tears was found in patients undergoing revision ACLRs as compared with primary ACLRs. Meniscal repairs have a high rate of healing and success when performed during the first stage of revision ACLR in ACL-deficient knees.

Point-of-Care Procedure for Enhancement of Meniscal Healing in a Goat Model Utilizing Infrapatellar Fat Pad–Derived Stromal Vascular Fraction Cells Seeded in Photocrosslinkable Hydrogel

23-10-2019 – Benjamin B. Rothrauff,Hiroshi Sasaki,Shinsuke Kihara,Kalon J. Overholt,Riccardo Gottardi,Hang Lin,Freddie H. Fu,Rocky S. Tuan,Peter G. Alexander

Journal Article

Large radial tears of the meniscus involving the avascular region can compromise meniscal function and result in poor healing and subsequent osteochondral degeneration. Augmentation of surgical repairs with adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF), which contains mesenchymal stromal cells, may improve meniscal healing and preserve function (ie, chondroprotection). (1) To develop a goat model of a radial meniscal tear with resulting osteoarthritis and (2) to explore the efficacy of a 1-step procedure utilizing infrapatellar fat pad-derived SVF cells seeded in a photocrosslinkable hydrogel to enhance meniscal healing and mitigate osteochondral degeneration. Controlled laboratory study. A full-thickness radial tear spanning 90% of the medial meniscal width was made at the junction of the anterior and middle bodies of the goat stifle joint. Tears received 1 of 3 interventions (n = 4 per group): untreated, repair, or repair augmented with photocrosslinkable methacrylated gelatin hydrogel containing 2.0 × 10 When compared with tears left untreated or repaired with suture alone, augmented repairs demonstrated increased tissue formation in the meniscal tear site, as seen on MRI and macroscopically. Likewise, the neotissue of augmented repairs possessed a histological appearance more similar, although still inferior, to healthy meniscus. Osteochondral degeneration in the medial compartment, as evaluated by the Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score and Inoue (macroscopic) scale, revealed increased degeneration in the untreated and repair groups, which was mitigated in the augmented repair group. Histological evaluation with a modified Mankin score showed a similar trend. In all measures of osteochondral degeneration, the augmented repair group did not differ significantly from the uninjured control. A radial tear spanning 90% of the medial meniscal width in a goat stifle joint showed poor healing potential and resulted in osteochondral degeneration by 6 months, even if suture repair was performed. Augmentation of the repair with a photocrosslinkable hydrogel containing transforming growth factor β3 and SVF cells, isolated intraoperatively by rapid enzymatic digestion, improved meniscal healing and mitigated osteoarthritic changes. Repair augmentation with an SVF cell-seeded hydrogel may support successful repair of meniscal tears previously considered irreparable.

A 10% Increase in Step Rate Improves Running Kinematics and Clinical Outcomes in Runners With Patellofemoral Pain at 4 Weeks and 3 Months

28-10-2019 – Christopher Bramah,Stephen J. Preece,Niamh Gill,Lee Herrington

Journal Article

Aberrant frontal-plane hip and pelvis kinematics have been frequently observed in runners with patellofemoral pain (PFP). Gait retaining interventions have been shown to improve running kinematics and may therefore be beneficial in runners with PFP. To investigate whether a 10% increase in the running step rate influences frontal-plane kinematics of the hip and pelvis as well as clinical outcomes in runners with PFP. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Runners with PFP underwent a 3-dimensional gait analysis to confirm the presence of aberrant frontal-plane hip and/or pelvis kinematics at baseline. A total of 12 participants with frontal-plane hip and/or pelvis kinematics 1 standard deviation above a reference database were invited to undergo the gait retraining intervention. Running kinematics along with clinical outcomes of pain and functional outcomes were recorded at baseline, 4 weeks after retraining, and 3 months. Gait retraining consisted of a single session where step rate was increased by 10% using an audible metronome. Participants were asked to continue their normal running while self-monitoring their step rate using a global positioning system smartwatch and audible metronome. After gait retraining, significant improvements in running kinematics and clinical outcomes were observed at 4-week and 3-month follow-up. Repeated-measures analysis of variance with post hoc Bonferroni correction ( A single session of gait retraining using a 10% increase in step rate resulted in significant improvements in running kinematics, pain, and function in runners with PFP. These improvements were maintained at 3-month follow-up. It is important to assess for aberrant running kinematics at baseline to ensure that gait interventions are targeted appropriately. NCT03067545 (Clinical
Trials.gov identifier).

Does Injection of Hyaluronic Acid Protect Against Early Cartilage Injury Seen After Marathon Running? A Randomized Controlled Trial Utilizing High-Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging

21-10-2019 – Amit Nathani,Garry E. Gold,Uchechukwuka Monu,Brian Hargreaves,Andrea K. Finlay,Elka B. Rubin,Marc R. Safran

Journal Article

Previous studies have shown that runners demonstrate elevated T2 and T1ρ values on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after running a marathon, with the greatest changes in the patellofemoral and medial compartment, which can persist after 3 months of reduced activity. Additionally, marathon running has been shown to increase serum inflammatory markers. Hyaluronic acid (HA) purportedly improves viscoelasticity of synovial fluid, serving as a lubricant while also having chondroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. The purpose was to investigate whether intra-articular HA injection can protect articular cartilage from injury attributed to marathon running. The hypothesis was that the addition of intra-articular HA 1 week before running a marathon would reduce the magnitude of early cartilage breakdown measured by MRI. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 2. After institutional review board approval, 20 runners were randomized into receiving an intra-articular injection of HA or normal saline (NS) 1 week before running a marathon. Exclusionary criteria included any prior knee injury or surgery and having run >3 prior marathons. Baseline 3-T knee MRI was obtained within 48 hours before the marathon (approximately 5 days after injection). Follow-up 3-T MRI scans of the same knee were obtained 48 to 72 hours and 3 months after the marathon. The T2 and T1ρ relaxation times of articular cartilage were measured in 8 locations-the medial and lateral compartments (including 2 areas of each femoral condyle) and the patellofemoral joint. The statistical analysis compared changes in T2 and T1ρ relaxation times (ms) from baseline to immediate and 3-month postmarathon scans between the HA and NS groups with repeated measures analysis of variance. Fifteen runners completed the study: 6 women and 2 men in the HA group (mean age, 31 years; range, 23-50 years) and 6 women and 1 man in the NS group (mean age, 27 years; range, 20-49 years). There were no gross morphologic MRI changes after running the marathon. Postmarathon studies revealed no statistically significant changes between the HA and NS groups in all articular cartilage areas of the knee on both T2 and T1ρ relaxation times. Increased T2 and T1ρ relaxation times have been observed in marathon runners, suggesting early cartilage injury. The addition of intra-articular HA did not significantly affect relaxation times in all areas of the knee when compared with an NS control.

Single-Leg Squat Performance and Its Relationship to Extensor Mechanism Strength After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

21-10-2019 – Lachlan M. Batty,Julian A. Feller,Taylor Hartwig,Brian M. Devitt,Kate E. Webster

Journal Article

Performance in strength and functional testing is important when considering return to sport after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Both knee extensor strength and the single-leg squat (SLS) have been used in this context. To evaluate the relationship between knee extensor strength and SLS performance after primary ACL reconstruction. Cohort study (Diagnosis); Level of evidence, 3. A prospective cohort of 100 patients was assessed 6 and 12 months after primary ACL reconstruction with a hamstring tendon autograft. Knee extensor peak torque was measured. Three sequential SLSs were performed, and the maximum flexion angle identified from frame-by-frame video analysis was used as the measure of squat performance. A limb symmetry index (LSI) was calculated and satisfactory performance defined as ≥90%. Extensor mechanism strength deficits were seen in 75% of patients at 6 months and 57% at 12 months postoperatively. Mean extensor mechanism strength showed a large improvement between 6 and 12 months (123.6 vs 147.8 N·m, respectively; Extensor mechanism strength deficits are common after ACL reconstruction but reduce between 6 and 12 months. The SLS maximum flexion angle has a weak linear relationship to knee extensor strength. SLS performance has high specificity but low sensitivity in identifying extensor mechanism strength deficits. The SLS maximum flexion angle is therefore a suboptimal surrogate test to identify extensor mechanism strength deficits as diagnosed by isokinetic dynamometric testing. However, unsatisfactory SLS performance indicates a very high chance of underlying extensor mechanism weakness.

Autologous Osteochondral Transplantation for Large Osteochondral Lesions of the Talus Is a Viable Option in an Athletic Population

31-10-2019 – Anthony Nguyen,Arul Ramasamy,Melanie Walsh,Louise McMenemy,James D.F. Calder

Journal Article

Autologous osteochondral transplantation (AOT) has been shown to be a viable treatment option for large osteochondral lesions of the talus. However, there are limited data regarding the management of large lesions in an athletic population, notably with regard to return to sport. Our investigation focused on assessing both qualitative and quantitative outcomes in the high-demand athlete with large (>150 mm AOT is a viable option in athletes with large osteochondral lesions and can allow them to return to sport at their preinjury level. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. The study population was limited to professional and amateur athletes (Tegner score, >6) with a talar osteochondral lesion size of 150 mm A total of 38 athletes, including 11 professional athletes, were assessed. The mean follow-up was 45 months. The mean lesion size was 249 mm Our study suggests that AOT is a viable option in the management of large osteochondral talar defects in an athletic population, with favorable return to sport level, patient satisfaction, and FAOS/VAS scores. The ability to return to sport is predicated upon good graft incorporation, and further research is required to optimize this technique. Our data also suggest that patients should be aware of the increased risk of developing knee donor site pain when 3 osteochondral plugs are harvested.

Functional Results and Outcomes After Repair of Partial Proximal Hamstring Avulsions at Midterm Follow-up

21-10-2019 – Justin W. Arner,Halle Freiman,Craig S. Mauro,James P. Bradley

Journal Article

Partial avulsions of the proximal hamstring origin remain a challenging problem with nonoperative treatments frequently providing limited success. The literature is limited regarding the outcomes of operative management in the active and athletic population. Surgical fixation of proximal hamstring ruptures will have favorable outcomes at midterm follow-up. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A total of 64 patients with partial avulsions of the proximal hamstring origin treated with surgical fixation by a single surgeon were reviewed at a 2-year minimum follow-up. All patients had initially undergone failed nonoperative treatment. Patient-reported outcome scores on the Lower Extremity Functional Score (LEFS), Marx Activity Rating Scale, custom LEFS and Marx scales, and total proximal hamstring score were evaluated. Data on patient-perceived strength, return to sport, and satisfaction were also collected. The cohort included 27 male and 37 female (N = 64) patients with a mean age of 47.3 years (range, 16-65 years), and all were reviewed at a mean 6.5-year (range, 2-12.5 years) follow-up. The average postoperative LEFS was 96% (range, 68%-100%), with the custom LEFS being 90% (range, 39%-100%). The mean Marx score was 12.4 (range, 4-16). The Marx custom score demonstrated no disability with activities of daily living. The mean total proximal hamstring score was 94% (range, 69%-100%). No differences in any outcome measures were seen when comparing acute versus chronic repairs. Three patients underwent further hamstring surgery. No patients reported symptoms of numbness in the operative extremity at rest, while 3 patients had a superficial stitch abscess treated with antibiotics alone. The most commonly reported difficulty was with prolonged sitting. Ninety-seven percent were satisfied with surgery, 92% reported they could participate in strenuous activity, and 97% estimated their strength to be >75%, while 64% estimated it to be 100% of their contralateral side. Patients returned to sport at an average of 11.1 months, and all that returned were satisfied with their performance. Both early and delayed anatomic surgical repair of partial proximal hamstring avulsions leads to successful functional outcomes, a high rate of return to athletic activity, and low complication rates at the 6.5-year follow-up. Nonoperative treatments should first be attempted.

Rate of Return to Sport and Functional Outcomes After Bilateral Hip Arthroscopy in High-Level Athletes

05-11-2019 – Philip J. Rosinsky,Cynthia Kyin,Ajay C. Lall,Jacob Shapira,David R. Maldonado,Benjamin G. Domb

Journal Article

Bilateral hip symptoms are common in athletes, and athletes may require treatment with bilateral hip arthroscopy. Return-to-sport (RTS) rates in competitive athletes after unilateral procedures have been reported at 74% to 93%; however, RTS rates after bilateral hip arthroscopy are still unknown. The purpose was to determine rate of RTS in competitive athletes undergoing bilateral hip arthroscopy and report minimum 1-year patient-reported outcomes (PROs) for this cohort. We hypothesized that after bilateral hip arthroscopy, the RTS rate would be similar to the square of the probability of returning after unilateral hip arthroscopy. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Data were prospectively collected on patients undergoing hip arthroscopy at our institution from November 2011 to July 2018. Patients were included if they underwent bilateral hip arthroscopy and were a high school, collegiate, or professional athlete before their first surgery. A patient’s RTS was defined as return to competitive participation in one’s sport at a level the same as or higher than the preoperative level. Additionally, minimum 1-year PROs, including modified Harris Hip Score (m
HHS), nonarthritic hip score, and Hip Outcome Score-Sports Specific Subscale (HOS-SSS), as well as complication rates and future surgery were compared for all patients. Rates of reaching the minimal clinically importance difference (MCID) and patient acceptable symptomatic state (PASS) for the m
HHS (8 and 74, respectively) and HOS-SSS (6 and 75, respectively) were also recorded. A total of 87 patients met inclusion criteria, for which follow-up was available for 82 (94.3%). At latest follow-up, 100% of professional athletes had returned to their sport, while 53.7% of the entire cohort returned to their sport, with 75.8% of male patients returning versus 38.8% of female patients ( The rate of RTS among competitive athletes after bilateral hip arthroscopy was similar to the square of published RTS rates after unilateral hip arthroscopy. Both those who returned to play and those who did not showed significant improvement in PROs after surgery. However, those who returned to sports achieved significantly higher scores in all outcome measures. Additionally, patients returning to sports showed a significantly higher rate of attaining the MCID and PASS scores for the HOS-SSS.

Activity Level Maintenance at Midterm Follow-up Among Active Patients Undergoing Periacetabular Osteotomy

05-11-2019 – Ugochi C. Okoroafor,Cecilia Pascual-Garrido,Maria T. Schwabe,Jeffrey J. Nepple,Perry L. Schoenecker,John C. Clohisy

Journal Article

For active patients undergoing periacetabular osteotomy (PAO), returning to and maintaining a high level of activity postoperatively is a priority. To evaluate the maintenance of activity levels at midterm follow-up in active patients treated with PAO for symptomatic acetabular dysplasia. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Patients who underwent PAO for symptomatic acetabular dysplasia between June 2006 and August 2013 were identified by a retrospective review of our prospective longitudinal institutional Hip Preservation Database. All patients with a preoperative University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) score of ≥7 and a potential minimum 5 years of follow-up were included in the study. Functional outcome measures were the UCLA score, modified Harris Hip Score (m
HHS), and Western Ontario and Mc
Master Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). The maintenance of high activity levels was defined as a UCLA score of ≥7 at final follow-up. Radiographic parameters were measured. Statistical significance was defined as a A total of 66 hips (58 patients) were included. The mean age was 25.3 years (range, 14-47 years), the mean body mass index was 23.9 kg/m The majority (67%) of active patients returned to preoperative or higher activity levels after PAO at midterm follow-up.

