Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research

Editorial: The Current Use of Biologics and Cellular Therapies in Orthopaedics: Are We Going Down the Right Path?

01-01-2020 – Manner, Paul A.; Goodman, Stuart B.

Journal Article

No abstract available

Editor’s Spotlight/Take 5: When is it Safe to Drive After Total Ankle Arthroplasty?

01-01-2020 – Leopold, Seth S.

Journal Article, Comment

No abstract available

When is it Safe to Drive After Total Ankle Arthroplasty?

01-01-2020 – McDonald, Elizabeth L.; Pedowitz, David I.; Shakked, Rachel J.; Fuchs, Daniel J.; Winters, Brian S.; Daniel, Joseph N.; Raikin, Steven M.

Journal Article

Background With the increase in the number of total ankle arthroplasties (TAA), guidelines on when physicians should begin to consider patients’ return to driving are valuable. Further, due to sagittal motion strength, the ankle is the most important mover in braking motions over the knee and hip.
Questions/purposes (1) Does brake-reaction time return to a safe value within 6 weeks of TAA? (2) Are there factors associated with a delay of return of brake-reaction time to safe values after TAA?Methods After obtaining institutional review board approval for the study, we prospectively recruited 60 patients undergoing right TAA. A large proportion of the patients undergoing TAA during the period were recruited. Patients who had extensive concomitant surgery, such as triple arthrodesis or tibial osteotomy, were excluded from the study. Patients were between 43 and 83 years old (median, 63 years), and 35 (59%) were men. Brake-reaction time was tested at 6 weeks postoperatively and repeated weekly until patients achieved a passing brake-reaction time. A control group of 20 volunteer participants matched for age and sex who did not have right lower-extremity pathology or pain were used to establish a passing brake-reaction time of 0.850 seconds. Patients were given a novel driver-readiness survey to complete; a score of 10 of 15 points or higher was considered a passing score. The following factors were explored for their association with brake-reaction time: age, American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS)-Hindfoot assessment and VAS for pain via a patient-reported survey, and ankle plantarflexion and dorsiflexion via dedicated weightbearing lateral radiographs made with the ankle in maximum plantarflexion and dorsiflexion.
Results At 6 weeks postoperatively, 92% of patients (54 of 59) achieved a passing brake-reaction time and were considered able to drive safely, and the mean brake-reaction time of the patients with a passing brake-reaction time was 0.626 seconds (± 0.111). At 9 weeks, all patients who completed the study achieved a passing brake-reaction time. Patients with a failed brake-reaction time at 6 weeks had greater median VAS scores for pain (3 interquartile range 2 to 7 versus 1 IQR 0 to 3; p = 0.022) and diminished ankle plantarflexion (14° ± 5° versus 24° ± 10°; p = 0.037) compared with those with a passing brake-reaction time at that time point. All five patients with a failed brake-reaction time also had a failing score for the driver-readiness survey.
Conclusions More than 90% of patients in this series achieved a safe brake-reaction time within 6 weeks of TAA, and those who did not were more likely to have had more pain and a stiffer ankle. Surgeons might counsel patients with persistent pain and stiffness at 6 weeks to delay driving for an additional 3 weeks, since by 9 weeks after TAA, all patients in this series had a brake-reaction time comparable with patients who had not undergone surgery. Future studies might elucidate what key gaps in knowledge remain and determine a practical way to answer these questions.
Level of Evidence Level II, therapeutic study.

Cochrane in CORR®: Exercise for Improving Outcomes after Osteoporotic Vertebral Fracture

01-01-2020 – Thornley, Patrick; Bhandari, Mohit

Journal Article

No abstract available

Medicolegal Sidebar: Clinical Practice Guidelines—Do They Reduce Professional Liability Risk?

01-01-2020 – McMenamin, Joseph P.; Teo, Wendy; Bal, B. Sonny

Journal Article

No abstract available

Residency Diary: Second Year—Day One

01-01-2020 – LeBrun, Drake G.

Journal Article

No abstract available

On Patient Safety: Orthopaedic Surgeons Must Stop Performing Arthroscopic Partial Meniscectomy on Patients with Arthritic Knees

01-01-2020 – Rickert, James

Journal Article

No abstract available

Art in Science: Velázquez and Dwarfism—The Art of Observation

01-01-2020 – Friedlaender, Gary E.; Friedlaender, Linda K.

Journal Article

No abstract available

What is the Likelihood of Subsequent Arthroplasties after Primary TKA or THA? Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

01-01-2020 – Santana, Daniel C.; Anis, Hiba K.; Mont, Michael A.; Higuera, Carlos A.; Piuzzi, Nicolas S.

Journal Article

Background Osteoarthritis is common and debilitating, in part because it often affects more than one large weightbearing joint. The likelihood of undergoing more than one total joint arthroplasty has not been studied in a heterogeneous, multicenter population in the United States.
Questions/purposes We used prospectively collected data of patients with osteoarthritis from the multicenter Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) project to ask (1) What is the likelihood of a subsequent THA or TKA after primary TKA or THA? (2) What risk factors are associated with undergoing contralateral TKA after primary TKA?Methods Longitudinally maintained data from the OAI were used to identify 332 patients who underwent primary TKA and 132 patients who underwent primary THA for osteoarthritis who did not have a previous TKA or THA in this retrospective study. OAI was a longitudinal cohort study of knee osteoarthritis conducted at five centers in the United States (Columbus, OH, USA; Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Baltimore, MD, USA; Pawtucket, RI, USA; and San Francisco, CA, USA). In this study, the mean follow-up time was 4.0 ± 2.3 years, with 24% (112 of 464) followed for less than 2 years. The primary outcome was the cumulative incidence of subsequent arthroplasty calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Age, BMI, gender, and contralateral Kellgren-Lawrence grade, medial joint space width, and hip-knee-ankle angles were modeled as risk factors of contralateral TKA using Cox proportional hazards.
Results Using the Kaplan-Meier method, at 8 years the cumulative incidence of contralateral TKA after the index TKA was 40% (95% CI 31 to 49) and the cumulative incidence of any THA after index TKA was 13% (95% CI 5 to 21). The cumulative incidence of contralateral THA after the index THA was 8% (95% CI 2 to 14), and the cumulative incidence of any TKA after index THA was 32% (95% CI 15 to 48). Risk factors for undergoing contralateral TKA were younger age (HR 0.95 for each year of increasing age 95% CI 0.92 to 0.98; p = 0.001) and loss of medial joint space width with a varus deformity (HR 1.26 for each 1 mm loss of joint space width at 1.6o varus 1.06 to 1.51; p = 0.005).
Conclusion Patients who underwent TKA or THA for osteoarthritis had a high rate of subsequent joint arthroplasties in this study conducted at multiple centers in the United States. The rate of subsequent joint arthroplasty determined in this study can be used to counsel patients in similar settings and institutions, and may serve as a benchmark to assess future osteoarthritis disease-modifying interventions.
Level of Evidence Level III, therapeutic study.

CORR Insights®: What is the Likelihood of Subsequent Arthroplasties after Primary TKA or THA? Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

01-01-2020 – Nizard, Rémy S.

