Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery

Plate fixation of clavicle fractures: comparison between early and delayed surgery

02-09-2019 – Wouter P. Kluijfhout, Eric D. Tutuhatunewa, Ger D.J. van Olden

Journal Article

The optimal treatment strategy for clavicle fractures remains a topic of debate. We evaluated our step-wise treatment protocol for patients with clavicle fractures to determine our success rate of conservative treatment. In addition, we evaluated the incidence of complications after clavicle plate fixation in patients undergoing acute surgery vs. delayed surgery. This was a retrospective analysis in which we registered all patients aged 14 years or older with a clavicle fracture between January 2010 and May 2018 and at least 6 weeks’ follow-up. Patients who underwent surgery were included from a prospectively maintained database. Functional outcomes were measured by Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand and Constant-Murley scores 6 weeks after surgery. Conservative treatment was successful in 1627 of 1748 patients (93%). Primary fixation was performed in 73 patients (61%) and delayed fixation in 48 (39%). In 8 patients (6.6%), radiologic widening of the acromioclavicular (AC) joint was present after surgery, suggestive of AC injury. The incidence of complications was significantly higher among patients who underwent delayed fixation vs. those who underwent primary fixation: 15 of 48 patients (31.3%) vs. 9 of 73 patients (12.3%). Most patients with clavicle fractures have an excellent outcome using conservative management. Acute surgery can be performed in high-demand patients, resulting in high performance scores. Delayed surgery is associated with a higher risk of complications, although the outcome is generally good. Associated AC joint dislocation found on postoperative radiographs does not influence outcomes. Shared decision making is key, and patients should be well aware of the potential risks and benefits of surgery.

Three anchor concepts for rotator cuff repair in standardized physiological and osteoporotic bone: a biomechanical study

09-10-2019 – Claudio Rosso, Timo Weber, Alain Dietschy, Michael de Wild, Sebastian Müller

Journal Article

Previous biomechanical studies used single-pull destructive tests in line with the anchor and are limited by a great variability of bone density of cadaver samples. To overcome these limitations, a more physiological test setting was provided using titanium, bioresorbable, and all-suture anchors. In this controlled laboratory study, 3 anchor constructs were divided into 2 groups: physiological and osteoporotic. Sixty standardized artificial bone specimens (=10 for each anchor in each group) were used for biomechanical testing. The anchors were inserted at a 45° angle as during surgery. Cyclic loading for 1000 cycles followed by ultimate load-to-failure (ULTF) testing was performed. Elongation, ultimate load at failure, and the mode of failure were noted. In the physiological group, the ULTF for the all-suture anchor (mean [standard deviation], 632.9 [96.8 N]) was found to be significantly higher than for the other anchors (titanium, 497.1 [50.5] N, and bioresorbable, 322.4 [3.1 N], P < .0001). The titanium anchor showed a significantly higher ULTF than the bioresorbable anchor (P < .0001). In the osteoporotic group, the all-suture anchor again showed a higher ULTF compared to the bioresorbable anchor (500.9 [50.6] N vs. 315.1 [11.3] N, P < .0001). In the osteoporotic group, cyclic loading revealed a higher elongation after 1000 loading cycles for the bioresorbable (0.40 [0.12] mm) compared to the titanium (0.22 [0.11] mm; P = .01) as well as the all-suture anchor (0.19 [0.15] mm, P = .003). Regarding ULTF, the all-suture anchor outperformed the other anchors in physiological bone, but in osteoporotic bone, significance was reached only compared to the bioresorbable anchor. Although cyclic loading revealed significant differences, these might not be clinically relevant.

Lower-extremity total joint arthroplastyxa0in shoulder arthroplasty patients: does the order of the lower-extremity total joint arthroplasty matter?

16-09-2019 – Heather A. Prentice, Priscilla H. Chan, Mark T. Dillon, Nithin C. Reddy, Ronald A. Navarro, Elizabeth W. Paxton

Journal Article

As total joint arthroplasty (TJA) utilization increases, arthroplasties of multiple joints in a patient are more common. An understanding of the success of shoulder arthroplasty patients also requiring a lower-extremity (hip or knee) TJA is lacking. We evaluated the following questions: (1) Is there a difference in the revision risk following shoulder arthroplasty in patients who also undergo a lower-extremity TJA compared with those who do not? (2) Does the revision risk differ depending on the sequence of the procedures? Patients who underwent elective primary shoulder arthroplasty from 2009 through 2015 were identified using Kaiser Permanente’s shoulder arthroplasty registry. Patients with a lower-extremity TJA were identified using the institution’s total joint replacement registry. Revision related to the index shoulder was modeled via Cox regression stratified by procedure type and adjusted for confounders. Of the 4751 shoulder arthroplasties identified, 1285 (27.0%) underwent a prior hip and/or knee arthroplasty and 483 (10.2%) underwent a hip and/or knee arthroplasty following the index shoulder arthroplasty. No difference was found in all-cause shoulder revision risk with lower-extremity TJA before (hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.97-1.96) or after (hazard ratio, 1.30; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-2.06) the index shoulder arthroplasty compared with patients who underwent a shoulder arthroplasty only. In our study sample, we did not observe shoulder revision surgery risk to be different in patients who also underwent a lower-extremity TJA, regardless of the sequence of the 2 procedures. Future prospective studies should investigate whether the timing of the lower-extremity TJA in relation to the shoulder procedure impacts the latter’s success.