Evaluation of Osseous Morphology of the Hip Using Zero Echo Time Magnetic Resonance Imaging

21-10-2019 – Ryan E. Breighner,Eric A. Bogner,Susan C. Lee,Matthew F. Koff,Hollis G. Potter

Journal Article

Femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) is a common disorder of the hip resulting in groin pain and ultimately osteoarthritis. Radiologic assessment of FAI morphologies, which may present with overlapping radiologic features of hip dysplasia, often requires the use of computed tomography (CT) for evaluation of osseous abnormality, owing to the difficulty of direct visualization of cortical and subchondral bone with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The use of a zero echo time (ZTE) MRI pulse sequence may obviate the need for CT by rendering bone directly from MRI. The purpose was to explore the application of ZTE MRI to the assessment of osseous FAI and dysplasia morphologies of the hip. It was hypothesized that angular measurements from ZTE images would show significant agreement with measurements obtained from CT images. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Thirty-eight hips from 23 patients were imaged with ZTE MRI and CT. Clinically relevant angular measurements of hip morphology were made in both modalities and compared to assess agreement. Measurements included coronal and sagittal center-edge angles, femoral neck-shaft angle, acetabular version (at 1-, 2-, and 3-o’clock positions), Tönnis angle, alpha angle, and modified-beta angle. Interrater agreement was assessed for a subset of 10 hips by 2 raters. Intermodal agreement was assessed on the complete cohort and a single rater. Interrater agreement was demonstrated in both CT and ZTE, with intraclass correlation coefficient values ranging from 0.636 to 0.990 for ZTE and 0.747 to 0.983 for CT, indicating “good” to “excellent” agreement. Intermodal agreement was also shown to be significant, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.618 to 0.904. Significant agreement of angular measurements for hip morphology exists between ZTE MRI and CT imaging. ZTE MRI may be an effective method to quantitatively evaluate osseous hip morphology.

Video Analysis of Shoulder Dislocations in Rugby: Insights Into the Dislocating Mechanisms

11-11-2019 – Connor Montgomery,David E. O’Briain,Eoghan T. Hurley,Leo Pauzenberger,Hannan Mullett,Cathal J. Moran

Journal Article

Mechanisms previously described for traumatic shoulder injuries in rugby may not adequately describe all the mechanisms that result in shoulder dislocations. To investigate the mechanism of shoulder dislocation events in professional rugby players through use of systematic video analysis. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. In our series, 39 cases of shoulder dislocations from games played in top professional leagues and international matches across a 2-year period were available for video analysis. All cases were independently assessed by 2 analysts to identify the sequence of events occurring during shoulder dislocation. This included injury circumstance such as contact with another player or the ground, game scenario, injury timing, and the movements and force vectors involved in the dislocation mechanism. We identified 4 distinct injury mechanisms. The previously described mechanisms “try scorer,”tackler,” and “direct impact” were identified in 67% of cases. We describe a new injury mechanism occurring in the “poach position,” accounting for 18% of all shoulder dislocations studied. The remaining 15% could not be categorized. Shoulder dislocations occurred to a ball carrier in 15% of cases (n = 6) and a non-ball carrier in 85% of cases (n = 33). The injury most commonly occurred during a tackle (49%; n = 19) followed by ruck/maul (26%; n = 10). Time of injury showed that 36% (n = 14) of cases occurred in the last quarter of the game. Shoulder dislocations have now been shown to occur predominantly as a result of 1 of 4 distinct mechanisms, most frequently in the second half of the game. A new mechanism for shoulder dislocation has been described in this series, termed the poach position.

Partial-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tear by Itself Does Not Cause Shoulder Pain or Muscle Weakness in Baseball Players

14-10-2019 – Teruhisa Mihata,Rei Morikura,Akihiko Hasegawa,Kunimoto Fukunishi,Takeshi Kawakami,Yukitaka Fujisawa,Mutsumi Ohue,Masashi Neo

Journal Article

Partial-thickness rotator cuff tears are common shoulder injuries in baseball players. For some tears, the symptoms can be relieved through physical therapy or debridement without rotator cuff repair. To assess whether partial-thickness rotator cuff tear by itself causes shoulder pain and muscle weakness in baseball players. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. We studied 87 university baseball players (age, 19.5 ± 0.8 years; baseball career, 11.5 ± 1.6 years). All data were obtained during a full-participation annual medical check in 1 team. Rotator cuff tendons were examined ultrasonographically and allocated to 4 groups: (1) no tear, (2) supraspinatus tendon tear, (3) infraspinatus tendon tear, and (4) both supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendon tears. Current shoulder pain and shoulder muscle strength (dominant/nondominant) in abduction, external rotation, and internal rotation were compared by using chi-square and Of the 87 players, 41 (47%) had articular-sided partial-thickness rotator cuff tears diagnosed on ultrasonography; the remaining 46 athletes were tear-free. Of the 41 affected patients, 19 had tears in the supraspinatus, 13 in the infraspinatus, and 9 in both the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons. Tear depth (mean ± SD) was 4.6 ± 2.3 mm in the supraspinatus and 6.2 ± 3.6 mm in the infraspinatus. Neither the rate of shoulder pain nor muscle strength differed significantly among the 4 groups ( Articular-sided partial-thickness rotator cuff tear-by itself-did not cause shoulder pain and muscle weakness in university baseball players. Most so-called articular-sided partial-thickness rotator cuff tears may not be pathologic tendon tears.

All-Suture Anchor Settling After Arthroscopic Repair of Small and Medium Rotator Cuff Tears

13-11-2019 – Kyunghan Ro,Sung-Min Rhee,Jung Youn Kim,Myung Seo Kim,Jong Dae Kim,Hojin Lee,Yong Girl Rhee

Journal Article

All-suture anchors are increasingly being used in rotator cuff repair. However, there are debates on the micromotion of all-suture anchors. To perform rotator cuff repair on patients with rotator cuff tears and different shoulder bone mineral densities (BMDs) and investigate (1) where the anchor is located under the cortex, (2) if there is any anchor migration settling during follow-up, and (3) if structural outcome differs according to shoulder BMD. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. We retrospectively investigated 88 patients who underwent arthroscopic single-row repair for small- to medium-sized rotator cuff tears (age [mean ± SD], 58.8 ± 7.1 years) from 712 cases of rotator cuff tendon repair between November 2015 and February 2018. Inclusion criteria were as follows: use of an all-suture anchor; preoperative shoulder BMD; and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) conducted preoperatively, 2 days after surgery, and 10 months after surgery. Patients were excluded from the study if they underwent open rotator cuff repair (n = 118), got surgery with a double-row technique (n = 178), underwent surgery with anchors other than the all-suture type (n = 273), received anchor insertion in sites other than the greater tuberosity owing to concomitant procedures such as biceps tenodesis and subscapularis repair (n = 29), did not take preoperative shoulder BMD (n = 15), had more than a large-size tear (n = 6), and were lost to follow-up (n = 5). After compression of the all-suture anchor during surgery, the strands were pulled multiple times to ensure that the anchor was fixed onto the bone with appropriate tension. BMD was measured before surgery. Depth to anchor (DA), anchor settling, and repaired rotator cuff integrity were measured with MRI. Patients were categorized into 3 groups: group A (BMD, <0.4 g/cm On time-zero MRI, the DA differed significantly among groups (group A, 3.62 ± 2.02 mm; group B, 5.18 ± 2.13 mm; group C, 6.30 ± 3.34 mm) ( In conclusion, this study confirmed that the postoperative site of anchor insertion in arthroscopic single-row rotator cuff repair with all-suture anchors was located farther from the cortex in patients with higher shoulder BMD and closer to the subcortical bone in patients with lower BMD. On follow-up MRI, no further settling occurred past a certain distance from the cortex, and there was no significant difference in anchor depth or integrity of the rotator cuff tendon based on shoulder BMD. Therefore, minimal settling in the all-suture anchor did not show clinical significance.

Anatomic and Biomechanical Evaluation of Ulnar Tunnel Position in Medial Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction

24-10-2019 – Pascual H. Dutton,Michael B. Banffy,Trevor J. Nelson,Melodie F. Metzger

Journal Article

Although numerous techniques of reconstruction of the medial ulnar collateral ligament (m
UCL) have been described, limited evidence exists on the biomechanical implication of changing the ulnar tunnel position despite the fact that more recent literature has clarified that the ulnar footprint extends more distally than was appreciated in the past. To evaluate the size and location of the native ulnar footprint and assess valgus stability of the medial elbow after UCL reconstruction at 3 ulnar tunnel locations. Controlled laboratory study. Eighteen fresh-frozen cadaveric elbows were dissected to expose the m
UCL. The anatomic footprint of the ulnar attachment of the m
UCL was measured with a digitizing probe. The area of the ulnar footprint and midpoint relative to the joint line were determined. Medial elbow stability was tested with the m
UCL in an intact, deficient, and reconstructed state after the docking technique, with ulnar tunnels placed at 5, 10, or 15 mm from the ulnotrochlear joint line. A 3-N·m valgus torque was applied to the elbow, and valgus rotation of the ulna was recorded via motion-tracking cameras as the elbow was cycled through a full range of motion. After kinematic testing, specimens were loaded to failure at 70° of elbow flexion. The mean ± SD length of the m
UCL ulnar footprint was 27.4 ± 3.3 mm. The midpoint of the anatomic footprint was located between the 10- and 15-mm tunnels across all specimens at a mean 13.6 mm from the joint line. Sectioning of the m
UCL increased elbow valgus rotation throughout all flexion angles and was statistically significant from 30° to 100° of flexion as compared with the intact elbow ( Positioning the ulnar graft fixation site up to 15 mm from the ulnotrochlear joint line does not significantly increase valgus rotation in the elbow. A more distal ulnar tunnel may be a viable option to accommodate individual variation in morphology of the proximal ulna or in a revision setting.

Do American Youth Football Players Intentionally Use Their Heads for High-Magnitude Impacts?

07-11-2019 – Jaclyn Alois,Srinidhi Bellamkonda,Eamon T. Campolettano,Ryan A. Gellner,Amaris Genemaras,Jonathan G. Beckwith,Richard M. Greenwald,Eric Smith,Steven Rowson,Stefan M. Duma,Joseph J. Crisco

Journal Article

Concern for head injuries is widespread and has been reported by the media to be the number one cause of decreased participation in football among the American youth population. Identifying player mechanisms associated with intentional, or purposeful, head impacts should provide critical data for rule modifications, educational programs, and equipment design. To investigate the frequency of intentional and unintentional head impacts and to examine the player mechanisms associated with intentional high-magnitude head impacts by comparing the impact mechanism distributions among session type, player position, and ball possession. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Head impact sensors and video footage of 68 players were used to analyze and classify 1319 high-magnitude impacts recorded over 1 season of youth football. In total, 80% of the high-magnitude head impacts were classified as being caused by intentional use of the head. Head-to-head impact was the primary impact mechanism (n = 868; 82.7%) within the 1050 intentional high-magnitude impacts, with classifiable mechanisms, followed by head-to-body (n = 139; 13.2%), head-to-ground (n = 34; 3.2%), and head-to-equipment (n = 9; 0.9%). Head-to-head impacts also accounted for a greater proportion of impacts during practices (n = 625; 88.9%) than games, for linemen (n = 585; 90.3%) than perimeters and backs, and for ball carriers (n = 72; 79.1%) than tacklers. Overall, the majority of high-magnitude head impacts were intentional and resulted from head-to-head contact. The proportion of head-to-head contact was significantly higher for practices than games, linemen than backs and perimeter players, and ball carriers than tacklers.

Use of the Progressive Return to Activity Guidelines May Expedite Symptom Resolution After Concussion for Active Duty Military

13-11-2019 – Jason M. Bailie,Rosemay A. Remigio-Baker,Wesley R. Cole,Karen L. McCulloch,Mark L. Ettenhofer,Therese West,Angelica Ahrens,Paul Sargent,Amy Cecchini,Saafan Malik,Lynita Mullins,Keith Stuessi,Felicia M. Qashu,Emma Gregory

Journal Article

Clinical recommendations for concussion management encourage reduced cognitive and physical activities immediately after injury, with graded increases in activity as symptoms resolve. Empirical support for the effectiveness of such recommendations is needed. To examine whether training medical providers on the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center’s Progressive Return to Activity Clinical Recommendation (PRA-CR) for acute concussion improves patient outcomes. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. This study was conducted from 2016 to 2018 and compared patient outcomes before and after medical providers received an educational intervention (ie, provider training). Patients, recruited either before or after intervention, were assessed at ≤72 hours, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after a concussion. The participant population included 38 military medical providers and 106 military servicemembers with a diagnosed concussion and treated by one of the military medical providers: 58 patient participants received care before the intervention (ie, provider training) and 48 received care after intervention. The primary outcome measure was the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory. The patients seen before and after the intervention were predominantly male (89.7% and 93.8%, respectively) of military age (mean ± SD, 26.62 ± 6.29 years and 25.08 ± 6.85 years, respectively) and a mean ± SD of 1.92 ± 0.88 days from injury. Compared with patients receiving care before intervention, patients receiving care after intervention had smaller increases in physical activities (difference in mean change; 95% CI, 0.39 to 6.79) and vestibular/balance activities (95% CI, 0.79 to 7.5) during the first week of recovery. Although groups did not differ in symptoms at ≤72 hours of injury ( Training medical providers on the PRA-CR for management of concussion resulted in expedited recovery of patients.

The Effect of Sport-Related Concussion Injuries on Concussion Symptoms and Health-Related Quality of Life in Male and Female Adolescent Athletes: A Prospective Study

24-10-2019 – Timothy A. McGuine,Adam Pfaller,Stephanie Kliethermes,Allison Schwarz,Scott Hetzel,Erin Hammer,Steven Broglio

Journal Article

Sport-related concussions (SRCs) are associated with short-term disablement, characterized as increased concussion symptoms and lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL). However, there are limited longitudinal data detailing how an SRC affects disablement beyond short-term injury recovery. To longitudinally assess the effect of SRCs on symptoms and HRQoL in high school athletes through the 12 months after injury. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. The 125 participants included high school athletes who sustained an SRC (female patients, 36%; mean ± SD age, 15.9 ± 1.1 years). The Post-concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) from the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool-3 and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 (Peds
QL) were completed at enrollment and repeated at 24 to 72 hours (onset) and at 7 days (D7) after the SRC; on the date of return to play (RTP); and at 3, 6, and 12 months (M12) after the SRC. Scores at each time point were compared with the athletes’ own baseline via linear mixed models for repeated measures, controlling for age, sex, and history of previous SRC and with patient as a random effect. Relative to baseline, female patients reported higher PCSS symptom and severity scores at onset ( After an SRC, high school athletes reported initial disablement (increased symptoms and lower HRQoL) through their RTP. However, after RTP, no similar disablement was detected through 12 months after injury.