Journal Article, Comment

No abstract available

Combined Intravenous and Intraarticular Tranexamic Acid Does Not Offer Additional Benefit Compared with Intraarticular Use Alone in Bilateral TKA: A Randomized Controlled Trial

01-01-2020 – Meshram, Prashant; Palanisamy, Jeya Venkatesh; Seo, Jong Yeon; Lee, Jong Geun; Kim, Tae Kyun

Journal Article

Background Tranexamic acid (TXA) is efficacious for reducing blood loss and transfusion use in patients who undergo bilateral TKA, and it is administered intravenously alone, intraarticularly alone, or as a combination of these. However, it is unclear whether combined intravenous (IV) and intraarticular TXA offers any additional benefit over intraarticular use alone in patients undergoing bilateral TKA.
Questions/purposes The purposes of our study was to determine (1) whether combined IV and intraarticular TXA reduces blood loss and blood transfusion use compared with intraarticular use alone and (2) whether the frequency of adverse events is different between these routes of administration in patients who undergo simultaneous or staged bilateral TKA.
Methods Between April 2015 and May 2017, one surgeon performed 316 same-day bilateral TKAs and 314 staged bilateral TKAs. Of those, 98% of patients in each same-day TKA (310) and staged bilateral TKA (309) groups were eligible for this randomized trial and all of those patients agreed to participate and were randomized. The study included four groups: simultaneous TKA with intraarticular TXA only (n = 157), simultaneous TKA with IV and intraarticular TXA (n = 153), staged TKA with intraarticular TXA only (n = 156), and staged TKA with IV and intraarticular TXA (n = 155). There were no differences in demographic data among the intraarticular alone and IV plus intraarticular TXA groups of patients who underwent simultaneous or staged bilateral TKA in terms of age, proportion of female patients, BMI, or preoperative hematologic values. The primary outcome variables were total blood loss calculated based on patient blood volume and a drop in the hemoglobin level and administration of blood transfusion. The secondary outcomes of this study were a decrease in the postoperative hemoglobin level; the proportion of patients with a hemoglobin level lower than 7.0, 8.0, or 9.0 g/d
L; and the frequencies of symptomatic deep vein thrombosis, symptomatic pulmonary embolism, wound complications, and periprosthetic joint infection.
Results Total blood loss with intraarticular TXA alone in patients undergoing simultaneous bilateral TKA and those undergoing staged procedures was not different from the total blood loss with the combined IV plus intraarticular TXA regimen (1063 m
L ± 303 m
L versus 1004 m
L ± 287 m
L, mean difference 59 m
L 95% CI -7 to 125; p = 0.08 and 909 ml ± 283 ml versus 845 ml ± 278 ml; mean difference 64 m
L 95% CI 1 to 127; p = 0.046, respectively). The use of blood transfusions between intraarticular alone and combined IV and intraarticular TXA was also not different among patients undergoing simultaneous (0% 0 of 152 versus 1%; p = 0.149) and staged TKA (1% 1 of 155 versus 0% 0 of 153; p = 0.98). Furthermore, the frequency of symptomatic thromboembolic events, wound complications, and periprosthetic joint infections was low, without any differences among the groups with the numbers available.
Conclusion Because there was no difference between intraarticular alone and combined intraarticular plus IV regimen of TXA administration, we recommend that IV and intraarticular TXA should not be used in combination. Moreover, other studies have found no differences between intraarticular and IV TXA used alone, and hence to avoid potential complications associated with systemic administration, we recommend that intraarticular alone is sufficient for routine TKA.
Level of Evidence Level I, therapeutic study.

CORR Insights®: Combined Intravenous and Intraarticular Tranexamic Acid Does Not Offer Additional Benefit Compared with Intraarticular Use Alone in Bilateral TKA: A Randomized Controlled Trial

01-01-2020 – Grecula, Michael J.

Journal Article, Comment

No abstract available

Higher Risk of Loosening for a Four-Pegged TKA Tibial Baseplate Than for a Stemmed One: A Register-based Study

01-01-2020 – Robertsson, Otto; Sundberg, Martin; Sezgin, Erdem Aras; Lidgren, Lars; W-Dahl, Annette

Journal Article

Background Modern modular implants allow surgeons to mix different combinations of components within the same brand. From 1999 to 2012, the Nex
Gen®-CR Option femoral component, together with a Nex
Gen® Option Stemmed tibial plate (stemmed baseplate), which uses a short central stem, was the most-frequently used Nex
Gen® combination in the Swedish Knee Arthroplasty Register. However, from 1999 to 2012, the same femoral component was also used along with the Nex
Gen® Precoat four-pegged tibial baseplate (pegged baseplate). Considering the difference in the fixation concepts for these two tibial baseplates, we wanted to study whether their revision rates differed.
Questions/purposes To investigate the difference in (1) all-cause revision and (2) the risk of revision for aseptic loosening between the Nex
Gen® pegged and stemmed baseplates when used with the NG-CR Option femoral component and the same two types of inserts.
Methods The Swedish Knee Arthroplasty Register provided data. The register, which was started in 1975, has since 1999 registered part numbers for individual implant components, allowing it to assess the combinations of components used in each patient. It has been shown to have high completeness (97%) and validity 12, 15. The inclusion period was 1999 to 2012; during that time, 137,143 primary knee arthroplasties were registered, of which 125,094 were TKAs. Only TKAs performed for osteoarthritis and without patellar resurfacing were included, since not resurfacing the patella is the standard procedure in Sweden. This left 15,287 knees with the stemmed baseplate and 2479 with the pegged baseplate, or 12% and 2% of the total number of TKAs, respectively. Two general hospitals used the pegged baseplate exclusively during that period. Thus, specific patients were not selected for having the pegged plate. The mean age, mortality, and length of followup were similar for the two groups.
We used the Kaplan-Meier statistics to calculate the cumulative revision rate (CRR) and Cox regression to compare risk ratios after adjusting for age and sex. The end point was a knee revision for respective all causes or aseptic loosening. The study ended on December 31, 2016. Due to the free healthcare system in Sweden it is highly unusual for patients to seek elective revision abroad, and by use of the extensive Swedish census register, we estimate the level of followup approximately 97%.
Results Knees with the pegged baseplate had a higher risk for all-cause revision than did those with the stemmed baseplate (5.8% 95% confidence interval {CI}, 4–8.3 and 3% 95% CI, 2.6–3.5 at 15 years; p = 0.003). After controlling for age and sex, the aseptic loosening risk in the pegged baseplate group was still higher than that in the stemmed group (relative risk, 5.40; 95% CI, 3.64–8.02; p < 0.001).
Conclusions In this Swedish registry study, we observed a higher loosening risk with the pegged baseplate than the stemmed one, even after controlling for age and sex. Because this was only a comparison of implants from one vendor, and because there may have been other between-group differences for which we could not fully control, this concerning finding should be explored using data from other registries.
Level of Evidence Level III, therapeutic study.

CORR Insights®: Higher Risk of Loosening for a Four-Pegged TKA Tibial Baseplate Than for a Stemmed One: A Register-based Study

01-01-2020 – Namba, Robert

Journal Article, Comment

No abstract available

Is Previous Periacetabular Osteotomy Associated with Pregnancy, Delivery, and Peripartum Complications?