The backward traction test: a new and effective test for diagnosis of biceps and pulley lesions

19-09-2019 – Danmei Li, Weiming Wang, Yupeng Liu, Xiaojun Ma, Shibo Huang, Zhenan Qu

Journal Article

The value of physical examination for diagnosis of lesions of the long head of the biceps (LHB) and the pulley remains unsatisfactory. The purpose of this study was to describe a new diagnostic test, the backward traction (BT) test, to detect lesions of the LHB and the biceps pulley. A prospective study of 143 patients was performed to evaluate the diagnostic value of the BT test and 2 traditional clinical tests (Speed and Yergason tests). Shoulder arthroscopy was used as the “gold standard.” For the detection of LHB injury, the BT test was the most sensitive (74%) and accurate (68%). The BT test had a higher diagnostic value for pulley lesions, with a high sensitivity of 81% and an accuracy of 71%. No significant differences in terms of specificity for LHB and pulley lesions were observed between tests. Regarding pulley lesions, the internally rotated and externally rotated BT test positions had high specificity for the diagnosis of specific anteromedial and posterolateral pulley lesions (79% and 73%, respectively). The BT test had a high κ coefficient of 0.768-0.811. The BT test is more sensitive and accurate as a new test for LHB and pulley lesions and also specific to distinguish the medial sling and lateral sling lesions of the pulley.

Os acromiale: systematic review of surgical outcomes

03-09-2019 – Gean C. Viner, Jun Kit He, Eugene W. Brabston, Amit Momaya, Brent A. Ponce

Journal Article

The literature is unclear as to the optimal surgical management of a symptomatic os acromiale that has failed nonoperative treatment. Surgical options include excision, acromioplasty, and open reduction and internal fixation. The purpose of this study is to summarize the described methods and compare their reported outcomes with the goal to provide direction on how to surgically manage os acromiale. We performed a systematic review of the current medical literature. Fifteen studies met all the inclusion criteria. Two hundred eleven total subjects (220 shoulders) underwent surgical treatment for a symptomatic os acromiale. There were 140 men and 71 women with a mean age of 49.6 ± 9.1 years. The mean follow-up duration was 40 ± 11.6 months. Surgical techniques used in the included studies were excision, acromioplasty, and open reduction with internal fixation. Concurrent surgical procedures performed were also included. Meso-os acromiale was the most common type (167 cases, 94.4%). The most common surgical technique was internal fixation (135 cases, 60.8%), with screw fixation being the majority (76 cases, 56.3%). Excision (65 cases, 29.3%) was the second most used technique. The most common concurrent surgical procedure performed was rotator cuff repair (125 cases, 56.3%), followed by distal clavicle excision (31 cases, 14%). All surgical techniques employed resulted in improvement in postsurgical clinical outcomes without any technique demonstrating superior results. Operative management of a symptomatic os acromiale that has failed initial nonoperative treatment leads to decreased symptoms and improvement in clinical outcomes.

Superior capsule reconstruction for irreparable rotator cuff tears: a systematic review of biomechanical and clinical outcomes by graftxa0type

17-09-2019 – Justin L. Makovicka, Andrew S. Chung, Karan A. Patel, David G. Deckey, Jeffrey D. Hassebrock, John M. Tokish

Journal Article, Review

Superior capsular reconstruction (SCR) has recently been proposed as a surgical solution to the irreparable rotator cuff tear and has gained popularity because of promising early results. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to review the biomechanical and clinical outcomes in shoulders with this condition treated with SCR. A systematic review was conducted following PRISMA guidelines using PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. Studies were included if they reported biomechanical, radiographic, or clinical outcomes data after undergoing SCR in shoulders with irreparable rotator cuff tears. Studies were broken down into 3 categories: cadaveric biomechanical studies, autograft clinical outcome studies, and allograft clinical outcome studies. Biomechanical, radiographic, patient-reported, and functional outcomes data were recorded for each study. Eight cadaveric biomechanical studies, 5 autograft clinical studies, and 4 allograft clinical studies met inclusion criteria. In biomechanical studies, subacromial contact pressure and superior humeral translation were decreased in most tested scenarios. An increase in American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores, forward elevation and external rotation values, and acromiohumeral distance (AHD) were found in all autograft clinical studies reporting. Allograft clinical studies reported increases in ASES scores, forward elevation values, and AHD but decreases in visual analog scale scores in all studies reporting. SCR is emerging as a viable surgical option to address the irreparable rotator cuff tear. Biomechanical studies suggest that the humeral head-stabilizing effect of SCR appears to translate into improved clinical outcomes. Future research should focus on further defining the indications, limitations, and optimal technique.