Native-Osteoarthritic Joint Resident Stem and Progenitor Cells for Cartilage Cell-Based Therapies: A Quantitative Comparison With Respect to Concentration and Biological Performance

31-10-2019 – Venkata P. Mantripragada,Wes A. Bova,Nicolas S. Piuzzi,Cynthia Boehm,Nancy A. Obuchowski,Ronald J. Midura,George F. Muschler

Journal Article

Cell-based therapy for cartilage repair is a promising approach and is becoming an established technique. Yet, there is no consensus on the optimal cell source. To provide a donor-matched quantitative comparison of the connective tissue progenitors (CTPs) derived from cartilage (Outerbridge grade 1-3 [G1-2-3]), bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMC), infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP), synovium, and periosteum with respect to (1) cell concentration ([Cell], cells/m
L), (2) CTP prevalence (P Descriptive laboratory study. Tissues were obtained from 10 patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (mean age, 59 years; women, n = 6). Automated quantitative colony-forming unit analysis was used to compare [Cell], P [Cell] was highest in grade 3 cartilage ( Tissue sources differ in [Cell], P Optimal tissue regeneration strategies will require informed decisions regarding which of the available tissue sources to use. Optimizing cell sourcing in any tissue may require separation of CTPs with preferred attributes from those with less desirable attributes. The heterogeneity manifest in the early stage of colony formation represents an opportunity for performance-based clone selection for clinical cell processing and manufacturing.

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Outcomes for Quadriceps Tendon Autograft Versus Bone–Patellar Tendon–Bone and Hamstring-Tendon Autografts

21-02-2019 – Dany Mouarbes,Jacques Menetrey,Vincent Marot,Louis Courtot,Emilie Berard,Etienne Cavaignac

Journal Article

Comprehensive studies evaluating quadriceps tendon (QT) autograft for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are lacking. The optimal choice of graft between bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB), hamstring tendon (HT), and QT is still debatable. The current literature supports the use of QT as a strong autograft with good outcomes when used in ACL reconstruction. Meta-analysis; Level of evidence, 2. A systematic search of the literature was performed in PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane, and Ovid databases to identify published articles on clinical studies relevant to ACL reconstruction with QT autograft and studies comparing QT autograft versus BPTB and HT autografts. The results of the eligible studies were analyzed in terms of instrumented laxity measurements, Lachman test, pivot-shift test, Lysholm score, objective and subjective International Knee Documentation committee (IKDC) scores, donor-site pain, and graft failure. Twenty-seven clinical studies including 2856 patients with ACL reconstruction met the inclusion criteria. Comparison of 581 QT versus 514 BPTB autografts showed no significant differences in terms of instrumented mean side-to-side difference ( QT autograft had comparable clinical and functional outcomes and graft survival rate compared with BPTB and HT autografts. However, QT autograft showed significantly less harvest site pain compared with BPTB autograft and better functional outcome scores compared with HT autograft.

Midshaft Clavicle Fractures: Surgery Provides Better Results as Compared With Nonoperative Treatment: A Meta-analysis

05-03-2019 – Enrico Guerra,Davide Previtali,Simone Tamborini,Giuseppe Filardo,Stefano Zaffagnini,Christian Candrian

Journal Article

There is no agreement on the best treatment for displaced midshaft clavicle fractures (MCFs), which are currently addressed by nonoperative or surgical approaches. To compare fracture healing and functional outcome after surgical versus nonsurgical treatment of MCFs, to help specialists in deciding between these different strategies by providing a synthesis of the best literature evidence. Meta-analysis. A systematic research of the literature was performed in different online databases: PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane library, and grey literature. PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Meta-Analyses) guidelines were used. The risk of bias was evaluated with the Cochrane Collaboration’s “risk of bias” tool, and the quality of evidence was graded according to Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. Randomized controlled trials investigating differences between surgery and nonoperative treatment for displaced MCFs were included. The primary outcome was the nonunion rate. Other outcomes analyzed were time to union and to return to activities, Constant score, and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) index. Patients’ satisfaction, secondary operations, and complications were also recorded. Out of 832 records found, 14 randomized controlled trials with 1546 patients were included. A significantly lower risk ratio was found for nonunion (10%; 95% CI, 6%-18%, Surgical treatment of MCFs significantly reduces the nonunion rate and shortens the time to union as compared with the nonoperative approach and, despite a slightly higher incidence of complications, leads to better shoulder functional scores at short- and long-term follow-up. Further studies should address the clinical significance of the documented improvement.

Efficacy of Pharmacological Therapies for Adhesive Capsulitis of the Shoulder: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis

08-02-2019 – Dimitrios Kitridis,Konstantinos Tsikopoulos,Ilias Bisbinas,Paraskevi Papaioannidou,Panagiotis Givissis

Journal Article

Several pharmacological interventions are used for the management of adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder, although the optimal treatment has yet to be defined. To conduct a network meta-analysis to compare the effects of different pharmacological interventions for adhesive capsulitis, administered either alone or after distension of the shoulder capsule. Network meta-analysis. The authors searched Scopus, PubMed, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials up to April 22, 2018, for completed studies. They enrolled trials that assessed the results of different pharmacological treatments for the primary management of adhesive capsulitis. The primary outcome was pain relief as measured by self-administered questionnaires. The secondary outcome included the assessment of composite instruments that evaluated, at a minimum, pain and function. The authors clinically interpreted the results after back-transforming the standardized mean differences into mean differences in simple instruments and assessed the quality of the source studies using the Cochrane “risk of bias” tool. The authors considered 30 trials with a total of 2010 participants in this systematic review. For pain relief, there was a significant difference in favor of intra-articular corticosteroids and distension of the shoulder capsule with steroids as compared with control in the short term (mean difference in visual analog scale (VAS): -1.4 [95% CI, -2.5 to -0.4] and -1.7 [95% CI, -3.2 to -0.1], respectively). Furthermore, rotator-interval injections were found to be superior to placebo (mean difference in VAS: -7.2; 95% CI, -10.1 to -4.4), although the intervention was considered in only 1 trial. Finally, there was a statistically significant difference in favor of multiple-site corticosteroid injections compared to placebo in both the short- (mean difference in Shoulder Pain and Disability Index [SPADI]: -86.7; 95% CI, -133.6 to -40) and intermediate-term assessment (mean difference in SPADI: -102.9; 95% CI, -163.9 to -41.8). Intra-articular corticosteroid intervention, administered either alone or after distension of the shoulder capsule, provided clinically meaningful improvements in the short term. Likewise, rotator-interval corticosteroid injections yielded promising results in terms of pain relief. However, these short-term benefits of steroids dissipated over time. Multiple-site corticosteroid injections showed clinical advantage over placebo for short- and intermediate-term composite outcome assessments.

Society News

27-11-2019 –

In Memoriam: John Autrey Feagin, Jr (1934-2019)

27-11-2019 – Dean C. Taylor

Journal Article

Physiotherapy as an Initial Treatment Option for Femoroacetabular Impingement: A Systematic Review of the Literature and Meta-analysis of 5 Randomized Controlled Trials

27-11-2019 – Graeme Hoit,Daniel B. Whelan,Tim Dwyer,Prabjit Ajrawat,Jaskarndip Chahal

Journal Article

Femoroacetabular impingement is a common and debilitating source of hip pain in young adults. Although physiotherapy is used as a mainstay of nonoperative care for femoroacetabular impingement, the evidence regarding different physiotherapy practices is poorly understood. To collect and synthesize the best available evidence and arrive at a summary estimate of treatment effect for the utility of physiotherapy in the management of femoroacetabular impingement. Meta-analysis. A systematic review was performed on February 2, 2019, of PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases using “femoroacetabular impingement OR hip pain” and “physiotherapy OR nonoperative management” and their synonyms as search terms. Central treatment themes were identified across protocols, and pooled analyses were conducted to assess for differences in patient-reported outcome measures across these themes. A total of 5 randomized controlled trials met our inclusion criteria. The studies included 124 patients with a mean age of 35 years, of whom 24% were male. The average follow-up was 9.4 weeks (range, 6-12 weeks), and the follow-up rate across all participants was 86%. Among these 5 studies, 4 studies used a physiotherapy protocol that focused on core strengthening versus no core strengthening, 4 studies compared active strengthening versus passive modalities, and 3 studies compared supervised versus unsupervised physiotherapy. Pooled analysis across all studies demonstrated improved outcomes in the treatment groups compared with the controls (standardized mean difference [SMD], 0.76; 95% CI, 0.38-1.13; Supervised physiotherapy programs focusing on active strengthening and core strengthening are more effective than unsupervised, passive, and non-core focused programs. Future studies with longer term follow-up and validated femoroacetabular impingement specific outcome measures are required to determine prognostic factors for success with nonoperative care as well as to determine the ideal patient profile and structured rehabilitation protocol.

Return to Work and Sport After Proximal Tibial Osteotomy and the Effects of Opening Versus Closing Wedge Techniques on Adverse Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

27-11-2019 – Kyle N. Kunze,Alexander Beletsky,Charles P. Hannon,Robert F. LaPrade,Adam B. Yanke,Brian J. Cole,Brian Forsythe,Jorge Chahla

Journal Article

Although many studies have reported successful functional outcomes after proximal tibial osteotomy (PTO), a paucity of literature has sought to quantify outcomes and current rates of return to sport (RTS) and return to work (RTW) after PTO. To (1) determine current rates of RTS and RTW after PTO and (2) quantify the incidence of complications and conversion to total knee arthroplasty (TKA) after PTO for all patients as well as those undergoing opening and closing wedge PTO. Systematic review and meta-analysis; Level of evidence, 4. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed (2008-2019), EMBASE (2008-2019), and MEDLINE (2008-2019) databases were queried. Data pertaining to article information, patient demographics, surgical techniques, rates of complication and conversion to TKA, patient-reported outcome scores, RTS, and RTW were extracted. Data were synthesized, and a random effects meta-analysis of proportions using continuity correction methods was performed to determine the proportion of patients receiving opening and closing wedge PTO who experienced adverse events. The review and meta-analysis included 33 studies involving 1914 patients who underwent PTO with a weighted mean ± SD age of 50.3 ± 9.9 years and body mass index of 26.9 ± 2.3 kg/m Patients undergoing PTO for osteoarthritis, cartilage defects, and symptomatic malalignment of the knee experience high rates of RTS and RTW. These patients also experience low rates of complications and conversion to TKA, regardless of opening or closing wedge technique. Significant heterogeneity exists with regard to criteria used to define RTS and RTW and patient-reported outcome measures used to assess clinical and functional improvements after PTO.

Outcome Comparison of Graft Bridging and Superior Capsule Reconstruction for Large to Massive Rotator Cuff Tears: A Systematic Review

26-11-2019 – Jinrong Lin,Yaying Sun,Qingyan Chen,Shaohua Liu,Zheci Ding,Jiwu Chen

Journal Article

Graft bridging (GB) and superior capsule reconstruction (SCR) were developed to treat large to massive rotator cuff tears (RCTs); however, the outcome differences between GB and SCR remain unclear. To systematically review and compare the outcomes of GB and SCR for large to massive RCT. Systematic review. A systematic review was performed via a comprehensive search of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Studies of GB or SCR were included according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The primary outcome was Constant-Murley score at the final follow-up. Secondary outcomes included the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, visual analog scale score for pain, active shoulder range of motion, and graft healing rate. Complication rate was the safety outcome measure. Outcomes were summarized into group SCR and group GB, and the results were compared statistically ( A total of 23 studies were included in this review: 238 repairs from the 5 studies in group SCR and 593 repairs from the 18 studies in group GB. For group SCR and group GB, the mean age was 61.6 and 63.3 years, and the mean follow-up was 18.0 and 40.1 months, respectively. Overall, both procedures demonstrated improvement of clinical outcomes. When compared with group SCR, group GB had significantly higher mean differences of the Constant-Murley score (41.9 vs 19.8), American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score (39.3 vs 33.8), visual analog scale score for pain (4.4 vs 3.4), and active external rotation at side (15.3 vs 9.3). No statistically significant difference was detected in the mean difference of active forward flexion, internal rotation, abduction, and graft healing rate between the groups. The complication rates were 0.84% (2 of 238) in group SCR and 0.67% (4 of 593) in group GB. In general, GB showed significantly better clinical and functional outcomes postoperatively than SCR, with a similar complication rate. The available fair-quality evidence suggested that GB might be a better choice for large to massive RCT. More high-quality randomized controlled studies are required to further evaluate the relative benefits of the 2 procedures.

The Effect of Oral Contraceptive Hormones on Anterior Cruciate Ligament Strength

25-11-2019 – Jaclyn A. Konopka,Lauren Hsue,Wenteh Chang,Timothy Thio,Jason L. Dragoo

Journal Article

Women are 2 to 9 times more likely to experience an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury than men. Various hormones including relaxin, progesterone, and estrogen influence ACL strength. Oral contraceptives (OCs) alter these hormone levels; however, studies have yet to comprehensively compare different OCs’ effects on the ACL. OCs with increased progestin-to-estrogen ratios will (1) increase ACL collagen expression, (2) decrease ACL matrix metalloproteinase expression, and (3) increase ACL strength. Controlled laboratory study. Untreated female rats were compared with rats treated with 1 of 5 clinically used OCs: norethindrone (NE) only, NE plus ethinylestradiol (EE), etynodiol diacetate (ED) plus EE, norgestimate (NG) plus EE, and drospirenone (DS) plus EE. Doses were scaled from human doses to account for differences in bioavailability and body weight, and OCs were administered daily via oral gavage for 4 rat estrous cycles (20 days). A total of 36 rats were then sacrificed (6 rats/group). ACLs underwent biomechanical testing to assess ACL strength, stiffness, and maximum load before failure. ACL specimens were also isolated for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis to assess collagen, matrix metalloproteinase, and relaxin receptor-1 expression. While the primary structural property of interest (ACL maximum load before failure) was not significantly improved by OC treatment, the main material property of interest (ACL strength) in rats treated with NE only, DS + EE, ED + EE, and NE + EE was significantly increased compared with untreated controls ( OC formulations with higher progestin-to-estrogen ratios may be more protective for the ACL than formulations with lower ratios. OC formulations with high progestin-to-estrogen ratios may benefit female athletes by reducing their ACL injury risk by decreasing the effects of relaxin on the ACL.

Minimum 10-Year Clinical and Radiological Outcomes of a Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating 2 Different Approaches to Full Weightbearing After Matrix-Induced Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation

25-11-2019 – Jay R. Ebert,Michael Fallon,Timothy R. Ackland,Gregory C. Janes,David J. Wood

Journal Article

Longer term outcomes after matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI) are lacking, while early postoperative weightbearing (WB) management has traditionally been conservative. To investigate the longer term clinical and radiological outcomes after an 8-week (vs 12-week) WB protocol after MACI. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. A randomized study design allocated 70 patients to an 8- (n = 34) or 12-week (n = 36) approach to full WB after MACI of the medial or lateral femoral condyle. Patients were evaluated preoperatively; at 3, 12, and 24 months after surgery; and at 5 and 10 years after surgery. At 10 years (range, 10.5-11.5 years), 60 patients (85.7%; 8 weeks: n = 29; 12 weeks: n = 31) were available for review. Clinical outcomes included patient-reported outcomes, maximal isokinetic knee extensor and flexor strength, and functional hop capacity. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was undertaken to assess the quality and quantity of repair tissue per the MOCART (magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue) system. A combined MRI composite score was also evaluated. Clinical and MRI-based scores for the full cohort significantly improved ( MACI provided high satisfaction levels and tissue durability beyond 10 years. The outcomes of this randomized trial demonstrate a safe 8-week WB rehabilitation protocol without jeopardizing longer term outcomes.