01-01-2020 – Bartosiak, Kimberly; Stockburger, Chris; Stockburger, Jennifer; Putnam, Sara; Conner, Shayna; Clohisy, John

Journal Article

Background Surgical candidates for periacetabular osteotomy are commonly women of reproductive age with symptomatic acetabular dysplasia. However, little is known about how this surgical intervention contributes to the decision to become pregnant, obstetrical counseling regarding delivery, mode of delivery, or pregnancy-related complications.
Questions/purposes (1) Does a history of periacetabular osteotomy affect a patient’s decision to become pregnant or does it affect obstetrical counseling regarding the safety of pregnancy and childbirth? (2) Is history of periacetabular osteotomy associated with in an increased risk of undergoing cesarean section compared with the national average? (3) Is a history of periacetabular osteotomy associated with increased complications, decreased infant birth weight, preterm delivery?Methods In conjunction with obstetrician colleagues, we created a survey to investigate patient attitudes toward pregnancy, mode of delivery, pregnancy-related complications, and obstetrical counseling among female patients who previously underwent periacetabular osteotomy. A retrospective cohort of reproductive-age women who underwent periacetabular osteotomy between 2008 and 2015 completed a mailed survey or telephone interview. All 96 patients who were contacted were asked if the history of periacetabular osteotomy affected their decision to become pregnant. Our cohort included 31 patients who had undergone periacetabular osteotomy and had a subsequent pregnancy and delivery with a total of 38 pregnancies resulting in 41 births. A binomial test was used to determine if the rates of cesarean section, low birth weight, or preterm delivery were different from the documented US national average as published by the National Vital Statistics Report and CDC.
Results One patient of 31 felt her periacetabular osteotomy negatively affected the appearance of her child; this surgical history affected 6.5% of patients (2 of 31) positively. Fifty-five percent (17 of 31) patients reported that their obstetrician expressed concern that their history of periacetabular osteotomy could affect their ability to carry to term or deliver vaginally. With a history of periacetabular osteotomy, 53% of deliveries (20 of 38) underwent cesarean section. This is higher than the national average of 32% (odds ratio 0.424 95% confidence interval 0.214 to 0.837; p = 0.006). Only one patient with a periacetabular osteotomy suffered a pregnancy-related complication. In singleton pregnancy after periacetabular osteotomy the preterm delivery rate was 14% (5 of 35) and the percentage of low-birth-weight infants was 2.9% (1 of 35). These percentages are not different from US data published by the National Vital Statistics Report, which reports an 8% preterm delivery rate (OR 0.523 95% CI 0.154 to 1.772; p = 0.1723) and 6.4% low birth weight (OR 2.34 95% CI 0.607 to 9.025; p = 0.3878) in singleton pregnancies.
Conclusions In this small survey study, we found no differences in terms of complications, preterm delivery or low birth weight infants between patients who had a history of periacetabular osteotomy and normative national data regarding complications of pregnancy and delivery. However, we did note that patients with a history of periacetabular osteotomy were more likely to deliver future children by cesarean section, which could be attributable to obstetrician preference as most obstetricians in another small survey study have expressed concern about patients with a history of periacetabular osteotomy. Future studies should aim to increase the knowledge of the association of periacetabular osteotomy and delivery method, specifically with transition to cesarean for failure to progress during labor. Future consideration of using the Academic Network of Conservational Hip Outcomes Research repository to develop National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data may help to elucidate this relationship more clearly and help guide appropriate indications for scheduled cesarean sections in the setting of prior pelvic osteotomy.
Level of Evidence Level IV, therapeutic study.

CORR Insights®: Is Previous Periacetabular Osteotomy Associated with Pregnancy, Delivery, and Peripartum Complications?

01-01-2020 – Nishii, Takashi

Journal Article, Comment

No abstract available

Is Spinal Anesthesia Safer than General Anesthesia for Patients Undergoing Revision THA? Analysis of the ACS-NSQIP Database

01-01-2020 – Wilson, Jacob M.; Farley, Kevin X.; Bradbury, Thomas L.; Guild, George N.

Journal Article

Background The incidence of revision THA continues to increase and there is a need to identify risk factors contributing to postoperative complications. Anesthesia type has been shown to be associated with complication rates in patients who undergo primary THA, but it is not clear whether the same is true among patients undergoing revision THA.
Questions/purposes (1) After controlling for confounding variables, in the setting of a large-database analysis, is spinal anesthesia associated with a lower risk of death, readmission, reoperation, postoperative transfusion, thromboembolic events, surgical site infection (SSI), and re-intubation among patients undergoing revision THA?Methods The American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement (ACS-NSQIP) database was queried for patients undergoing aseptic, revision THA with either spinal or general anesthesia. Coarsened exact matching was used to match patients based on several baseline characteristics, including age, sex, body mass index, surgery type (Current Procedural Terminology code), and the modified Frailty Index score. Coarsened exact matching is a statistical method of exact matching that matches on chosen characteristics, in which continuous variables may be temporarily coarsened (such as, into discrete categorical variables) to facilitate matching. This method is an alternate to and requires less estimation than traditional propensity score matching. Then, using a model controlling for baseline patient characteristics and operative time, we performed multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses of matched cohorts to examine differences in mortality, readmission, reoperation, thromboembolic events, transfusion, SSI, and re-intubation.
Results After statistical matching and controlling for baseline demographic variables, surgery type (one- or two-component revision), surgical time and modified Frailty Index we found that patients receiving general anesthesia had higher odds of mortality (OR 3.72 95% CI 1.31 to 10.50; p = 0.013), readmission (OR 1.49 95% CI 1.24 to 1.80; p < 0.001), reoperation (OR 1.40 95% CI 1.13 to 1.73; p = 0.002), thromboembolic events (OR 2.57 95% CI 1.37 to 4.84; p = 0.003), SSI (OR 1.32 95% CI 1.01 to 1.72; p = 0.046), postoperative transfusion (OR 1.57 95%CI 1.39 to 1.78; p < 0.001) and unplanned intubation or failure to wean off intubation (OR 5.95 95% CI 1.43 to 24.72; p = 0.014).
Conclusions In patients undergoing revision THA, spinal anesthesia is associated with a decreased risk of several complications. The current investigation suggests that, when practical (such as when long surgical times or changes to the surgical plan are not anticipated), spinal anesthesia should be considered for use during revision THA.
Level of Evidence Level III, therapeutic study.

CORR Insights®: Is Spinal Anesthesia Safer than General Anesthesia for Patients Undergoing Revision THA? Analysis of the ACS-NSQIP Database

01-01-2020 – Cornell, Charles N.

Journal Article, Comment

No abstract available

Cemented or Uncemented Hemiarthroplasty for Femoral Neck Fracture? Data from the Norwegian Hip Fracture Register

01-01-2020 – Kristensen, Torbjørn B; Dybvik, Eva; Kristoffersen, Målfrid; Dale, Håvard; Engesæter, Lars Birger; Furnes, Ove; Gjertsen, Jan-Erik

Journal Article

Background A displaced femoral neck fracture in patients older than 70 years is a serious injury that influences the patient’s quality of life and can cause serious complications or death. Previous national guidelines and a Cochrane review have recommended cemented fixation for arthroplasty to treat hip fractures in older patients, but data suggest that these guidelines are inconsistently followed in many parts of the world; the effects of that must be better characterized.
Questions/purposes The purpose of this study was to evaluate a large group of patients in the Norwegian Hip Fracture Register to investigate whether the fixation method in hemiarthroplasty is associated with (1) the risk of reoperation; (2) the mortality rate; and (3) patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs).
Methods Longitudinally maintained registry data from the Norwegian Hip Fracture Register with high completeness (93%) and near 100% followup of deaths were used for this report. From 2005 to 2017, 104,993 hip fractures were registered in the Norwegian Hip Fracture Register. Fractures other than intracapsular femoral neck fractures and operative methods other than bipolar hemiarthroplasty, such as osteosynthesis or THA, were excluded. The selection bias risk on using cemented or uncemented hemiarthroplasty is small in Norway because the decision is usually regulated by tender processes at each hospital and not by surgeon. A total of 7539 uncemented hemiarthroplasties (70% women, mean age, 84 years SD 6 years) and 22,639 cemented hemiarthroplasties (72% women, mean age, 84 years SD 6 years) were eligible for analysis. Hazard risk ratio (HRR) on reoperation and mortality was calculated in a Cox regression model adjusted for age, sex, comorbidities (according to the American Society of Anesthesiologists classification), cognitive function, surgical approach, and duration of surgery. At 12 months postoperatively, 65% of patients answered questionnaires regarding pain and quality of life, the results of which were compared between the fixation groups.
Results A higher overall risk of reoperation for any reason was found after uncemented hemiarthroplasty (HRR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.4–1.7; p < 0.001) than after cemented hemiarthroplasty. When assessing reoperations for specific causes, higher risks of reoperation because of periprosthetic fracture (HRR, 5.1; 95% CI, 3.5–7.5; p < 0.001) and infection (HRR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0–1.5; p = 0.037) were found for uncemented hemiarthroplasty than for cemented procedures. No differences were found in the overall mortality rate after 1 year (HRR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.9–1.0; p = 0.12). Hemiarthroplasty fixation type was not associated with differences in patients’ pain (19 versus 20 for uncemented and cemented hemiarthroplasties respectively, p = 0.052) or quality of life (Euro
Qol EQ-VAS score 64 versus 64, p = 0.43, EQ5D index score 0.64 versus 0.63, p = 0.061) 1 year after surgery.
Conclusions Our study found that the fixation method was not associated with differences in pain, quality of life, or the 1-year mortality rate after hemiarthroplasty. Uncemented hemiarthroplasties should not be used when treating elderly patients with hip fractures because there is an increased reoperation risk.
Level of Evidence Level III, therapeutic study.

CORR Insights®: Cemented or Uncemented Hemiarthroplasty for Femoral Neck Fracture? Data From the Norwegian Hip Fracture Register

01-01-2020 – Bernstein, David N.

Journal Article, Comment

No abstract available

Does Kyphectomy Improve the Quality of Life of Patients With Myelomeningocele?

01-01-2020 – Petersen, Pedro Araujo; Marcon, Raphael Martus; Letaif, Olavo Biraghi; Mello Santos, Marcus Alexandre; Oliveira, Rafael Garcia; Passos de Barros Filho, Tarcísio Eloy; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça

Journal Article

Background Lumbar kyphosis is a complex spinal deformity occurring in approximately 8% to 20% of patients with myelomeningocele. The resulting gibbosity may cause pressure ulcers, difficulty lying down in the supine position and sitting on the ischia without support, decreasing quality of life (QOL). Surgery is generally performed to correct kyphosis and maintain vertebral alignment, but high complication rates have been reported. Despite satisfactory radiological results, the impact of surgery and its complications on health-related QOL (HRQOL) has not yet been established.
Questions/purposes Among children with myelomeningocele undergoing corrective surgery for lumbar kyphosis: (1) What is the risk of complications and reoperation after this procedure? (2) Does this procedure improve HRQOL scores in these patients?Methods Between 2012 and 2013, five surgeons at three centers treated 32 patients for myelomeningocele-related kyphosis with kyphectomy and posterior instrumentation. During that period, all surgeons used the same indications for the procedure, which were progressive postural decompensation and chronic ulceration at the apex of the deformity. Data were prospectively collected, and all patients who underwent surgery were considered in this retrospective study. The legal guardians of one patient declined to sign the informed consent form, resulting in 31 patients included. A total of 9.7% (3 of 31) were lost to follow-up before the 2-year period, and the remaining 90.3% (28 of 31) were seen at a mean of 3 years (± 9 months) after surgery. The average age was 10 years, 7 months (± 21 months) at the time of surgery. The patients had a mean kyphosis angle of 130° ± 36° before surgery. This technique involved posterior fixation using S-shaped rods inserted through the foramina of S1 and pedicle screws inserted in the thoracic spine. The patients’ caregivers answered both the generic and specific (neuromuscular module) Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory questionnaires preoperatively and 2 years postoperatively. The minimum clinically important difference (MCID) considered for the instruments used was 5.
Results Reoperation was performed in 68% of patients (19 of 28), mostly to treat deep infection. In all, 18% of patients (five of 28) underwent implant removal to control infection. Eleven percent (three of 28) had a loss of reduction and pseudarthrosis. The HRQOL increased from 71 ± 11 preoperatively to 76 ± 10 postoperatively (p < 0.001), resulting in a 5-point increase (95% CI 3 to 7) in the generic questionnaire score and from 71 ± 13 to 79 ± 11 (p < 0.001), resulting in an 8-point increase (95% CI 5 to 10) in the neuromuscular Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory questionnaire score, mainly in the physical health domain on both questionnaires.
Conclusions Kyphectomy was associated with a high risk of complications and reoperations and did not seem to deliver a substantial clinical benefit for patients who underwent the procedure. Most of our HRQOL score improvements were below the minimum clinically important difference for the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory questionnaires. Although it seems that surgeons lack a better surgical alternative when facing the challenging health impairments these patients suffer, efforts should be made to improve the technique and reduce surgical complications. Additionally, patients and caregivers should be advised of the high reoperation rate and notified that the procedure may not result in a better QOL and should thus be avoided when possible. Future studies should verify whether decreasing the complication rate could imply improvement in the HRQOL of these patients after surgery.
Level of Evidence Level IV, therapeutic study.

CORR Insights®: Does Kyphectomy Improve the Quality of Life of Patients With Myelomeningocele?

01-01-2020 – El-Hawary, Ron

Journal Article, Comment

No abstract available

What Range of Motion is Achieved 5 Years After External Rotationplasty of the Shoulder in Infants with an Obstetric Brachial Plexus Injury?

01-01-2020 – Sarac, Cigdem; Amghar, Hassan; Nieuwenhuijse, Marc J.; Nagels, Jochem; Buitenhuis, Sonja M.; Wolterbeek, Ron; Nelissen, Rob G. H. H.