Differential Effects of Platelets Selectively Activated by Protease-Activated Receptors on Meniscal Cells

25-11-2019 – Hongyao Xu,Xiangjie Zou,Pengcheng Xia,Mohammad Ahmad Kamal Aboudi,Ran Chen,He Huang

Journal Article

Meniscal injury is very common, and injured meniscal tissue has a limited healing ability because of poor vascularity. Platelets contain both pro- and anti-angiogenic factors, which can be released by platelet selective activation. Platelets release a high level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) when they are activated by protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), whereas the platelets release endostatin when they are activated by protease-activated receptor 4 (PAR4). The PAR1-treated platelets enhance the proliferation of meniscal cells in vitro and promote in vivo healing of wounded meniscal tissue. Controlled laboratory study. Platelets were isolated from human blood and activated with different reagents. The released growth factors from the activated platelets were determined by immunostaining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The effects of the platelets with different treatments on meniscal cells were tested by an in vitro model of cell culture and an in vivo model of wounded meniscal healing. The results indicated that platelets contained both pro- and antiangiogenic factors including VEGF and endostatin. In unactivated platelets, VEGF and endostatin were contained inside of the platelets. Both VEGF and endostatin were released from the platelets when they were activated by thrombin. However, only VEGF was released from the platelets when they were activated by PAR1, and only endostatin was released from the platelets when they were activated by PAR4. The rat meniscal cells grew much faster in the medium that contained PAR1-activated platelets than in the medium that contained either PAR4-activated platelets or unactivated platelets. The wounds treated with PAR1-activated platelets healed faster than those treated with either PAR4-activated platelets or unactivated platelets. Many blood vessel-like structures were found in the wounded menisci treated with PAR1-activated platelets. The PAR1-activated platelets released high levels of VEGF, which increased the proliferation of rat meniscal cells in vitro, enhanced the vascularization of menisci in vivo, and promoted healing of wounded menisci. Our results suggested that selective activated platelets can be used clinically to enhance healing of wounded meniscal tissue.

Engagement of the Secondary Ligamentous and Meniscal Restraints Relative to the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Predicts Anterior Knee Laxity

25-11-2019 – Robert N. Kent,Carl W. Imhauser,Ran Thein,Niv Marom,Thomas L. Wickiewicz,Danyal H. Nawabi,Andrew D. Pearle

Journal Article

Patients with high-grade preoperative side-to-side differences in anterior laxity as assessed via the Lachman test after unilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture are at heightened risk of early ACL graft failure. Biomechanical factors that predict preoperative side-to-side differences in anterior laxity are poorly understood. To assess, in a cadaveric model, whether the increase in anterior laxity caused by sectioning the ACL (a surrogate for preoperative side-to-side differences in anterior laxity) during a simulated Lachman test is associated with two biomechanical factors: (1) the tibial translation at which the secondary anterior stabilizers, including the remaining ligaments and the menisci, begin to carry force, or Controlled laboratory study. Seventeen fresh-frozen human cadaveric knees underwent Lachman tests simulated through a robotic manipulator with the ACL intact and sectioned. The net forces carried by the ACL and secondary soft tissue stabilizers (the medial meniscus and all remaining ligaments, measured as a whole) were characterized as a function of anterior tibial translation. The engagement points of the ACL (with the ACL intact) and each secondary stabilizer (with the ACL sectioned) were defined as the anterior translation at which they began to carry force, or engaged, during a simulated Lachman test. Then, the relative engagement point of each secondary stabilizer was defined as the difference between the engagement point of each secondary stabilizer and that of the ACL. Linear regressions were performed to test each association ( The increase in anterior laxity caused by ACL sectioning was associated with increased relative engagement points of both the secondary ligaments (β = 0.87; The secondary ligaments and the medial meniscus require greater anterior tibial translation to engage (ie, begin to carry force) relative to the ACL in knees with greater changes in anterior laxity after ACL sectioning. Moreover, with the ACL intact, the medial meniscus carries more force in knees with smaller changes in anterior laxity after ACL sectioning. Relative tissue engagement is a new biomechanical measure to characterize in situ function of the ligaments and menisci. This measure may aid in developing more personalized surgical approaches to reduce high rates of ACL graft revision in patients with high-grade laxity.

Medial Meniscus Posterior Root Tear Treatment: A Matched Cohort Comparison of Nonoperative Management, Partial Meniscectomy, and Repair

25-11-2019 – Christopher D. Bernard,Nicholas I. Kennedy,Adam J. Tagliero,Christopher L. Camp,Daniel B.F. Saris,Bruce A. Levy,Michael J. Stuart,Aaron J. Krych

Journal Article

There are limited data comparing the outcomes of similarly matched patients with a medial meniscus posterior root tear (MMPRT) treated with nonoperative management, partial meniscectomy, or repair. The purpose was to compare treatment failure, clinical outcome scores, and radiographic findings for a matched cohort of patients who underwent either nonoperative management, partial meniscectomy, or transtibial pull-through repair for an MMPRT. We hypothesized that patients who underwent meniscus root repair will have lower rates of progression to arthroplasty than patients who were treated with nonoperative management or partial meniscectomy. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Patients who underwent transtibial medial meniscus posterior horn root repair were matched by meniscal laterality, age, sex, and Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) grades to patients treated nonoperatively or with a partial meniscectomy. Progression to arthroplasty rates, International Knee Documentation Committee and Tegner scores, and radiographic outcomes were analyzed between groups. Forty-five patients were included in this study (15 nonoperative, 15 partial meniscectomy, 15 root repair). Progression to arthroplasty demonstrated significant differences among treatment groups at a mean of 74 months (nonoperative, 4/15; partial meniscectomy, 9/15; meniscal repair, 0/15; Meniscus root repair leads to significantly less arthritis progression and subsequent knee arthroplasty compared with nonoperative management and partial meniscectomy in a matched cohort based on patient characteristics.

Acetabular Morphologic Characteristics Predict Early Conversion to Arthroplasty After Isolated Hip Arthroscopy for Femoroacetabular Impingement

25-11-2019 – Brian D. Giordano,Benjamin D. Kuhns,Itay Perets,Leslie Yuen,Benjamin G. Domb

Journal Article

Hip arthroscopy in the setting of dysplasia and borderline dysplasia is controversial. Dysplasia severity is most often defined by the lateral center edge angle (LCEA) but can also be evaluated radiographically by the acetabular inclination (AI). The purpose was to determine the effect of AI on outcomes after isolated hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). We hypothesized that patients with dysplasia would have higher rates of arthroplasty as well as inferior clinical and functional outcomes compared with patients who did not have dysplasia. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A hip arthroscopy registry was reviewed for participants undergoing arthroscopic correction of FAI from February 28, 2008, to June 10, 2013. Participants required a clinical diagnosis and isolated arthroscopic correction of FAI with preoperative imaging and intraoperative cartilage status recorded. AI dysplasia was defined as an AI greater than 10°, LCEA dysplasia as LCEA less than 18°, and borderline LCEA dysplasia as LCEA 18° to 25°. Patients without an acetabular deformity (LCEA 25°-40°; AI <10°) served as a control population. Postoperative variables included patient-reported outcome surveys with conversion to arthroplasty as the primary endpoint. Minimum 5-year outcome scores were obtained for 337 of 419 patients (80.4%) with an average follow-up of 75.2 ± 12.7 months. This study included 419 patients: 9 (2%) with LCEA dysplasia, 42 (10%) with AI dysplasia, and 51 (12%) with borderline dysplasia. The AI but not LCEA was significantly correlated with lower outcome scores on the modified Harris Hip Score ( We found that an elevated AI, along with increasing age, Tönnis grade, and femoral Outerbridge grade significantly predict early conversion to arthroplasty after isolated hip arthroscopy. We recommend using the AI, in addition to the LCEA, in evaluating hip dysplasia before hip arthroscopy.

Modified Arthroscopic Latarjet Procedure: Suture-Button Fixation Achieves Excellent Remodeling at 3-Year Follow-up

25-11-2019 – Jian Xu,Haifeng Liu,Wei Lu,Zhenhan Deng,Weimin Zhu,Liangquan Peng,Kan Ouyang,Hao Li,Daping Wang

Journal Article

Some studies have advocated the use of suture-button fixation during the Latarjet procedure to reduce complications associated with screw fixation. However, the sample size of these studies is relatively small, and their follow-up period is short. To investigate the efficacy of the suture-button Latarjet procedure with at least 3 years of follow-up and remodeling of the coracoid graft. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A total of 152 patients who underwent the suture-button Latarjet procedure between February 2013 and February 2016 were selected, and 128 patients who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in this study. Preoperative and postoperative clinical results were assessed. The position and healing condition of the coracoid graft and arthropathy of the glenoid and humeral head were also assessed using radiography and 3-dimensional computed tomography (CT). The mean follow-up time was 40.3 ± 5.8 months. There were 102 patients included in this study. The mean visual analog scale score for pain during motion, the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, the Rowe score, and the Walch-Duplay score were improved considerably. A total of 100 grafts achieved bone union. The overall absorption rate was 12.6% ± 4.3%. Graft absorption mostly occurred on the edge and outside the “best-fit” circle of the glenoid. A vertical position was achieved in 98 grafts (96% of all cases) immediately postoperatively, with the mean graft midline center at the 4 o’clock position. In the axial view, CT showed that 89 grafts were flush to the glenoid, whereas 2 and 11 grafts were fixed medially and laterally, respectively. In all cases, the bone graft and glenoid tended to extend toward each other to form concentric circles during the remodeling process. During follow-up observations, the height of the 11 grafts that were positioned laterally (ie, above the glenoid level) exhibited a wave-curved change. No arthropathy was observed in any patient. Patient outcomes were satisfactory after the modified arthroscopic suture-button Latarjet technique. Graft absorption mostly occurred on the edge and outside the “best-fit” circle of the glenoid. The graft exhibited the phenomenon of ectatic growing when it fused with the glenoid and finally remodeled to a new concentric circle with the humeral head analogous to the original glenoid. Grafts positioned laterally did not cause arthropathy of the joints within the period of the study.

High Prevalence of Connective Tissue Gene Variants in Professional Ballet

25-11-2019 – Angelina M. Vera,Leif E. Peterson,David Dong,Varan Haghshenas,Thomas R. Yetter,Domenica A. Delgado,Patrick C. McCulloch,Kevin E. Varner,Joshua D. Harris

Journal Article

There is a high prevalence of hypermobility spectrum disorder (HSD) in dancers. While there is no known genetic variant for HSD, hypermobile Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a genetic disorder that exists within HSD. There are many connective tissue disorders (CTDs) with known (and unknown) genes associated with hypermobility. Hypermobility has distinct advantages for participation in flexibility sports, including ballet. To determine the prevalence of gene variants associated with hypermobility in a large professional ballet company. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. In this cross-sectional investigation, 51 professional male and female dancers from a large metropolitan ballet company were eligible and offered participation after an oral and written informed consent process. Whole blood was obtained from peripheral venipuncture, and DNA was isolated. Isolated DNA was subsequently enriched for the coding exons of 60 genes associated with CTD that included hypermobility as a phenotype, including Ehlers-Danlos syndromes, osteogenesis imperfecta, Marfan syndrome, and others. Genes were targeted with hybrid capture technology. Prepared DNA libraries were then sequenced with next-generation sequencing technology. Genetic database search tools (Human Gene Mutation Database and e!Ensembl, http://useast.ensembl.org/ ) were used to query specific variants. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Of 51 dancers, 32 (63%) agreed to participate in DNA analysis (mean ± SD age, 24.3 ± 4.4 years; 18 men, 14 women). Twenty-eight dancers had at least 1 variant in the 60 genes tested, for an 88% prevalence. A total of 80 variants were found. A variant in 26 of the 60 genes was found in at least 1 dancer. Among the 28 dancers with variants, 16 were found in the Genetic variants in CTD-associated genes are highly prevalent (88%) in professional ballet dancers. This may significantly account for the high degree of motion in this population.

A High-Grade J Sign Is More Likely to Yield Higher Postoperative Patellar Laxity and Residual Maltracking in Patients With Recurrent Patellar Dislocation Treated With Derotational Distal Femoral Osteotomy

25-11-2019 – ZhiJun Zhang,Hui Zhang,GuanYang Song,XueSong Wang,Jin Zhang,Tong Zheng,QianKun Ni,Hua Feng

Journal Article

It has been speculated that the patellar J sign may have a negative effect on the clinical outcomes of patients with recurrent patellar dislocation (RPD). To (1) evaluate clinical outcomes, postoperative patellar stability, and patellar maltracking correction in patients with RPD treated with derotational distal femoral osteotomy (DDFO) and combined procedures and (2) investigate the influence of J sign severity on the clinical outcomes. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Between January 2015 and December 2016, a total of 78 patients (81 knees) with RPD, a positive J sign, and an excessive femoral anteversion angle (FAA; ≥30°) were surgically treated with DDFO and combined procedures. J sign severity was graded according to a previously described classification system (grades 1-3). Routine radiography and computed tomography were performed on every patient to evaluate the patellar height, trochlear dysplasia, genu valgum, tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance, patellar lateral tilt angle, and patella-trochlear groove distance. The patellar lateral shift distance during stress radiography was measured preoperatively and postoperatively to quantify medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) graft laxity under anesthesia, and “MPFL residual graft laxity” was defined as the patellar ridge surpassing the apex of the lateral femoral trochlea. Patients were evaluated using the Kujala, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC), and Lysholm scores preoperatively and postoperatively. Patients were allocated into 3 subgroups in terms of the severity of the J sign: low-grade group 1 (grade 1; n = 19), low-grade group 2 (grade 2; n = 16), and high-grade group (grade 3; n = 12). Subgroup analyses were performed to investigate the influence of a high-grade J sign on the clinical outcomes. Among the 78 patients (81 knees), 47 patients (47 knees) met the inclusion criteria. The mean follow-up time was 26.1 ± 1.7 months. The mean preoperative and postoperative FAAs were 36.2°± 5.3° and 10.0°± 2.1°, respectively, with a mean correction angle of 26.2°± 5.9°. At the final follow-up, all patient-reported outcomes improved significantly, and subgroup analyses showed that the high-grade group had significantly lower Kujala scores (75.6 vs 85.3 for low-grade group 1 [ In a group of patients treated for RPD with a positive preoperative J sign and increased FAA (≥30°), patients with a preoperative high-grade J sign had inferior clinical outcomes, more MPFL residual graft laxity, and greater residual patellar maltracking.

Atypical Hip Pain in Femoroacetabular Impingement: A Comparison of Outcomes Based on Primary Hip Pain Location

25-11-2019 – Mathew J. Hamula,Michael K. Ryan,Samuel L. Baron,David A. Bloom,Thomas Youm

Journal Article

Patients with symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) typically have anterior groin pain. However, a subset of these patients may have pain located laterally, posteriorly, or in a combination of locations around the hip. To report and compare outcomes of hip arthroscopy for patients with FAI and atypical hip pain versus classic anterior groin pain. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Consecutive patients undergoing hip arthroscopy for FAI between August 2011 and March 2013 were identified. A total of 258 patients were identified as having symptomatic FAI based on clinical, radiographic, and advanced imaging diagnosis of FAI. Exclusion criteria included isolated thigh, knee, or low back pain. We also excluded patients with hip abductor pathology and trochanteric bursitis. Of the 226 patients ultimately included, 159 (70.4%) reported anterior groin pain, while 67 (29.6%) reported isolated lateral or posterior hip pain or a combination of locations. Patients were categorized into 4 groups: isolated anterior groin pain, lateral hip pain, posterior hip pain, and multiple primary hip pain locations (combined). These patients were followed prospectively with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Patient characteristics, surgical characteristics, modified Harris Hip Score (m
HHS), Non-arthritic Hip Score (NAHS), revision hip arthroscopy, and conversions to total hip arthroplasty (THA) were recorded. All 226 patients were included at final follow-up. Hip arthroscopy was performed by a single sports medicine fellowship-trained orthopaedic surgeon. Preoperative patient characteristics and baseline functional outcome scores did not significantly differ among groups. All 4 groups showed statistically significant improvements in m
HHS and NAHS from baseline to final follow-up of a mean 2.63 years (range, 2.01-3.23 years). Functional outcome scores and rates of revision hip arthroscopy or conversion to THA did not significantly differ between groups. Hip arthroscopy can effectively improve patient outcomes in atypical hip pain. A careful history and physical examination should identify this clinically meaningful subset of patients with FAI who can benefit from surgical intervention while identifying patients with concomitant posterior extra-articular hip or spine pathology that should be addressed appropriately.