Journal Article

Background Obstetric brachial plexus injuries result from traction injuries during delivery, and 30% of these children have persisting functional limitations related to an external rotation deficit of the shoulder. Little is known about the long-term effect of soft-tissue procedures of the shoulder in patients with obstetric brachial plexus injuries.
Questions/purposes (1) After soft-tissue release for patients with passive external rotation less than 20° and age younger than 2 years and for patients older than 2 years with good external rotation strength, what are the improvements in passive external rotation and abduction arcs at 1 and 5 years? (2) For patients who underwent staged tendon transfer after soft-tissue release, what are the improvements in active external rotation and abduction arcs at 1 and 5 years? (3) For patients with passive external rotation less than 20° and no active external rotation, what are the improvements in active external rotation and abduction arcs at 1 and 5 years?Methods This was a retrospective analysis of a longitudinally maintained institutional database. Between 1996 and 2009, 149 children underwent a soft-tissue procedure of the shoulder for an internal rotation contracture. The inclusion criteria were treatment with an internal contracture release and/or tendon transfer, a maximum age of 18 years at the time of surgery, and a minimum follow-up period of 2 years. Six patients were older than 18 years at the time of surgery and 31 children were seen at our clinic until 1 year postoperatively, but because they had good clinical results and lived far away from our center, these children were discharged to physical therapists in their hometown for annual follow-up. Thus, 112 children (59 boys) were available for analysis. Patients with passive external rotation less than 20° and age younger than 2 years and patients older than 2 years with good external rotation strength received soft-tissue release only (n = 37). Of these patients, 17 children did not have adequate active external rotation, and second-stage tendon transfer surgery was performed. For patients with passive external rotation less than 20° with no active external rotation, single-stage contracture release with tendon transfer was performed (n = 68). When no contracture was present (greater than 20° of external rotation) but the patient had an active deficit (n = 7), tendon transfer alone was performed; this group was not analyzed. A functional assessment of the shoulder was performed preoperatively and postoperatively at 6 weeks, 3 months, and annually thereafter and included abduction, external rotation in adduction and abduction, and the Mallet scale.
Results Internal contracture release resulted in an improvement in passive external rotation in adduction and abduction of 29° (95% confidence interval, 21 to 38; p < 0.001) and 17° (95% CI, 10 to 24; p < 0.001) at 1 year of follow-up and 25° (95% CI, 15-35; p < 0.001) and 15° (95% CI, 7 to 24; p = 0.001) at 5 years. Because of insufficient strength of the external rotators after release, 46% of the children (17 of 37) underwent an additional tendon transfer for active external rotation, resulting in an improvement in active external rotation in adduction and abduction at each successive follow-up visit. Patients with staged transfers had improved active function; improvements in active external rotation in adduction and abduction were 49° (95% CI, 28 to 69; p < 0.05) and 45° (95% CI, 11 to 79; p < 0.001) at 1 year of follow-up and 38° (95% CI, 19 to 58; p < 0.05) and 23° (95% CI, -8 to 55; p < 0.001) at 5 years. In patients starting with less than 20° of passive external rotation and no active external rotation, after single-stage contracture release and tendon transfer, active ROM was improved. Active external rotation in adduction and abduction were 75° (95% CI, 66 to 84; p < 0.001) and 50° (95% CI, 43 to 57; p < 0.001) at 1 year of follow-up and 65° (95% CI, 50 to 79; p < 0.001) and 40° (95% CI, 28 to 52; p < 0.001) at 5 years.
Conclusion Young children with obstetric brachial plexus injuries who have internal rotation contractures may benefit from soft-tissue release. When active external rotation is lacking, soft-tissue release combined with tendon transfer improved active external rotation in this small series. Future studies on the degree of glenohumeral deformities and functional outcome might give more insight into the level of increase in external rotation.
Level of Evidence Level III, therapeutic study.

CORR Insights®: What Range of Motion is Achieved Five Years After an External Rotationplasty of the Shoulder in Infants with Obstetric Brachial Plexus Injury?

01-01-2020 – Silva, Selina

Journal Article, Comment

No abstract available

Blood Flow in the Scaphoid Is Improved by Focused Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy

01-01-2020 – Schleusser, Sophie; Song, Jungin; Stang, Felix Hagen; Mailaender, Peter; Kraemer, Robert; Kisch, Tobias

Journal Article

Background Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) has shown benefits in patients with nonunion or delayed bone healing, pseudarthrosis, and avascular necrosis of bone. Until now, these effects were explained by the release of growth factors, activation of cells, and microfractures occurring after ESWT. Microcirculation is an important factor in bone healing and may be compromised in fractured scaphoids because its blood supply comes from the distal end. Due to this perfusion pattern, the scaphoid bone is prone to nonunion after fracture. The ability of ESWT to enhance microcirculation parameters in soft tissue was of interest to determine if it improves microcirculation in the scaphoid.
Questions/purposes (1) Does capillary blood flow increase after a single session of ESWT in the scaphoid? (2) Do oxygen saturation in the bone and postcapillary venous filling pressure increase after a single session of ESWT in the scaphoid?Methods ESWT (0.3 m
J/mm2, 8Hz, 1000 impulses) was applied to the intact scaphoid of 20 volunteers who were without wrist pain and without any important metabolic disorders. Mean age was 43 ± 14 years, 12 men and eight women (40% of total). Volunteers were recruited from January 2017 to May 2017. No anesthetic was given before application of ESWT. An innovative probe designed for measurements in bone by compressing soft tissue and combining laser-Doppler flowmetry and spectrophotometry was used to noninvasively measure parameters of microcirculation in the scaphoid. Blood flow, oxygenation, and venous filling pressure were assessed before and at 1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes after ESWT application. Room temperature, humidity, ambient light and measuring sequences were kept consistent. A paired t-test was performed to compare experimental data with baseline (p < 0.05 taken as significant).
Results At baseline, capillary blood flow of the bone was 108 ± 46 arbitrary units (AUs) (86 to 130). After treatment with ESWT, it was 129 ± 44 AUs (106 to 150; p = 0.011, percentage change of 19 %) at 1 minute, 138 ± 46 AUs (116 to 160; p = 0.002, percentage change of 28%) at 2 minutes, 146 ± 54 AUs (121 to 171; p = 0.002, percentage change of 35%) at 3 minutes and 150 ± 52 AUs (126 to 174; p < 0.001, percentage change of 39%) at 5 minutes. It remained elevated until the end of the measuring period at 30 minutes after treatment at 141 ± 42 AUs (121 to 161; p = 0.002) versus baseline). Oxygen saturation and postcapillary venous filling pressure in bone showed no change, with the numbers available.
Conclusions A single session of ESWT increased capillary blood flow in the scaphoid during measuring time of 30 minutes. Bone oxygenation and postcapillary venous filling pressure, however, did not change. Because increased oxygenation is needed for improved bone healing, it remains unclear if a sole increase in capillary blood flow can have clinical benefits. As the measuring period was limited to only 30 minutes, bone oxygenation and postcapillary filling pressure may subsequently show change only after the measuring-period ended.
Clinical Relevance Further studies need to evaluate if increased capillary blood flow can be sustained for longer periods and if bone oxygenation and postcapillary venous filling pressure remain unchanged even after prolonged or repetitive ESWT applications. Moreover, clinical studies must validate if increased microcirculation has a positive impact on bone healing and to determine if ESWT can be therapeutically useful on scaphoid fractures and nonunions.