An Age-Based Approach to Anterior Shoulder Instability in Patients Under 40 Years Old: Analysis of a US Population

22-11-2019 – Devin P. Leland,Christopher D. Bernard,Lucas K. Keyt,Aaron J. Krych,Diane L. Dahm,Joaquin Sanchez-Sotelo,Christopher L. Camp

Journal Article

While a large volume of literature has focused on risk factors for anterior shoulder instability, the rates of recurrence are inconsistent and require additional population-based epidemiologic data. The purpose was to report the effect of patient age on the number of instability events before physician consultation, rate of surgical stabilization, recurrent instability, and progression to osteoarthritis in patients <40 years old with anterior shoulder instability, utilizing an established US geographic population. We hypothesized that younger patients would be more likely to experience multiple episodes of instability before evaluation, undergo surgery, and experience recurrent instability after surgical intervention. Descriptive epidemiologic study. An established geographic database of more than 500,000 patients was used to identify patients <40 years of age with anterior shoulder instability between 1994 and 2016. Medical records were reviewed to obtain patient characteristics, history, imaging, surgical details, and outcomes. Patients were divided into 5 groups based on age (≤15, 16-20, 21-25, 26-30, and 31-40 years) at initial instability. Comparative analysis was performed to identify differences between groups. The study population consisted of 654 patients with a mean follow-up of 11.1 years (range, 2.0-25.2 years). This resulted in 118 patients (18%) ≤15 years of age at initial instability; 250 (38%), 16 to 20 years; 110 (17%), 21 to 25 years; 80 (12%), 26 to 30 years; and 96 (15%), 31 to 40 years. Of patients ≤15 years old at initial instability 47% had 3+ instability events, compared with 12% of patients aged 31 to 40 years ( In a US epidemiologic population of patients <40 years old, the rate of recurrent anterior shoulder instability was roughly one-third after initial physician consultation. Younger patients, particularly those ≤15 and 16 to 20 years of age, were more likely to have experienced multiple instability events at the time of initial evaluation, require surgery, and experience recurrent instability compared with older patients. For every year of decrease in age at initial instability, the risk of recurrent instability or surgical intervention after physician consultation increased by 4.1% and 2.8%, respectively.

Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibition With Doxycycline Affects the Progression of Posttraumatic Osteoarthritis After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture: Evaluation in a New Nonsurgical Murine ACL Rupture Model

22-11-2019 – Xueying Zhang,Xiang-Hua Deng,Zhe Song,Brett Croen,Camila B. Carballo,Zoe Album,Ying Zhang,Reyna Bhandari,Scott A. Rodeo

Journal Article

Doxycycline has broad-spectrum activity as a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor and thus could reduce the progression of posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. Doxycycline would inhibit progression of PTOA in a murine ACL rupture model. Controlled laboratory study. For the in vitro study, cadaveric C57BL/6 male mice knees (N = 108) were used for the development of a nonsurgical ACL rupture model. For the in vivo study, 24 C57BL/6 male mice then underwent ACL rupture with our manual procedure and were divided into 4 groups: untreated control; doxycycline, 10 mg/kg/d; doxycycline, 50 mg/kg/d; and doxycycline, 100 mg/kg/d. Doxycycline was administered in drinking water beginning immediately after ACL rupture. Radiographic imaging and paw prints were evaluated at 3, 7, 14, and 28 days. The foot length and toe spread were analyzed as measures of function. Histology and MMP-13 immunohistochemistry were done at 4 weeks. Radiographs demonstrated anterior tibial subluxation and meniscal extrusion after ACL rupture, confirming knee joint instability without fractures. Statistically significant differences in gait were found between the intact and experimental groups. Histologic examination demonstrated cartilage damage, meniscal tears, and mild osteoarthritis after ACL rupture, similar to what occurs in human patients. Hypertrophy of the posterior horn of the medial and lateral meniscus was found, and tears of the posterior horn of the menisci were common. All doxycycline groups had a lower score than the untreated control group, indicating less cartilage damage. The posterior tibia of the untreated group had the most cartilage damage as compared with the 3 doxycycline groups, with a significant difference between the untreated and 50-mg/kg/d doxycycline groups, suggesting that the latter dose may protect against proteoglycan loss and decrease the progression of osteoarthritis. The nondoxycycline group had the highest synovial inflammation score among all groups, indicating that doxycycline has an inhibitory effect on synovitis. There was significantly lower MMP-13 expression on the tibia in the doxycycline-treated groups, with a positive correlation between doxycycline concentration and MMP-13 inhibition. Modulation of MMP-13 activity by doxycycline treatment may offer a novel biological pathway to decrease the progression of PTOA after ACL rupture. Doxycycline is an approved, readily available drug with infrequent side effects of photosensitivity and gastrointestinal symptoms. Future clinical trials could evaluate doxycycline to reduce or prevent progressive cartilage damage after ACL rupture.

Peripheral-Track and Central-Track Hill-Sachs Lesions: A New Concept of Assessing an On-Track Lesion

22-11-2019 – Nobuyuki Yamamoto,Kiyotsugu Shinagawa,Taku Hatta,Eiji Itoi

Journal Article

It has been demonstrated biomechanically that 25% is a critical size defect of the glenoid. However, a recent clinical study reported that a bone loss between 13.5% and 20% (subcritical bone loss) led to impairment of quality of life but not a recurrence of instability. To clarify whether a subcritical bone loss exists in assessing a Hill-Sachs lesion via a disease-specific quality of life questionnaire. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Fifty patients (mean age, 27 years) with <25% glenoid defect who were treated with arthroscopic Bankart repair for recurrent anterior dislocation were assessed at a mean follow-up of 28 months. All had an on-track Hill-Sachs lesion. The Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI) and Rowe scores were used for the clinical evaluation. The Hill-Sachs interval was measured on 3-dimensional computed tomography images and divided by the glenoid track width, defined as the Hill-Sachs occupancy (in percentages). The glenoid track was divided into 4 zones based on the percentage of the Hill-Sachs occupancy: zone 1, <25%; zone 2, 25% to <50%; zone 3, 50% to <75%; and zone 4, ≥75%. The recurrence rate was 6% (3 of 50 shoulders). The Rowe score significantly improved from 45.2 ± 4.7 (mean ± SD) preoperatively to 92.3 ± 6.5 at the final follow-up ( Patients with on-track lesions can be divided into 2 subgroups: those with the Hill-Sachs occupancy ≥75% (peripheral-track lesion) showed significantly worse WOSI score without recurrent instability events than those with the Hill-Sacks occupancy <75% (central-track lesion).

How Much Time Is Needed Between Serial “Return to Play” Assessments to Achieve Clinically Important Strength Gains in Patients Recovering From Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction?

22-11-2019 – Stephan G. Bodkin,Margaret H. Rutherford,David R. Diduch,Stephen F. Brockmeier,Joe M. Hart

Journal Article

Pass rates for return-to-play evaluations are alarmingly low for patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Since timing of return to play is a complicated decision, it is important that patients be given optimal time to realize meaningful improvements in strength that warrant additional testing. To (1) compare outcomes among patients assessed at different time points after ACLR, (2) determine strength gains indicative of improvements in subjective function, and (3) determine the amount of time necessary to achieve meaningful strength gains. Cross-sectional/case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 293 patients participated in the study after ACLR (mean ± SD, 23.2 ± 10.1 years old; n = 142 female participants; 6.4 ± 0.9 months after ACLR). Participants were stratified on the month of their evaluation after ACLR: 5 to 6 months (n = 122), 6 to 7 months (n = 102), 7 to 8 months (n = 43), and 8 to 9 months (n = 26). The International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective form and knee extensor and flexor torque and symmetry, as assessed through an isokinetic dynamometer, were compared among groups. Forty patients (20 female participants, 20.4 ± 7.1 years old) were referred for subsequent testing (2.14 ± 0.78 months after initial visit). Subjective improvement between visits was defined as a ≥9-point change of the IKDC score. Thresholds of knee extensor torque and symmetry indicative of subjective improvement and the time between assessments needed to achieve these strength improvements were determined. Patients between 5 and 6 months (IKDC, 79.7; interquartile range [IQR], 70.1-88.5) had lower subjective function compared to patients between 6 and 7 months (IKDC, 83.9; IQR, 74.5-92.0; Patients demonstrate increasing subjective and quadriceps function when tested at later time points from surgery; however, the observed values are low, suggesting that at 9 months patients are demonstrating deficits that may be improving. Approximately 2 months is needed to observe clinically meaningful improvements.

Outcomes of Quadriceps Tendon With Patellar Bone Block Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Adolescent Patients With a Minimum 2-Year Follow-up

19-11-2019 – Alexia G. Gagliardi,Patrick M. Carry,Harin B. Parikh,Jay C. Albright

Journal Article

The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in the adolescent population is increasing. The quadriceps tendon-patellar bone autograft (QPA) has been established as a reliable graft choice for ACL reconstruction in the adult population. To investigate graft failure, ability to return to sport, patient-reported functional outcomes, joint laxity, and subsequent injury among adolescent patients >2 years after primary ACL reconstruction with the QPA. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Consecutive patients who underwent QPA ACL reconstruction performed by a single surgeon were identified from an existing database. Information available in the database included demographics, concomitant/subsequent injuries, surgical procedures, graft failure, return to sport, and Lachman examination collected by medical record review. Pediatric International Knee Documentation Committee (Pedi-IKDC) and Lysholm scores were collected by telephone or during a clinic visit >2 years postoperatively. The final cohort included 81 of 104 consecutive adolescent patients aged 10 to 18 years (mean ± SD, 15.9 ± 1.7 years at the time of surgery) for whom follow-up information was collected at >2 years after surgery. The cumulative incidence of graft failure within the 36-month follow-up period was 1.2% (95% CI, 0.1%-11.4%). The rate of ipsilateral non-ACL injuries was similar (1.2%; 95% CI, 0.2%-7.6%). Contralateral ACL and non-ACL injuries requiring surgical intervention were documented in 9.8% (95% CI, 4.9%-19.5%). The median Pedi-IKDC score was 94 (interquartile range, 89-98). The median Lysholm score was 99.5 (interquartile range, 89.0-100.0). At 36 months after surgery, 87.9% (95% CI, 81.4%-94.9%) of individuals had returned to play. The quadriceps tendon-patellar autograft is a novel graft that demonstrates excellent stability and favorable patient-reported outcomes. Based on these results, the QPA is a reliable choice for primary ACL reconstruction in adolescent patients.

Comparing Outcomes of Competitive Athletes Versus Nonathletes Undergoing Hip Arthroscopy for Treatment of Femoroacetabular Impingement Syndrome

19-11-2019 – Ian M. Clapp,Benedict U. Nwachukwu,Edward C. Beck,Kyleen Jan,Anirudh K. Gowd,Shane J. Nho

Journal Article

A growing number of studies have examined return to sport in competitive athletes after undergoing hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS); however, few have evaluated the rate of achieving meaningful clinical outcomes in this group. To determine if competitive athletes (professional, semiprofessional, or collegiate) have better 2-year patient-reported outcomes and achieve the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) and substantial clinical benefit at higher rates when compared with nonathletes undergoing hip arthroscopy for the treatment of FAIS. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. The study was a retrospective analysis of all consecutive patients who identified as either a competitive athlete or a nonathlete and had undergone hip arthroscopy for FAIS by a single fellowship-trained surgeon between January 2012 and April 2017. Patients in the 2 groups were matched 1:2 by age, sex, and body mass index. Baseline and clinical outcomes, including the Hip Outcome Score-Activities of Daily Living, Hip Outcome Score-Sports Subscale (HOS-SS), modified Harris Hip Score, and international Hip Outcome Tool-12, were collected preoperatively and at 2 years postoperatively and compared between the groups. The MCID and substantial clinical benefit were calculated for each group separately and compared using chi-square analysis. A total of 59 competitive athletes and 118 nonathletes were included in the final analysis. Most of the competitive athletes were soccer players (23.7%), followed by softball players (10.2%) and runners (10.2%). Postoperative score comparison between competitive athletes and nonathletes demonstrated a statistically significant difference in the HOS-SS (mean ± SD, 84.5 ± 19.0 vs 76.1 ± 23.8; Hip arthroscopy for the treatment of FAIS in competitive athletes and nonathletes produced clinically meaningful outcomes in both patient groups. However, competitive athletes achieved the MCID on the HOS-SS at higher rates than nonathletes and had significantly higher scores at 2 years postoperatively on the HOS-SS.

Use of Platelet-Rich Plasma for the Improvement of Pain and Function in Rotator Cuff Tears: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis With Bias Assessment

19-11-2019 – Xiao Chen,Ian A. Jones,Ryan Togashi,Caron Park,C. Thomas Vangsness

Journal Article

Many clinical trials have investigated the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to treat rotator cuff-related abnormalities. Several meta-analyses have been published, but none have focused exclusively on level 1 randomized controlled trials. To assess the efficacy of PRP for rotator cuff-related abnormalities and evaluate how specific tendon involvement, the inclusion of leukocytes, and the use of gel/nongel formulations affect pain and functional outcomes. Systematic review and meta-analysis. The literature was screened following PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Baseline, short-term, and long-term data were extracted for the Constant score, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) score, visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, retear rate, Simple Shoulder Test (SST), and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score. The 100-point modified Coleman Methodology Score (CMS) was used to assess methodological quality. Funnel plots and the Egger test were used to screen for publication bias, and sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of potential outliers. A total of 18 level 1 studies were included in this review, 17 (1116 patients) of which could be included in quantitative analysis. The mean modified CMS was 79.4 ± 10.39. The Constant scores of patients who received PRP were significantly better short term (weighted mean difference [WMD], 2.89 [95% CI, 0.89-4.90]; Long-term retear rates were significantly decreased in patients with rotator cuff-related abnormalities who received PRP. Significant improvements in PRP-treated patients were noted for multiple functional outcomes, but none reached their respective minimal clinically important differences. Overall, our results suggest that PRP may positively affect clinical outcomes, but limited data, study heterogeneity, and poor methodological quality hinder firm conclusions.

Effect of Graft Choice on Revision and Contralateral Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Results From the New Zealand ACL Registry

15-11-2019 – Richard Rahardja,Mark Zhu,Hamish Love,Mark G. Clatworthy,Andrew Paul Monk,Simon W. Young

Journal Article

The patellar tendon is often considered the “gold standard” graft for reducing the risk of graft rupture after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. However, its use may also be associated with an increased risk of injury to the contralateral ACL. To clarify the association between graft choice and the risk of revision and contralateral ACL reconstruction. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Prospective data captured by the New Zealand ACL Registry between April 2014 and December 2018 were reviewed. All primary ACL reconstructions performed using either a hamstring tendon or patellar tendon autograft were included. Cox regression survival analysis adjusting for patient factors was performed to compare the risk of revision and contralateral ACL reconstruction between the hamstring tendon graft and the patellar tendon graft. A total of 7155 primary ACL reconstructions were reviewed, of which 5563 (77.7%) were performed using a hamstring tendon graft and 1592 (22.3%) were performed using a patellar tendon graft. Patients with a hamstring tendon graft had a revision rate of 2.7% compared with 1.3% in patients with a patellar tendon graft (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.51; 95% CI, 1.55-4.06; Use of a patellar tendon graft reduced the risk of graft rupture but was associated with an increased risk of injury to the contralateral ACL. Adequate rehabilitation and informed decision making on return to activity and injury prevention measures may be important in preventing subsequent injury to the healthy knee.

Graft Size and Orientation Within the Femoral Notch Affect Graft Healing at 1 Year After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

15-11-2019 – Takeshi Oshima,Sven Putnis,Samuel Grasso,Antonio Klasan,David Anthony Parker

Journal Article

The combined influence of anatomic and operative factors affecting graft healing after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction within the femoral notch is not well understood. To determine the influence of graft size and orientation in relation to femoral notch anatomy, with the signal/noise quotient (SNQ) of the graft used as a measure of graft healing after primary single-bundle ACL reconstruction. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A total of 98 patients with a minimum 2-year follow-up after primary single-bundle ACL reconstruction with hamstring tendon autografts were included. Graft healing was evaluated at 1 year on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan as the mean SNQ measured from 3 regions situated at sites at the proximal, middle, and distal graft. Patient characteristics, chondropenia severity score, tunnel sizes, tunnel locations, graft bending angle (GBA), graft sagittal angle, posterior tibial slope (PTS), graft length, graft volume, femoral notch volume, and graft-notch volume ratio (measured using postoperative 3-T high-resolution MRI) were evaluated to determine any association with 1-year graft healing. The correlation between 1-year graft healing and clinical outcome at minimum 2 years was also assessed. There was no significant difference in mean SNQ between male and female patients ( The 1-year SNQ value had a significant positive association with graft-notch volume ratio and GBA. Both graft size and graft orientation appeared to have a significant influence on graft healing as assessed on 1-year high-resolution MRI scan.

A Contemporary Look at the Evaluation and Treatment of Adult Borderline and Frank Hip Dysplasia

14-11-2019 – Matthew J. Kraeutler,Marc R. Safran,Anthony J. Scillia,Olufemi R. Ayeni,Tigran Garabekyan,Omer Mei-Dan

Journal Article

Adult hip dysplasia is often diagnosed according to the lateral center-edge angle (LCEA). Patients with frank hip dysplasia (LCEA <20°) traditionally require treatment with bony realignment through a periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) and/or derotational femoral osteotomy, while patients with borderline hip dysplasia (BHD) present a challenging treatment dilemma, as it remains unknown when they should be treated with hip arthroscopy and/or a PAO. To perform a narrative review to report the differences in hip morphology and clinical outcomes between adult patients with frank hip dysplasia and BHD. Narrative review. A systematic search of the literature was conducted through the Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases with the search phrase The search identified 305 articles, of which 48 were considered relevant to this study after screening of titles and abstracts. Four articles discussed new radiographic means of evaluating adult hip dysplasia, 16 articles analyzed morphology of dysplastic hips, and 28 articles described the clinical outcomes of patients with frank hip dysplasia or BHD treated with hip arthroscopy and/or PAO. Because the level of evidence obtained from this search was not adequate for systematic review or meta-analysis, a current concepts review on the diagnosis, hip morphology, and clinical outcomes of patients with frank hip dysplasia or BHD is presented. Adult hip dysplasia is most commonly diagnosed based on the LCEA; however, the LCEA is an unreliable sole marker for dysplasia, and additional radiographic parameters should be utilized. Furthermore, specific pathology identified on imaging and/or during hip arthroscopy can provide clues to a surgeon when the diagnosis is inconclusive according to history and physical examination alone. While the data support that patients with frank dysplasia are best treated with PAO, there is no such preferred treatment for patients with BHD, who have a wide spectrum of instability. Selective use of arthroscopic labral and capsular treatment alone may provide good results in carefully chosen patients with BHD, while some may end up requiring a bony realignment procedure.

The Safety of Blood Flow Restriction Training as a Therapeutic Intervention for Patients With Musculoskeletal Disorders: A Systematic Review

11-11-2019 – Melissa C. Minniti,Andrew P. Statkevich,Ryan L. Kelly,Victoria P. Rigsby,Meghan M. Exline,Daniel I. Rhon,Derek Clewley

Journal Article

The effectiveness of blood flow restriction training (BFRT) as compared with other forms of training, such as resistance training, has been evaluated in the literature in clinical and nonclinical populations. However, the safety of this intervention has been summarized only in healthy populations and not in clinical populations with musculoskeletal disorders. To evaluate the safety and adverse events associated with BFRT in patients with musculoskeletal disorders. Systematic review. A literature search was conducted with 3 online databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Embase). Eligibility criteria for selecting studies were as follows: (1) BFRT was used as a clinical intervention, (2) study participants had a disorder of the musculoskeletal system, (3) authors addressed adverse events, (4) studies were published in English, and (5) the intervention was performed with human participants. Nineteen studies met eligibility criteria, with a pooled sample size of 322. Diagnoses included various knee-related disorders, inclusion body myositis, polymyositis or dermatomyositis, thoracic outlet syndrome, Achilles tendon rupture, and bony fractures. Nine studies reported no adverse events, while 3 reported rare adverse events, including an upper extremity deep vein thrombosis and rhabdomyolysis. Three case studies reported common adverse events, including acute muscle pain and acute muscle fatigue. In the randomized controlled trials, individuals exposed to BFRT were not more likely to have an adverse event than individuals exposed to exercise alone. Of the 19 studies, the adverse events were as follows: overall, 14 of 322; rare overall, 3 of 322; rare BFRT, 3 of 168; rare control, 0 of 154; any adverse BFRT, 10 of 168; any adverse control, 4 of 154. A majority of studies were excluded because they did not address safety. BFRT appears to be a safe strengthening approach for knee-related musculoskeletal disorders, but further research is needed to make definitive conclusions and to evaluate the safety in other musculoskeletal conditions. Improved definitions of adverse events related to BFRT are needed to include clear criteria for differentiating among common, uncommon, and rare adverse events. Finally, further research is needed to effectively screen who might be at risk for rare adverse events.

The Influence of Psychological Factors on the Incidence and Severity of Sports-Related Concussions: A Systematic Review

08-11-2019 – Lily N. Trinh,Symone M. Brown,Mary K. Mulcahey

Journal Article

An athlete’s preexisting psychological factors may influence the incidence and/or severity of sports-related concussions (SRCs). To determine if emotional states, personality traits, temperament, life stressors, and explanatory styles (optimism vs pessimism) influence the incidence and severity of SRCs in athletes. Systematic review. A systematic literature search of multiple major medical reference databases was performed following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Studies were included that evaluated the effect of preexisting psychological factors on the incidence and severity of SRCs in male and female athletes participating in all sports. The initial search identified 1195 articles. Ten studies met our inclusion criteria and were included in our analysis. Factors such as meanness, aggression, and psychoticism were associated with an increased incidence of SRCs. Baseline traits of irritability, sadness, nervousness, and depressive symptoms were associated with worse symptomatology after SRCs. In young athletes, preexisting psychiatric illnesses, family history of psychiatric illness, and significant life stressors were associated with an increased risk of developing postconcussion syndrome after SRCs. This systematic review demonstrated a potential relationship between an athlete’s preexisting psychological factors and the incidence and severity of SRCs. These associations are not entirely clear owing to the heterogeneity across included studies and the low-to-moderate certainty of evidence. Future studies should attempt to evaluate men and women independently, use well-validated psychological questionnaires, and limit the usage of self-reported SRCs, when possible. Furthermore, the potential efficacy of baseline psychological factor and/or symptom reports on the prevention and management of SRCs should be explored.

Diagnostic Performance of Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Detecting Meniscal Ramp Lesions in Patients With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

05-11-2019 – Boyeon Koo,Sun Hwa Lee,Seong Jong Yun,Jae Gwang Song

Journal Article

The clinical importance of meniscal ramp lesions in patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear has emerged as a major issue. However, the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting ramp lesions has a wide range. To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the diagnostic performance of MRI for diagnosing ramp lesion in patients with ACL tear. Systematic review and meta-analysis. A literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library was performed based on the revised guidelines for the PRISMA DTA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies) statement. Diagnostic performance studies using MRI as the index test and arthroscopy as the reference standard for ramp lesion were included. Bivariate and hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic modeling was used to evaluate the diagnostic performance. Meta-regression analyses were performed to identify potential sources of heterogeneity. The review and meta-analysis included 9 studies from 8 articles (883 patients with ACL tear and reconstruction). The summary sensitivity, summary specificity, and area under the hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic for ramp lesion were 0.71 (95% CI, 0.59-0.81), 0.94 (95% CI, 0.88-0.97), and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.87-0.92), respectively. Among the potential covariates, magnet strength ( MRI demonstrated moderate sensitivity and excellent specificity for diagnosing ramp lesion. Routine arthroscopic assessment is recommended for the presence of ramp lesion, regardless of whether it is suspected on MRI. Further clinicoradiological studies of diagnostic algorithms are needed for identifying ramp lesion, including high-resolution MRI with appropriate knee position.

Postoperative Recurrence of Instability After Arthroscopic Bankart Repair for Shoulders With Primary Instability Compared With Recurrent Instability: Influence of Bipolar Bone Defect Size

05-11-2019 – Shigeto Nakagawa,Takehito Hirose,Ryohei Uchida,Makoto Tanaka,Tatsuo Mae

Journal Article

In shoulders with traumatic anterior instability, a bipolar bone defect has recently been recognized as an important indicator of the prognosis. To investigate the influence of bipolar bone defects on postoperative recurrence after arthroscopic Bankart repair performed at primary instability. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. The study group consisted of 45 patients (45 shoulders) who underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair at primary instability before recurrence and were followed for at least 2 years. The control group consisted of 95 patients (95 shoulders) with recurrent instability who underwent Bankart repair and were followed for at least 2 years. Glenoid defects and Hill-Sachs lesions were classified into 5 size categories on 3-dimensional computed tomography and were allocated scores ranging from 0 for no defect to 4 for the largest defect. The shoulders were classified according to the total score for both lesions (0-8 points). The postoperative recurrence rate was investigated for each score of bipolar bone defects and was compared between patients with primary instability and patients with recurrent instability. The same analysis was performed for the age at operation (<20 years, 20-29 years, or ≥30 years) and for the presence of an off-track Hill-Sachs lesion. Bipolar bone defects were smaller in shoulders with primary instability (mean ± SD defect score, 1.4 ± 1.5 points) than in those with recurrent instability (3.6 ± 1.9 points) and were larger in older patients than in younger patients at the time of primary instability. The postoperative recurrence rate was low (6.7%) in shoulders with primary instability regardless of the size of the bipolar bone defect and the patient's age, whereas the postoperative recurrence rate was high (23.2%) in shoulders with recurrent instability, especially among patients younger than 20 years with bipolar bone defects of 2 points or greater. An off-track Hill-Sachs lesion was found in only 1 patient in the oldest age group (2.2%) at primary instability, but it was found in 19 patients (20%) at recurrent instability, including 14 patients younger than 30 years. Among patients with an off-track lesion, the postoperative recurrence rate was significantly higher in patients younger than 20 years with recurrent instability (recurrence rates: <20 years, 71.4%; 20-29 years, 14.3%; ≥30 years, 0%). The recurrence rate was consistently low in patients with primary instability and was significantly influenced by bipolar bone defect size and patient age in patients with recurrent instability.

Outcomes After Latarjet Procedure: Patients With First-Time Versus Recurrent Dislocations

24-10-2019 – Alexandre Hardy,Vincent Sabatier,Pierre Laboudie,Bradley Schoch,Marie Vigan,Jean David Werthel,Geoffroy Nourissat,Philippe Valenti,Jean Kany,Julien Deranlot,Nicolas Solignac,Philippe Hardy

Journal Article

The preoperative number of dislocations has been previously proved to be a major factor influencing the results after Bankart repair with more preoperative dislocations correlated with higher recurrence rates and more reoperations. This could possibly be because of the lower quality of the tissue repaired during the procedure after multiple dislocations. On the other hand, the Latarjet procedure does not “repair” but rather reconstructs and augments the anterior glenoid. The main objective was to report the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing a Latarjet procedure after 1 dislocation versus multiple (≥2) dislocations. The hypothesis was that the preoperative number of dislocations would not influence clinical results. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Patients older than 18 years who had undergone a primary Latarjet procedure for shoulder instability with at least 2 years of follow-up were included. Three different techniques were used: a mini-open technique using 2 screws, an arthroscopic technique using 2 screws, and an arthroscopic technique using 2 cortical buttons. Patients were evaluated and answered a questionnaire to assess the number of episodes of dislocation before surgery, the time between the first dislocation and surgery, recurrence of the dislocation, revision surgery, the Walch-Duplay score, the Simple Shoulder Test score, and the visual analog scale (VAS) score for pain. A total of 308 patients were included for analysis with a mean follow-up of 3.4 ± 0.8 years. Of that, 83 patients were included in the first-time dislocation group and 225 in the recurrent dislocation group. At last follow-up, the rates of recurrence and reoperation were not significantly different between groups: 4.8% in the first-time dislocation group versus 3.65% in the recurrent dislocation group and 6.1% versus 4.0%, respectively. The overall Walch-Duplay scores at last follow-up were also comparable between the 2 groups, 67.3 ± 24.85 and 71.8 ± 25.1, even though the first-time dislocation group showed a lower pain subscore (15.0 ± 8.6 vs 18.0 ± 7.5; The number of episodes of dislocation before surgery does not affect postoperative instability rates and reoperation rates after the Latarjet procedure. However, patients with first-time dislocations had more postoperative pain compared with patients with recurrent dislocations before surgery.

Outcomes After Arthroscopic Hip Labral Reconstruction: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

21-10-2019 – Michael D. Rahl,Collin LaPorte,Gabrielle K. Steinl,Michaela O’Connor,T. Sean Lynch,Travis J. Menge

Journal Article

The acetabular labrum is critical to maintenance of hip stability and has been found to play a key role in preservation of the hip fluid seal. For irreparable labral damage, arthroscopic labral reconstruction is an evolving technique that has been shown to decrease hip pain and restore function. To provide a comprehensive review of current literature for arthroscopic hip labral reconstruction, with a focus on determining if outcomes differ between autograft or allograft tissue. Systematic review and meta-analysis. PubMed and Scopus online databases were searched with the key terms “hip,”labrum,”reconstruction,” and “graft” in varying combinations. Procedures performed, complications, failures, and functional outcome measures were included in this analysis. The inverse variance method was used to calculate pooled estimates and 95% CIs. Eight studies with 537 hips were included. Mean age was 37.4 years (95% CI, 34.5-40.4 years), and mean follow-up time was 29 months (95% CI, 26-33 months). Survivorship after autograft reconstruction ranged from 75.7% to 100%, as compared with 86.3% to 90.0% in the allograft cohort. In the autograft cohort, failures included 0% to 13.2% conversion to total hip arthroplasty and 0% to 11.0% revision hip arthroscopy. Failures in the allograft cohort included 0% to 12.9% total hip arthroplasty conversion, 0% to 10.0% revision arthroscopy, and 0% to 0.8% open revision surgery. Based on 6 studies, the modified Harris Hip Score improved by a mean 29.0 points after labral reconstruction ( Arthroscopic hip labral reconstruction results in clinically significant improvements in patient-reported outcomes. Our analysis indicates that there are no significant differences in outcomes based on graft type alone. A number of factors may determine graft choice, including patient preference, surgeon experience, operative time, morbidity, and cost. Proper patient selection based on age and severity of degenerative joint disease will also optimize outcomes after labral reconstruction.