What Is the Normal Ulnar Bow in Adult Patients?

01-01-2020 – Hreha, Jeremy; Congiusta, Dominick V.; Ahmed, Irfan H.; Vosbikian, Michael M.

Journal Article

Background Rotation of the forearm is a result of the complex interaction among the radius, ulna, and interosseous membrane. Although the radius is recognized as curved, the ulna is generally thought of as a “straight bone.” To better describe normal anatomy, which may lead to more successful anatomic fixation of forearm fractures, we aimed to apply a method of measuring the normal ulnar bow and determine the mean ulnar bow in adults.
Questions/purposes (1) To what degree is the ulna bowed in the coronal and sagittal planes in normal adult forearms? (2) To what degree is the radius bowed in the coronal plane in normal adult forearms?Methods Radiographs of the forearms of adults taken during a 1-year period were initially obtained retrospectively. These radiographs were performed for various reasons, including forearm pain and routine radiographic follow-up. Radiographs were excluded if evidence of a fracture or post-fracture fixation was found, if a patient had missing AP or lateral images, or if a suboptimal technique was used. The coronal and sagittal bow of the ulna was measured with a method adapted from previous studies that assessed radial bow using AP and lateral radiographs, respectively. Similar measurements were made in the coronal plane for the radius. All measurements were performed independently by the four authors. There was excellent interobserver reliability for ulnar bow in the coronal and sagittal planes (interclass correlation coefficient = 0.96 and 0.97, respectively) and for radial bow in the coronal plane (interclass correlation coefficient = 0.90).
Results The mean maximal coronal ulnar bow was 7 ± 2 mm and was located at 75% of the ulnar length, measured proximally to distally. The location of coronal bow was consistently distal to the radial bow location. The mean maximal sagittal ulnar bow was 6 ± 3 mm and was located at 39% of the ulnar length. The mean maximal coronal bow of the radius was 14 ± 2.0 mm and was 59% of the total length of the radius from proximal to distal.
Conclusions The ulna is not a “straight bone,” as is commonly thought, but rather has a bow in both the coronal and sagittal planes.
Clinical Relevance Knowledge of the standard ulnar bow may be pivotal to prevent malunion of the ulna during surgery. Future research using these data in preoperative planning may lead to changes in plate contouring and clinical outcomes in forearm fracture management.

CORR Insights®: What Is the Normal Ulnar Bow in Adult Patients?

01-01-2020 – Nolan, Betsy M.

Journal Article, Comment

No abstract available

How Does Perioperative Ketorolac Affect Opioid Consumption and Pain Management After Ankle Fracture Surgery?

01-01-2020 – McDonald, Elizabeth L.; Daniel, Joseph N.; Rogero, Ryan G.; Shakked, Rachel J.; Nicholson, Kristen; Pedowitz, David I.; Raikin, Steven M.; Bilolikar, Vivek; Winters, Brian S.

Journal Article

Background The investigation of nonnarcotic drug regimens for postoperative pain management is important in addressing the opioid epidemic. NSAIDs can be a powerful adjunct in managing postoperative pain, but the possibility of delayed bone healing is a major concern for orthopaedic surgeons. Our recent retrospective study on ketorolac administration demonstrated that the NSAID is not associated with an increased risk of delayed union or nonunion after ankle fracture surgery.
Questions/purposes To determine whether postoperative ketorolac (1) reduces opioid consumption, (2) improves VAS pain control, and (3) affects fracture healing after open reduction and internal fixation of ankle fractures.
Methods Between August 2016 and December 2017, 128 patients undergoing open reduction and internal fixation of an acute ankle fracture were randomized before surgery via simple randomization to treatment with or without ketorolac. No patients changed treatment regimen groups or opted out of randomization. All other aspects of perioperative care were treated identically. A once-daily survey was distributed via email on postoperative Days 1 to 7. Unblinded participants were asked to report their daily opioid consumption, pain level, and sleep interference using the VAS, and pain frequency using a five-point Likert scale, and side effects with the VAS. For VAS pain, > 20 mm/100 mm on the VAS scale was required to be considered “improved.” In all, 83% (106 of 128) patients completed all seven postoperative surveys with 14 in the control group and eight in the ketorolac group lost to follow-up. Fifty-six patients were administered ketorolac with opioid medication (treatment group) and 50 were administered opioids alone (control group). Participants were comprised of 42% men (44), and 58% women (62); mean age was 48 years. The treating surgeon assessed clinical healing based on the patients ability to ambulate comfortably at 12 weeks postoperatively. Radiographic healing was assessed by two fellowship-trained orthopaedic foot and ankle surgeons blinded to the patient’s name and time since surgery. The surgeons evaluated randomized standard ankle series (anteroposterior, mortise, and lateral) radiographs for resolution of each fracture line to determine fracture union, with delayed union being defined as fracture lines present on radiographs taken at 12-week postoperative visits. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed.
Results Patients in the treatment group consumed a mean of 14 opioid pills, which was less than the mean of 19.3 opioids pills consumed by patients in the control group (p = 0.037). Patients with ketorolac had lower median VAS scores for pain (p < 0.035) postoperatively on postoperative Days 1 and 2 than did control patients. By contrast, patient-reported pain scores and scores for sleep did not convincingly show a benefit to the use of ketorolac. For patients whose ankle fractures healed at 12 weeks, there was no difference between the groups in terms of clinical healing (p = 0.575) and radiographic healing (p = 0.961).
Conclusions In this randomized study, adding ketorolac to the postoperative drug regimen decreased the use of opioid medication after open reduction and internal fixation of ankle fractures in the early postoperative period, and there were mixed, small effects on pain reduction. This NSAID is a valuable tool in helping patients manage postoperative pain with less use of narcotic analgesia. However, our study was underpowered to determine the true safety of this drug in terms of fracture healing and side effects and these questions warrant higher-powered randomized study investigation.
Level of Evidence Level I, therapeutic study.

CORR Insights®: How Does Perioperative Ketorolac Affect Opioid Consumption and Pain Management After Ankle Fracture Surgery?

01-01-2020 – Barg, Alexej

Journal Article, Comment

No abstract available

Is Lower-limb Alignment Associated with Hindfoot Deformity in the Coronal Plane? A Weightbearing CT Analysis

01-01-2020 – Burssens, Arne B. M.; Buedts, Kris; Barg, Alexej; Vluggen, Elizabeth; Demey, Patrick; Saltzman, Charles L.; Victor, Jan M. K.