Are Implant Choice and Surgical Approach Associated With Biceps Tenodesis Construct Strength? A Systematic Review and Meta-regression

04-10-2019 – Hiroshi F. Aida,Brendan Y. Shi,Eric G. Huish,Edward G. McFarland,Uma Srikumaran

Journal Article

Despite the increasing use of biceps tenodesis, there is a lack of consensus regarding optimal implant choice (suture anchor vs interference screw) and implant placement (suprapectoral vs subpectoral). The purpose was to determine the associations of procedural parameters with the biomechanical performance of biceps tenodesis constructs. The authors hypothesized that ultimate failure load (UFL) would not differ between sub- and suprapectoral repairs or between interference screw and suture anchor constructs and that the number of implants and number of sutures would be positively associated with construct strength. Meta-analysis. The authors conducted a systematic literature search for studies that measured the biomechanical performance of biceps tenodesis repairs in human cadaveric specimens. Two independent reviewers extracted data from studies that met the inclusion criteria. Meta-regression was then performed on the pooled data set. Outcome variables were UFL and mode of failure. Procedural parameters (fixation type, fixation site, implant diameter, and numbers of implants and sutures used) were included as covariates. Twenty-five biomechanical studies, representing 494 cadaveric specimens, met the inclusion criteria. The use of interference screws (vs suture anchors) was associated with a mean 86 N-greater UFL (95% CI, 34-138 N; These findings suggest that fixation with interference screws, rather than suture anchors, and the use of more sutures are associated with greater biceps tenodesis strength, as well as higher odds of native tissue failure versus implant pullout. Although constructs with suture anchors show inferior UFL compared with those with interference screws, incorporation of additional sutures may increase the strength of suture anchor constructs. Supra- and subpectoral repairs provide equivalent biomechanical strength when controlling for potential confounders.

Outcomes of Hip Arthroscopic Surgery in Adolescents With a Subanalysis on Return to Sport: A Systematic Review

20-09-2019 – Sarah L. Chen,David R. Maldonado,Cammille C. Go,Cynthia Kyin,Ajay C. Lall,Benjamin G. Domb

Journal Article

There is a plethora of literature on outcomes after hip arthroscopic surgery in the adult population; however, outcomes in the adolescent population have not been as widely reported. Additionally, as adolescents represent a very active population, it is imperative to understand their athletic activity and return to sport after hip arthroscopic surgery. To analyze patient-reported outcomes (PROs) after hip arthroscopic surgery in adolescents (aged 10-19 years) and present a return-to-sport analysis in the athletic adolescent subgroup. Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines to identify articles that reported PROs after hip arthroscopic surgery in adolescents. The standardized mean difference was calculated to compare the effect size of hip arthroscopic surgery on various PROs. For the athletic subgroup, a return-to-sport summary was also provided. Ten studies, with 618 adolescent hips and a collective study period of December 2004 to February 2015, were included in this systematic review. Across all studies, the mean age was 15.8 years (range, 11.0-19.9 years), and female patients composed approximately 56.7% of the entire cohort. The mean follow-up was 34.5 months (range, 12-120 months). The modified Harris Hip Score (m
HHS) was reported in 9 studies, and at latest follow-up, scores were excellent in 4 studies (range, 90-95) and good in the remaining 5 studies (range, 82.1-89.6). All adolescents also showed significant improvement on the Non-Arthritic Hip Score (NAHS), the Hip Outcome Score-Activities of Daily Living (HOS-ADL), the HOS-Sport-Specific Subscale (HOS-SSS), the physical component of the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12P), a visual analog scale for pain (VAS), and both versions of the International Hip Outcome Tool (i
HOT-12 and i
HOT-33) at latest follow-up ( In the setting of labral tears and femoroacetabular impingement, hip arthroscopic surgery can safely be performed in adolescents and leads to significant functional improvement. Furthermore, athletic adolescents return to sport at high levels after hip arthroscopic surgery.

Outcomes of Revision Hip Arthroscopic Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

10-09-2019 – Michaela O’Connor,Gabrielle K. Steinl,Ajay S. Padaki,Kyle R. Duchman,Robert W. Westermann,T. Sean Lynch

Journal Article

While the indications for primary hip arthroscopic surgery in treating femoroacetabular abnormalities continue to be defined, the indications and outcomes for revision hip arthroscopic surgery remain ambiguous. However, revision hip arthroscopic surgery is performed in 5% to 14% of patients after their index procedure. While patient-reported outcomes (PROs) generally improve after revision procedures, the extent of their improvement is not well defined. To determine the outcomes and efficacy of revision hip arthroscopic surgery in patients who remain symptomatic after their index procedure. Meta-analysis and systematic review. The terms “hip arthroscopy,”revisions,”outcomes,” and “femoroacetabular impingement” were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar. After screening, 15 studies were included for review. In addition to hip-specific metrics, functional outcome measures were included. Pooled estimates and 95% CIs were calculated using inverse variance methods. A total of 4765 hips in 4316 patients were identified. The most common indication for revision surgery was inadequate bony resection during the index procedure. Meta-analysis showed that all PROs improved significantly from baseline to final follow-up after revision hip arthroscopic surgery. Notably, the modified Harris Hip Score (m
HHS) increased a mean of 17.20 points after revision hip arthroscopic surgery, the Hip Outcome Score-Activities of Daily Living (HOS-ADL) improved by 13.98, and the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain decreased by 3.16. However, when compared with primary hip arthroscopic surgery, the mean PRO scores after revision hip arthroscopic surgery were lower. After revision hip arthroscopic surgery, the rates of conversion to total hip arthroplasty ranged from 0% to 14.3%, and the rates of further arthroscopic revision ranged from 2% to 14%. Inadequate bony resection represents the most common indication for revision hip arthroscopic surgery. PROs improve significantly after revision hip arthroscopic surgery but remain lower than those of patients undergoing primary hip arthroscopic surgery.

A Majority of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries Can Be Prevented by Injury Prevention Programs: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials and Cluster–Randomized Controlled Trials With Meta-analysis

30-08-2019 – Yu-Lun Huang,Jaehun Jung,Colin M.S. Mulligan,Jaekeun Oh,Marc F. Norcross

Journal Article

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs (IPPs) are generally accepted as being valuable for reducing injury risk. However, significant methodological limitations of previous meta-analyses raise questions about the efficacy of these programs and the extent to which meeting current best-practice ACL IPP recommendations influences the protective effect of these programs. To (1) estimate the protective effect of ACL IPPs while controlling for common methodological limitations of previous meta-analyses and (2) systematically categorize IPP components and factors related to IPP delivery to assess the validity of current best-practice IPP recommendations. Systematic review with meta-analysis. A systematic search of 5 electronic scientific databases was conducted to identify studies testing the efficacy of ACL IPPs. Studies were included if (1) the intervention aimed to prevent ACL injury, (2) the incidence rate (IR) or other outcome data that made it possible to calculate the IR for both the intervention and control groups were reported, and (3) the study design was a prospective randomized controlled trial (RCT) or cluster-RCT. Of the 2219 studies screened, 8 studies were included in the quantitative synthesis, and their analysis revealed a significant reduction in ACL IR when athletes received IPPs (IR ratio = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.30-0.73; Despite limiting the analysis to only high-quality studies and controlling for time at risk and potential clustering effects, the study showed that ACL IPPs had a significant protective effect and reduced injury rates by 53%. However, significant variability in the specific exercises and the manner of program delivery suggests that ACL IPPs may be able to be designed within an overarching best-practice framework. This may allow practitioners the flexibility to develop IPPs that meet the specific characteristics of the target population and potentially increase the likelihood that these programs will be widely adopted and implemented.

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Within 3 Weeks Does Not Increase Stiffness and Complications Compared With Delayed Reconstruction: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

05-08-2019 – Luca Deabate,Davide Previtali,Alberto Grassi,Giuseppe Filardo,Christian Candrian,Marco Delcogliano

Journal Article

Injury-to-surgery time has been identified as a key point in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, with early versus delayed treatment remaining a debated and controversial topic in the management of ACL tears. The aim was to quantitatively synthesize the best literature evidence by including only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing early versus delayed ACL reconstruction, with a clear and univocal definition of cutoffs of early or delayed surgery. The hypothesis was that early treatment would lead to similar final clinical results compared with the delayed approach while providing a faster recovery without an increase in complications after ACL reconstruction. Meta-analysis. A systematic literature search was performed on February 12, 2019, using PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and gray literature databases. According to previous literature, 2 analyses with different cutoffs for injury-to-surgery time (3 weeks and 10 weeks) were performed to distinguish early and delayed reconstruction. The influence of timing was analyzed through meta-analyses in terms of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), risk of complications, range of motion (ROM) limitation, risk of retears, and residual laxity. Risk of bias and quality of evidence were assessed following the Cochrane guidelines. Eight studies (5 in 3-week cutoff analysis and 3 in 10-week cutoff analysis) were included. No differences were found in terms of PROMs, risk of complications, ROM limitation, risk of retears, and residual laxity either in the 3-week cutoff analysis or in the 10-week cutoff analysis ( This meta-analysis did not confirm the previously advocated benefits of delaying ACL surgery to avoid the acute posttraumatic phase. In fact, RCTs demonstrated that timing of surgery after ACL tears has no influence on the final functional outcome, risk of retears, or residual instability. While no data were available about the recovery time, literature results showed that early ACL reconstruction could be performed without increasing the risk of complications. CRD42019119319 (PROSPERO).

Suture Button Versus Hook Plate for Acute Unstable Acromioclavicular Joint Dislocation: A Meta-analysis

17-07-2019 – Cong Wang,Jia-Hong Meng,Yi-Wen Zhang,Ming-Min Shi

Journal Article

Surgical treatment is indicated for unstable acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocation. The hook plate (HP) technique is a commonly used treatment method, but the use of the suture button (SB) technique is increasing. To conduct a meta-analysis of clinical studies evaluating patient outcomes between the SB and HP techniques for acute unstable AC joint dislocation. Meta-analysis. A literature search of the Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane Library databases was performed according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Cohort studies and case-control studies comparing the SB and HP procedures for acute unstable AC joint dislocation were included. Statistical analysis was performed with Rev
Man (v 5.3.5). Eight clinical studies that met the inclusion criteria were identified and included a total of 204 patients treated with the SB technique and 195 patients with the HP technique. Patients treated with the SB technique had a higher Constant score (mean difference [MD], 3.95; 95% CI, 1.20-6.70; This meta-analysis demonstrated that the SB technique resulted in better functional outcomes and a reduced visual analog scale pain score when compared with the HP technique. However, for operation time, coracoclavicular distance, complications, and loss of reduction, there were no statistically significant differences between the techniques. Compared with the open procedure, arthroscopic SB may be superior for better functional outcomes.

Dynamic Stabilization of Syndesmosis Injuries Reduces Complications and Reoperations as Compared With Screw Fixation: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

12-06-2019 – Alberto Grassi,Kristian Samuelsson,Pieter D’Hooghe,Matteo Romagnoli,Massimiliano Mosca,Stefano Zaffagnini,Annunziato Amendola

Journal Article

Several devices for obtaining dynamic fixation of the syndesmosis have been introduced in recent years, but their efficacy has been tested in only a few randomized controlled trials (RCTs), without demonstrating any clear benefit over the traditional static fixation with screws. To perform a level 1 meta-analysis of RCTs to investigate the complications, subjective outcomes, and functional results after dynamic or static fixation of acute syndesmotic injuries. Meta-analysis of RCTs. A systematic literature search was performed of the Medline/PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Embase electronic databases, as well as Clinical
Trials.gov for unpublished studies. Eligible studies were RCTs comparing dynamic fixation and static fixation of acute syndesmosis injuries. A meta-analysis was performed, while bias and quality of evidence were rated according to the Cochrane Database questionnaire and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation guidelines. Dynamic fixation had a significantly reduced relative risk (RR = 0.55, The dynamic fixation of syndesmotic injuries was able to reduce the number of complications and improve clinical outcomes as compared with static screw fixation-especially malreduction and clinical instability or diastasis-at a follow-up of 2 years. A lower risk of reoperation was found with dynamic fixation as compared with static fixation with permanent screws. However, the lack of patients or personnel blinding, treatment heterogeneity, small samples, and short follow-up limit the overall quality of this evidence.

Hamstring Autograft Versus Hybrid Graft for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Systematic Review

05-06-2019 – Hong-De Wang,Shi-Jun Gao,Ying-Ze Zhang

Journal Article

Hamstring tendon autografts are commonly used for primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Some patients have small hamstring tendons however, which may compromise the clinical outcome of the autograft. To solve this problem, many surgeons use hybrid grafting that involves augmentation of small hamstring autografts with allograft tissue. The purpose was to compare the clinical outcomes between primary ACL reconstructions performed with hamstring autografts and those performed with hybrid grafts in terms of patient-reported evaluation, failure rate, and knee stability. The hypothesis was that primary ACL reconstruction performed with hamstring autograft alone will not differ significantly from that performed with a hybrid graft in terms of patient-reported evaluation, failure rate, or knee stability. Systematic review. A systematic review was performed to identify prospective and retrospective comparative studies and cohort studies (evidence levels 1-3) comparing outcomes of primary ACL reconstructions performed with hamstring autografting alone and hybrid grafting. Outcomes included patient-reported evaluation, failure rate, and knee stability. Ten studies were included: 1 of level 2 and 9 of level 3. Collectively, they included 398 autografts and 341 hybrid grafts. Mean respective follow-up durations ranged from 24.0 to 69.6 months and from 24.0 to 70.8 months. Patient-reported evaluations, including Lysholm, Tegner, and subjective International Knee Documentation Committee scores, were reported in 8 of 10 studies. Failure rates were reported in all 10 studies. Results of knee stability examinations-including KT-1000 arthrometer measurements, the pivot-shift test, Lachman test, and overall International Knee Documentation Committee results-were reported in 4 of 10 studies. In this review, there were no statistically significant differences between autografts and hybrid grafts in terms of patient-reported evaluations, failure rates, or KT-1000 measurements. In this systematic review, there was no significant difference in patient-reported evaluation or failure rate between primary ACL reconstructions performed with autografts alone and those performed with hybrid grafts. Whether there is a substantial difference in knee stability examination results between autografts and hybrid grafts remains unknown, given a relative lack of reports on knee stability.