Journal Article

Background The goals of lower limb reconstruction are to restore alignment, to improve function, and to reduce pain. However, it remains unclear whether alignment of the lower limb and hindfoot are associated because an accurate assessment of hindfoot deformities has been limited by superposition on plain radiography. Consequently, surgeons often overlook hindfoot deformity when planning orthopaedic procedures of the lower limb. Therefore, we used weight-bearing CT to quantify hindfoot deformity related to lower limb alignment in the coronal plane.
Questions/purposes (1) Is lower-limb alignment different in varus than in valgus hindfoot deformities for patients with and without tibiotalar joint osteoarthritis? (2) Does a hindfoot deformity correlate with lower-limb alignment in patients with and without tibiotalar joint osteoarthritis? (3) Is joint line orientation different in varus than in valgus hindfoot deformities for patients with tibiotalar joint osteoarthritis? (4) Does a hindfoot deformity correlate with joint line orientation in patients with tibiotalar joint osteoarthritis?Methods Between January 2015 and December 2017, one foot and ankle surgeon obtained weightbearing CT scans as second-line imaging for 184 patients with ankle and hindfoot disorders. In 69% (127 of 184 patients) of this cohort, a combined weightbearing CT and full-leg radiograph was performed when symptomatic hindfoot deformities were present. Of those, 85% (109 of 127 patients) with a median (range) age of 53 years (23 to 75) were confirmed eligible based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria of this retrospective comparative study. The Takakura classification was used to divide the cohort into patients with (n = 74) and without (n = 35) osteoarthritis of the tibiotalar joint. Lower-limb measurements, obtained from the full-leg radiographs, consisted of the mechanical tibiofemoral angle, mechanical tibia angle, and proximal tibial joint line angle. Weightbearing CT images were used to determine the hindfoot’s alignment (mechanical hindfoot angle), the tibiotalar joint alignment (distal tibial joint line angle and talar tilt angle) and the subtalar joint alignment (subtalar vertical angle). These values were statistically assessed with an ANOVA and a pairwise comparison was subsequently performed with Tukey’s adjustment. A linear regression analysis was performed using the Pearson correlation coefficient (r). A reliability analysis was performed using the intraclass correlation coefficient.
Results Lower limb alignment differed among patients with hindfoot deformity and among patients with or without tibiotalar joint osteoarthritis. In patients with tibiotalar joint osteoarthritis, we found knee valgus in presence of hindfoot varus deformity and knee varus in presence of hindfoot valgus deformity (mechanical tibiofemoral angle 0.3 ± 2.6° versus -1.8 ± 2.1°; p < 0.001; mechanical tibia angle -1.4 ± 2.2° versus -4.3 ± 1.9°; p < 0.001). Patients without tibiotalar joint osteoarthritis demonstrated knee varus in the presence of hindfoot varus deformity compared with knee valgus in presence of hindfoot valgus deformity (mechanical tibiofemoral angle -2.2 ± 2.2° versus 0.9 ± 2.4°; p < 0.001; mechanical tibia angle -1.8 ± 2.1° versus -4.3 ± 1.9°; p < 0.001). Patients with more valgus deformity in the hindfoot tended to have more tibiofemoral varus (r = -0.38) and tibial varus (r = -0.53), when tibiotalar joint osteoarthritis was present (p < 0.001). Conversely, patients with more valgus deformity in the hindfoot tended to have more tibiofemoral valgus (r = 0.4) and tibial valgus (r = 0.46), when tibiotalar joint osteoarthritis was absent (p < 0.001). The proximal joint line of the tibia had greater varus orientation in patients with a hindfoot valgus deformity compared with greater valgus orientation in patients with a hindfoot varus deformity (proximal tibial joint line angle 88.5 ± 2.0° versus 90.6 ± 2.2°; p < 0.05). Patients with more valgus deformity in the hindfoot tended to have more varus angulation of the proximal tibial joint line angle (r = 0.31; p < 0.05).
Conclusions In patients with osteoarthritis of the tibiotalar joint, varus angulation of the knee was associated with hindfoot valgus deformity and valgus angulation of the knee was associated with hindfoot varus deformity. Patients without tibiotalar joint osteoarthritis exhibited the same deviation at the level of the knee and hindfoot. These distinct radiographic findings were most pronounced in the alignment of the tibia relative to the hindfoot deformity. This suggests a detailed examination of hindfoot alignment before knee deformity correction at the level of the proximal tibia, to avoid postoperative increase of pre-existing hindfoot deformity. Other differences detected between the radiographic parameters were less pronounced and varied within the subgroups. Future research could identify prospectively which of these parameters contain clinical relevance by progressing osteoarthritis or deformity and how they can be altered by corrective treatment.
Level of Evidence Level III, prognostic study.

Isolated Trochanteric Descent and Greater Trochanteric Apophyseodesis Are Not Effective in the Treatment of Post-Perthes Deformity

01-01-2020 – Haskel, Jonathan D.; Feder, Oren I.; Mijares, Jorge; Castañeda, Pablo

Journal Article

Background Greater trochanteric apophyseodesis and isolated trochanteric descent seek to prevent abductor weakness in patients with a hip deformity because of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease; however, no studies have evaluated radiographic findings or abductor strength in children treated with these procedures.
Questions/purposes (1) Do children with Waldenström Stage III Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease treated with either isolated greater trochanteric descent or isolated greater trochanteric apophyseodesis achieve improved radiographic findings (Stulberg classification or neck-shaft angle) compared with those who underwent no surgical treatment? (2) Do children treated with one of those procedures achieve greater abductor strength than those who did not have surgery?Methods Between 2006 and 2010, we treated 89 children with Waldenström Type III Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (reossification). Of these, 27.9% (12 patients) underwent greater trochanteric descent, 25.6% (11 patients) underwent greater trochanteric apophyseodesis, and 46.5% (20 patients) did not have surgery. During that time, the decision to perform either apophyseodesis or trochanteric descent was made by the surgeon based on the subjective appearance of remaining growth from the greater trochanter. Nonsurgical management was chosen by the parents of the patients after the risks and benefits of surgery were discussed. During greater trochanteric descent, the greater trochanter was osteotomized and fixed distally with two 7.0-mm screws. During greater trochanteric apophyseodesis, the physis was identified fluoroscopically, and the lateral half of the growth plate was drilled. Nonoperative treatment involved serial clinical and radiographic evaluations every 3 to 6 months. All children in all groups were available for follow-up at a minimum of 6 years. The median follow-up durations for children undergoing greater trochanteric descent, greater trochanteric apophyseodesis, and control cohorts were 6.6 years (range 6.0-8.2 years), 6.5 years (range 6.1-9.2 years), and 7.4 years (range 6.0-9.1 years), respectively. On presentation, each patient’s affected hip was classified according to the Stulberg classification by the operating surgeon and an orthopaedic surgeon not involved in the child’s care. The neck-shaft angle was measured for each patient before surgery and at the final follow-up examination. Abductor strength was assessed by a pediatric orthopaedic fellow and a physical therapist with the patient in the lateral decubitus position. Each patient was given a muscle strength score on a scale of 0 to 10 points, per a modification of the Medical Research Council scale to allow for a narrower range. We had 80% power to detect an 8° difference in the neck-shaft angle between the greater trochanteric apophyseodesis and nonoperative management cohorts. A sample size of 6.8 patients per cohort would be necessary to detect the above endpoint.
Results With the numbers available, we found no differences among the groups in the proportion of patients with Stulberg Class 2 femoral heads (two of 12 patients in the isolated trochanteric descent group, three of 11 in the isolated trochanteric apophyseodesis group, and two of 20 who did not undergo surgery; p = 0.46). Likewise, there were no differences among the three groups in terms of the neck-shaft angle at a minimum of 6 years of follow-up (122° ± 6°, 119° ± 7°, and 126° ± 8° in the isolated trochanteric descent, isolated trochanteric apophyseodesis, and nonoperative groups, respectively). There were no differences among the groups in term of the median abductor strength test result: seven of 10 (range 6-8), six of 10 (range 6-8), and six of 10 (range 6-10; p = 0.34).
Conclusion Because neither isolated greater trochanteric descent nor greater trochanteric apophyseodesis alone had an effect on hip morphology or abductor strength in children with sequellae of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease, we conclude these types of extraarticular surgery are ineffective. Therefore, we no longer perform isolated trochanteric descent or apophyseodesis.
Level of Evidence Level III, therapeutic study.