Two-Stage Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Systematic Review of Bone Graft Options for Tunnel Augmentation

22-05-2019 – Hytham S. Salem,Derek P. Axibal,Michelle L. Wolcott,Armando F. Vidal,Eric C. McCarty,Jonathan T. Bravman,Rachel M. Frank

Journal Article

No consensus is available regarding the optimal choice of bone graft material for bone tunnel augmentation in revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery. To compare the outcomes of different bone graft materials for staged revision ACL reconstruction. Systematic review. A systematic review using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines was performed. PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were queried through use of the terms anterior cruciate ligament and revision to identify all studies reporting outcomes of bone tunnel grafting in 2-stage revision ACL reconstruction. Data extracted included indications for 2-stage surgery, surgical technique, graft material, time between surgeries, rehabilitation protocols, physical examination findings, patient-reported outcomes, and radiographic and histologic findings. The analysis included 7 studies with a total of 234 patients. The primary outcome in 2 studies was graft incorporation (mean follow-up, 8.8 months), whereas the other 5 studies reported clinical outcomes with follow-up mean ± SD of 4.2 ± 2.1 years. The indication for bone grafting and between-stage protocol varied among studies. Autograft was used in 4 studies: iliac crest bone autograft (ICBG, n = 3) and tibial bone autograft (TBA, n = 1). In 2 studies, the authors investigated the outcomes of allograft: allograft bone matrix (ABM) and allograft bone chips (AC). Finally, 1 study compared ICBG to a synthetic bone substitute. Radiographic evaluation of bone graft integration after the first stage was reported in 4 studies, with an average duration of 4.9 months. In 4 studies, the authors reported the time interval between first and second surgeries, with an average of 6.1 months for ICBG compared with 8.7 months for allogenic and synthetic grafts. Revision ACL graft failure rates were reported by 5 studies, including 1 study with ABM (6.1%), 1 study with AC (8.3%), 1 study with TBA (0%), and 2 studies with ICBG (0% and 2%). The indications for staged ACL reconstruction and the rehabilitation protocol between stages need to be clearly established. The available data indicate that autograft for bone tunnel grafting in 2-stage ACL revision may be associated with a lower risk of revision ACL reconstruction graft failure compared with allograft bone.

Properties and Function of the Medial Patellofemoral Ligament: A Systematic Review

15-05-2019 – Christian Huber,Qiang Zhang,William R. Taylor,Andrew A. Amis,Colin Smith,Seyyed Hamed Hosseini Nasab

Journal Article

As the main passive structure preventing patellar lateral subluxation, accurate knowledge of the anatomy, material properties, and functional behavior of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) is critical for improving its reconstruction. To provide a state-of-the-art understanding of the properties and function of the MPFL by undertaking a systematic review and statistical analysis of the literature. Systematic review. On June 26, 2018, data for this systematic review were obtained by searching PubMed and Scopus. Articles containing numerical information regarding the anatomy, mechanical properties, and/or functional behavior of the MPFL that met the inclusion criteria were reviewed, recorded, and statistically evaluated. A total of 55 articles met the inclusion criteria for this review. The MPFL presented as a fanlike structure spanning from the medial femoral epicondyle to the medial border of the patella. The reported data indicated ultimate failure loads from 72 N to 208 N, ultimate failure elongation from 8.4 mm to 26 mm, and stiffness values from 8.0 N/mm to 42.5 N/mm. In both cadaveric and in vivo studies, the average elongation pattern demonstrated close to isometric behavior of the ligament in the first 50° to 60° of knee flexion, followed by progressive shortening into deep flexion. Kinematic data suggested clear lateralization of the patella in the MPFL-deficient knee during early knee flexion under simulated muscle forces. A lack of knowledge regarding the morphology and attachment sites of the MPFL remains. The reported mechanical properties also lack consistency, thus requiring further investigations. However, the results regarding patellar tracking confirm that the lack of an MPFL leads to lateralization of the patella, followed by delayed engagement of the trochlear groove, plausibly leading to an increased risk of patellar dislocations. The observed isometric behavior up to 60° of knee flexion plausibly suggests that reconstruction of the ligament can occur at flexion angles below 60°, including the 30° and 60° range as recommended in previous studies.

Hop Testing Lacks Strong Association With Key Outcome Variables After Primary Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Systematic Review

07-05-2019 – Justin M. Losciale,Garrett Bullock,Christina Cromwell,Leila Ledbetter,Laura Pietrosimone,Timothy C. Sell

Journal Article

Single-legged hop tests are commonly used assessments in return to sport (RTS) testing after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Although these tests are commonly used, their predictive validity has not yet been established. To determine the strength of association between hop testing and RTS, knee reinjury, subjective report of knee function, and posttraumatic knee osteoarthritis (PTOA) after primary ACLR. Secondarily, to determine whether hop testing is able to predict a favorable result on the same outcome variables. Systematic review. A systematic, computer-assisted literature search was performed in PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, Cochrane Library, and Clinical
Trials.gov. The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines were followed when conducting and reporting this review. Primary outcome variables for this review were self-report of knee function, return to preinjury level of activity, presence of reinjury, and presence of PTOA. The Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine Levels of Evidence tool was used to assess the level of evidence for each included study. Quality assessment of each included study was performed through use of a modified Downs and Black scale. Available metrics were tabulated based on outcome variables. Overall, 21 studies (4476 patients) met inclusion for this review. The majority of evidence (95.2%) was of moderate to high methodologic quality. The most commonly associated outcome measure was the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, with Pearson correlation coefficients ranging from 0.20 to 0.60. The strength of association between the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and hop testing ranged from -0.10 to 0.62 in 4 studies. In all, 10 studies examined the relationship between hop testing and RTS, with variable association statistics reported. No meaningful association was found between hop testing and knee reinjury in 2 studies. Worse preoperative hop testing was associated with PTOA in 1 study. Hop testing appears to possess fair association to subjective report of knee function measured by the KOOS and IKDC and a patient’s ability to RTS after ACLR. Insufficient evidence is available to determine the relationship between hop testing and PTOA and knee reinjury. Predictive validity cannot be established based on available literature.

A Practical Guide for the Current Use of Biologic Therapies in Sports Medicine

30-04-2019 – Joseph D. Lamplot,Scott A. Rodeo,Robert H. Brophy

Journal Article

Over the past decade, there has been an increased interest in the use of biologic therapies in sports medicine. Although these technologies are in relatively early stages of development, there have been substantial increases in marketing, patient demand, and clinical utilization of biologics, including platelet-rich plasma, bone marrow aspirate concentrate, and other cell-derived therapies. Direct-to-consumer marketing of biologics has also proliferated but is largely unregulated, and clinicians must accurately convey the safety and efficacy profiles of these therapies to patients. Because most insurance companies consider biologic treatments to be experimental or investigational for orthopaedic applications given the lack of high-quality evidence to support their efficacy, patients receiving these treatments often make substantial out-of-pocket payments. With a range of treatment costs among centers offering biologics, there is a need for appropriate and sustainable pricing and reimbursement models. Clinicians utilizing biologics must also have a thorough understanding of the recently clarified Food and Drug Administration guidelines that regulate the clinical use of cell and tissue products. There is a lack of consensus on the optimal preparation, source, delivery method, and dosing of biologic therapies, which has been exacerbated by a lack of sufficient experimental detail in most published studies. Future research must better identify the biologic target of treatment, adhere to better standards of reporting, and better integrate researchers, industry, and regulatory bodies to optimize applications.

Repair of Rotator Cuff Tears in the Elderly: Does It Make Sense? A Systematic Review

30-04-2019 – Burak Altintas,Nicole L. Anderson,Rafael Pitta,Patrick S. Buckley,Sanjeev Bhatia,Matthew T. Provencher,Peter J. Millett

Journal Article

The indications and outcomes for rotator cuff repair (RCR) among patients ≥70 years old are not widely reported. Many active patients in this age range desire a joint-preserving option, and several small series reported successful clinical outcomes after RCR among patients aged ≥70 years. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature on the outcomes of RCR among patients ≥70 years old. Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. A systematic review of the literature was performed following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. The electronic databases of PubMed and Cochrane were used for the literature search. The quality of the included studies was evaluated according to the Coleman Methodology Score. Studies in English evaluating repair of full-thickness rotator cuff tears among patients aged ≥70 years were included. Eleven studies were reviewed, including 680 patients (694 shoulders) who were treated with arthroscopic and/or open RCR with a mean follow-up of 24.2 months (range, 12-40.8 months). Forty patients were lost to follow-up, leaving 654 shoulders with outcome data. This age group demonstrated a significant increase in clinical and functional outcomes after RCR with high satisfaction. American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores showed an improvement from 44.2 (range, 35.4-56) preoperatively to 87.9 (range, 84-90.3) postoperatively, while Constant scores improved from 41.7 (range, 22.6-53.6) to 70.8 (range, 58.6-76). Postoperative imaging evaluation was performed on 513 shoulders, revealing a retear rate of 27.1% (139 shoulders). There were 45 retears after open repair and 94 after arthroscopic repair. The difference in retear rate among patients receiving arthroscopic repairs was not significantly different than open repairs ( P = .831). Pain according to a visual analog scale improved from 5.5 (range, 4.6-6.4) preoperatively to 1.3 (range, 0.5-2.3) postoperatively. RCR among patients ≥70 years old shows high clinical success rates with good outcomes and overall excellent pain relief. Although patients in this age group have a high potential for retear or persistent defects on imaging studies, RCR offers a joint-preserving option with significant functional and clinical improvement for the appropriately indicated patient.

Cost-efficacy of Knee Cartilage Defect Treatments in the United States

30-04-2019 – Joshua S. Everhart,Andrew B. Campbell,Moneer M. Abouljoud,J. Caid Kirven,David C. Flanigan

Journal Article

Multiple knee cartilage defect treatments are available in the United States, although the cost-efficacy of these therapies in various clinical scenarios is not well understood. The purpose was to determine cost-efficacy of cartilage therapies in the United States with available mid- or long-term outcomes data. The authors hypothesized that cartilage treatment strategies currently approved for commercial use in the United States will be cost-effective, as defined by a cost 3 cm Currently employed treatments for knee cartilage defects in the United States are cost-effective in most clinically acceptable applications. Microfracture is not a cost-effective initial treatment of defects >3 cm

Horizontal Instability of the Acromioclavicular Joint: A Systematic Review

23-04-2019 – Gianna M. Aliberti,Matthew J. Kraeutler,Jeffrey D. Trojan,Mary K. Mulcahey

Journal Article

Injuries to the acromioclavicular (AC) joint are common and should be suspected in patients who have shoulder pain in the region of the acromion and clavicle. Injuries to the AC ligament can cause horizontal instability and are often neglected or underdiagnosed, which can lead to poor patient outcomes. To perform a systematic review of the literature on the diagnosis and treatment of horizontal instability of the AC joint. Systematic review. The authors performed a systematic review using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. PubMed and EMBASE were searched for studies that investigated diagnosis, treatment, and failure of operative management of acute and chronic AC separations. Studies that did not specifically evaluate AC joint injuries, were not written in English, or were specific only to vertical instability of the AC joint were excluded. Overall, 23 articles met the inclusion criteria and were therefore included in this systematic review. Diagnosing horizontal AC instability is difficult using plain radiographs; dynamic views were shown in some cases to better detect horizontal instability than with static views. More than 60 procedures for treating AC joint injuries have been published, but many focus on vertical rather than horizontal instability. Modifications to current surgical procedures to incorporate reconstruction of the horizontal component showed improved patient outcomes. Such modifications included additional AC joint suture cord cerclage, combined AC and coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction, and the Twin Tail Tight
Rope triple button technique. Failure after surgical stabilization of AC joint separation has been reported to occur in 15% to 80% of cases. No consensus is available regarding the best practices for diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of acute or chronic horizontal instability of the AC joint. Moreover, horizontal instability injuries are often neglected or poorly understood, making diagnosis difficult, which may lead to high complication rates and failure after surgical stabilization.

Current Workload Recommendations in Baseball Pitchers: A Systematic Review

23-04-2019 – Neil K. Bakshi,Paul M. Inclan,Jacob M. Kirsch,Asheesh Bedi,Cristine Agresta,Michael T. Freehill

Journal Article

Several recommendations have been made regarding pitch counts and workload for baseball players of different levels, including Little League, high school, collegiate, and professional baseball. However, little consensus is found in the literature regarding the scientific basis for many of these recommendations. The primary purpose of this study was to summarize the evidence regarding immediate and long-term musculoskeletal responses to increasing pitching workload in baseball pitchers of all levels. A secondary purpose of this review was to evaluate the extent to which workload influences injury and/or performance in baseball pitchers. Systematic review. We performed a systematic search in accordance with PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines for studies addressing physiologic and/or pathologic musculoskeletal changes in response to a quantifiable pitching workload. We included studies examining the effects of pitching workload on performance, injury rate, and musculoskeletal changes in Little League, high school, collegiate, and professional baseball players. We identified 28 studies that met our inclusion and exclusion criteria: 16 studies regarding Little League and high school pitchers and 12 studies regarding collegiate and professional pitchers. The current evidence presented suggests that increased pitching workload may be associated with an increased risk of pain, injury, and arm fatigue in Little League and high school pitchers. However, little consensus was found in the literature regarding the association between pitching workload and physiologic or pathologic changes in collegiate and professional pitchers. Evidence, although limited, suggests the use of pitch counts to decrease injury rates and pain in Little League and high school baseball pitchers. However, further research must be performed to determine the appropriate number of pitches (or throws) for players of different ages. This systematic review reported conflicting evidence regarding the use of pitch counts in college and professional baseball. Future high-quality research is required to determine the role, if any, of pitch counts for collegiate and professional pitchers.

Return to Sport After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair: Is There a Difference Between the Recreational and the Competitive Athlete?

11-03-2019 – Burak Altintas,Nicole Anderson,Grant J. Dornan,Robert E. Boykin,Catherine Logan,Peter J. Millett

Journal Article

Return to sport (RTS) remains an important challenge and measure of success for athletes undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (RCR). To determine the rate of RTS after RCR and to analyze predictive factors associated with a lower rate of return. Systematic review and meta-analysis. A systematic review of the literature was performed following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. The electronic databases of PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane, and Google Scholar were used for the literature search. Study quality was evaluated according to the Coleman Methodology Score. Studies in English evaluating RTS after arthroscopic repair of partial- or full-thickness rotator cuff tears among athletes of all levels, ages, and sports were included. Random effects meta-analysis and metaregression were performed to investigate RTS activity rate after arthroscopic RCR and to explore study heterogeneity, respectively. Fifteen studies were reviewed, including 486 patients (499 shoulders) who were treated with arthroscopic RCR and who had a mean follow-up of 40.1 months (range, 18-74.4 months). Eighteen patients were lost to follow-up, leaving 468 patients with outcome data; 347 identified themselves as athletes (81 competitive, 266 recreational). The most commonly included sports were baseball (n = 45), golf (n = 38), football (n = 23), and tennis (n = 18). RTS specific to the type of athlete was reported for 299 of 347 athletes. According to the meta-analysis, the overall rate of RTS at a similar level of play or higher was 70.2%, with 73.3% of recreational athletes and 61.5% of competitive athletes able to return. A subset of 43 baseball and softball players across 4 studies yielded a 79% rate of RTS; however, only 38% returned to the same level of play or higher. Subgroup meta-analysis revealed no significant difference in the rate of RTS between competitive and recreational athletes. Metaregression analysis revealed that the mean follow-up time and mean age at surgery were not significantly associated with RTS rate. Most athletes (70.2%) were able to return to a preinjury level of play after arthroscopic RCR. While recreational sports participation (73.3%) was associated with higher return, competitive sports (61.5%) and overhead sports (38%) were associated with lower return. Exactly why all athletes do not return remains uncertain and likely multifactorial.