CORR Insights®: Isolated Trochanteric Descent and Greater Trochanteric Apophyseodesis Are Not Effective in the Treatment of Post-Perthes Deformity

01-01-2020 – Grzegorzewski, Andrzej

Journal Article, Comment

No abstract available

Can Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced CT Quantify Perfusion in a Stimulated Muscle of Limited Size? A Rat Model

01-01-2020 – Walker, John A.; Walters, Thomas J.; Parker, Matthew D.; Wenke, Joseph C.

Journal Article

Background Muscle injury may result in damage to the vasculature, rendering it unable to meet the metabolic demands of muscle regeneration and healing. Therefore, therapies frequently aim to maintain, restore, or improve blood supply to the injured muscle. Although there are several options to assess the vascular outcomes of these therapies, few are capable of spatially assessing perfusion in large volumes of tissue.
Questions/purposes Can dynamic contrast-enhanced CT (DCE-CT) imaging acquired with a clinical CT scanner be used in a rat model to quantify perfusion in the anterior tibialis muscle at spatially relevant volumes, as assessed by (1) the blood flow rate and tissue blood volume in the muscle after three levels of muscle stimulation (low, medium, and maximum) relative to baseline as determined by the non-stimulated contralateral leg; and (2) how do these measurements compare with those obtained by the more standard approach of microsphere perfusion?Methods The right anterior tibialis muscles of adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomized to low- (n = 10), medium- (n = 6), or maximum- (n = 3) level (duty cycles of 2.5%, 5.0%, and 20%, respectively) nerve electrode coupled muscle stimulation directly followed by DCE-CT imaging. Tissue blood flow and blood volume maps were created using commercial software and volumetrically measured using NIH software. Although differences in blood flow were detectable across the studied levels of muscle stimulation, a review of the evidence suggested the absolute blood flow quantified was underestimated. Therefore, at a later date, a separate set of adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomized for microsphere perfusion (n = 7) to define blood flow in the animal model with an accepted standard. With this technique, intra-arterial particles sized to freely flow in blood but large enough to lodge in tissue capillaries were injected. Simultaneously, blood sampling at a fixed flow rate was simultaneously performed to provide a fixed blood flow rate sample. The tissues of interest were then explanted and assessed for the total number of particles per tissue volume. Tissue blood flow rate was then calculated based on the particle count ratio within the reference sample. Note that a tissue’s blood volume cannot be calculated with this method. Comparison analysis to the non-stimulated baseline leg was performed using two-tailed paired student t-test. An ANOVA was used to compare difference between stimulation groups.
Results DCE-CT measured (mean ± SD) increasing tissue blood flow differences in stimulated anterior tibialis muscle at 2.5% duty cycle (32 ± 5 cc/100 cc/min), 5.0% duty cycle (46 ± 13 cc/100 cc/min), and 20% duty cycle (73 ± 3 cc/100 cc/min) compared with the paired contralateral non-stimulated anterior tibialis muscle (10 ± 2 cc/100 cc/min, mean difference 21 cc/100 cc/min 95% CI 17.08 to 25.69; 9 ± 1 cc/100 cc/min, mean difference 37 cc/100 cc/min 95% CI 23.06 to 50.11; and 11 ± 2 cc/100 cc/min, mean difference 62 cc/100 cc/min 95% CI 53.67 to 70.03; all p < 0.001). Similarly, DCE-CT showed increasing differences in tissue blood volumes within the stimulated anterior tibialis muscle at 2.5% duty cycle (23.2 ± 4.2 cc/100 cc), 5.0% duty cycle (39.2 ± 7.2 cc/100 cc), and 20% duty cycle (52.5 ± 13.1 cc/100 cc) compared with the paired contralateral non-stimulated anterior tibialis muscle (3.4 ± 0.7 cc/100 cc, mean difference 19.8 cc/100 cc 95% CI 16.46 to 23.20; p < 0.001; 3.5 ± 0.4 cc/100 cc, mean difference 35.7 cc/100 cc 95% CI 28.44 to 43.00; p < 0.001; and 4.2 ± 1.3 cc/100 cc, mean difference 48.3 cc/100 cc 95% CI 17.86 to 78.77; p = 0.010). Microsphere perfusion measurements also showed an increasing difference in tissue blood flow in the stimulated anterior tibialis muscle at 2.5% duty cycle (62 ± 43 cc/100 cc/min), 5.0% duty cycle (89 ± 52 cc/100 cc/min), and 20% duty cycle (313 ± 269 cc/100 cc/min) compared with the paired contralateral non-stimulated anterior tibialis muscle (8 ± 4 cc/100 cc/min, mean difference 55 cc/100 cc/min 95% CI 15.49 to 94.24; p = 0.007; 9 ± 9 cc/100 cc/min, mean difference 79 cc/100 cc/min 95% CI 33.83 to 125.09; p = 0.003; and 18 ± 18 cc/100 cc/min, mean difference 295 cc/100 cc/min 95% CI 8.45 to 580.87; p = 0.023). Qualitative comparison between the methods suggests that DCE-CT values underestimate tissue blood flow with a post-hoc ANOVA showing DCE-CT blood flow values within the 2.5% duty cycle group (32 ± 5 cc/100 cc/min) to be less than the microsphere perfusion value (62 ± 43 cc/100 cc/min) with a mean difference of 31 cc/100 cc/min (95% CI 2.46 to 60.23; p = 0.035).
Conclusions DCE-CT using a clinical scanner is a feasible modality to measure incremental changes of blood flow and tissue blood volume within a spatially challenged small animal model. Care should be taken in studies where true blood flow values are needed, as this particular small-volume muscle model suggests true blood flow is underestimated using the specific adaptions of DCE-CT acquisition and image processing chosen.
Clinical Relevance CT perfusion is a clinically available modality allowing for translation of science from bench to bedside. Adapting the modality to fit small animal models that are relevant to muscle healing may hasten time to clinical utility.

Classifications in Brief: The Hartofilakidis Classification of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip

01-01-2020 – Zhu, Jimmy; Fernando, Navin D.

Journal Article

No abstract available