A systematic review of patient-reported outcome measures used in shoulder instability research

10-09-2019 – Joseph H. Whittle, Susan E. Peters, Silvia Manzanero, Phillip F. Duke

Journal Article, Review

Shoulder instability is extremely common, with various outcome scores used to assess its progression after treatment. This review was performed to identify the scores most commonly used and to evaluate them according to the 4 core domains of shoulder trials (according to the Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials [COMET] initiative) and their respective psychometric qualities. A systematic review of the literature of 3 databases (MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed) was undertaken. Studies were identified using eligibility criteria and critically appraised by 2 authors. Data were extracted using an a priori template. Outcome scores were identified and assessed regarding COMET domain inclusion and their psychometric properties. The most frequently used scores were the Rowe (58%), Constant (33%), Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI; 24%), and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (23%) scores. The majority of outcome scores assessed pain and all assessed physical functioning. Quality of life and a global assessment of treatment success were rarely incorporated. No single outcome score considered all core COMET domains. The WOSI was the most acceptable measure of those assessed with respect to its validity, reliability, and responsiveness. The WOSI incorporated 3 of the 4 core domains for shoulder trials (pain, physical functioning, and health-related quality of life). It had the most psychometric testing of the identified scores, confirming its reliability, validity, and responsiveness in the setting of shoulder instability. We recommend its use in this setting; however, it should be supplemented with additional outcome scores, such as the University of California-Los Angeles score, to cover all of the core COMET domains.

Biomechanical analysis of anterior capsule reconstruction and latissimus dorsi transfer for irreparable subscapularis tears

09-10-2019 – Reza Omid, Michael A. Stone, Charles C. Lin, Nilay A. Patel, Yasuo Itami, Michelle H. McGarry, Thay Q. Lee

Journal Article

Anterior capsule reconstruction (ACR) and latissimus dorsi transfers (LTs) have been proposed as solutions for irreparable subscapularis tears. The purpose of this study was to biomechanically assess the effects of ACR and LT separately and together for treatment of irreparable subscapularis tears. Eight cadaveric shoulders underwent 5 testing conditions: (1) intact, (2) irreparable subscapularis tear, (3) ACR, (4) ACR+LT, and (5) LT alone. Anteroinferior translation loads of 20, 30, and 40 N were applied. Range of motion and magnitudes of glenohumeral anterior and inferior translation at 0°, 30°, and 60° of abduction and at 30° and 60° of external rotation were measured for each testing condition. At 30° of abduction and 60° of external rotation, ACR and ACR+LT restored anterior and inferior translation to intact (P > .702) for 30 and 40 N of anteroinferiorly directed force. LT alone did not restore anteroinferior stability at 30 N of distraction force at 30° of glenohumeral abduction and 60° of external rotation (P < .001). However, ACR and ACR+LT led to significant decreases in total range of motion compared to intact at 0° and 30° of abduction (P < .007). ACR with dermal allograft was able to restore anteroinferior stability in the setting of irreparable subscapularis tears but resulted in decreased total range of motion. LT alone was less effective than ACR in restoring glenohumeral stability. The addition of LT as a dynamic restraint did not increase the efficacy of ACR.

A comparison of deltopectoral versus Judet approach for glenoid exposure

31-08-2019 – Rongguang Ao, Zhen Jian, Jianhua Zhou, Xinhua Jiang, Baoqing Yu

Journal Article

Open reduction-internal fixation via an anterior or posterior approach is a widely used method for treating displaced glenoid fractures. This study aimed to identify the exposure range of the glenoid rim by these 2 approaches (deltopectoral and Judet approaches) and provide reference data for the choice of surgical approach. Twelve cadaveric shoulders were dissected. Both deltopectoral and Judet approaches were performed on each shoulder to mark the glenoid fracture. In addition, the shoulder was disarticulated to record the exposure range of the glenoid rim. For the deltopectoral approach, the range of the exposed glenoid rim was from 5:50 to 11:30, which accounted for about 47.2% of the clock face. For the Judet approach, the range of the exposed glenoid rim was from 1:30 to 6:20, which accounted for about 40.3% of the clock face. Along the inferior glenoid, there was an area of partial overlap for the 2 approaches. The superior glenoid rim located from 11:30 to 1:30 was considered inaccessible, as it could not be exposed by the 2 approaches. Less than 50% of the glenoid rim can be exposed by the deltopectoral or Judet approach. With a single approach, it may be difficult to expose and fix some complex glenoid fractures. The superior part of the glenoid fracture is the non-access area via the deltopectoral or Judet approach.

Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) correlates with American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score and Western Ontario Rotator Cuff index in patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair

23-09-2019 – John R. Wickman, Brian C. Lau, Melissa B. Scribani, Jocelyn R. Wittstein

Journal Article

Patient-reported outcomes continue to grow in importance. This study compared the Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) score with the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score and Western Ontario Rotator Cuff (WORC) index score in patients before and after primary rotator cuff repair. This study was a retrospective review of a prospectively filled database of 333 subjects who underwent primary rotator cuff repair by a single surgeon between 2010 and 2017. The database included preoperative and postoperative SANE, ASES, and WORC evaluations. The mean follow-up time was 37.5 months. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated comparing each score preoperatively and at least 1 year postoperatively. A strong correlation was found between the SANE and ASES scores of subjects in the preoperative period (r = 0.769, P < .0001) and the follow-up period of at least 1 year (r = 0.781, P < .0001). A similarly strong correlation was found between the SANE and WORC scores of subjects in the preoperative period (r = 0.757, P < .0001) and the follow-up period of at least 1 year (r = 0.813, P < .0001). On stratification analysis, correlation of SANE scores with ASES and WORC scores was found when subjects were grouped by sex, age, cuff tear size, and workers' compensation status. This study shows a significant correlation between the SANE, ASES, and WORC scores of primary rotator cuff repair subjects in the preoperative and long-term follow-up periods. We recommend the SANE score as an adjunct to clinical outcome data that can be used in patients regardless of sex, cuff tear size, or workers' compensation status.

Adaptation and transcultural translation of the Rotator Cuff Quality of Life questionnaire into Spanish

30-09-2019 – Laura Rodríguez Rodríguez, Tomás Gallego Izquierdo, Daniel Pecos Martín

Journal Article

The objective of this study was the transcultural adaptation of the Rotator Cuff Quality of Life questionnaire and the determination of the reliability and validity of the questionnaire in the Spanish population with rotator cuff disease. One of the translators was a physiotherapist, and the other was an English philologist. The participants comprised 170 subjects with rotator cuff pathology. Test-retest reliability was established by the intraclass correlation coefficient. Internal consistency was established using the Cronbach α. Convergent validity was established by comparison with the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire, Shoulder Pain and Disability Index, Spanish version of the Oxford Shoulder Score, and Spanish version of the Western Ontario Shoulder Instability index using the Spearman correlation coefficient. Estimation of the error in the measurements was calculated with the standard error of measurement. Assessment of reproducibility was performed with 30 minutes between the first and second administrations of the questionnaire. The Cronbach α was 0.99, showing high internal consistency. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.9 (95% confidence interval, 0.99-0.99; P < .001), indicating high test-retest reliability. The Spearman correlation coefficient showed a good relationship in all cases: Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand, ρ = 0.9 (P < .001); Oxford Shoulder Score, ρ = 0.7 (P < .001); Shoulder Pain and Disability Index, ρ = 0.8 (P < .001); and Western Ontario Shoulder Instability index, ρ = 0.8 (P < .001). The standard error of measurement indicated little variability in the measurements (2.7%). The Spanish version of the Rotator Cuff Quality of Life questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument for the subjective evaluation of patients with a diagnosis of rotator cuff pathology in the Spanish population.

The role of greater tuberosity healing in reverse shoulder arthroplasty: a finite element analysis

14-10-2019 – Vani J. Sabesan, Diego J.L. Lima, Yang Yang, Matthew C. Stankard, Mauricio Drummond, William W. Liou

Journal Article

The lack of greater tuberosity (GT) healing in proximal humerus fractures has been negatively correlated with outcomes for hemiarthroplasty; however, there is still debate regarding the effects of GT healing in reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA). Our goal was to examine the effects of GT healing using a kinematic finite element analysis (FEA) model. Computer-aided design models of a medialized glenoid with a lateralized humerus (MGLH) RSA design were uploaded into an FEA shoulder model in 2 different configurations: healed greater tuberosity (HGT) and nonunion greater tuberosity (NGT). Deltoid muscle forces and joint reaction forces (JRFs) on the shoulder were calculated during abduction (ABD), forward flexion (FF), and external rotation (ER). Force magnitude of the anterior, middle, and posterior deltoid muscle as well as JRFs modeled in both GT scenarios were similar for ABD (muscle forces P = .91, P = .75, P = .71, respectively; and JRF P = .93) and for FF (muscle forces P = .89, P = .83, P = .99, respectively; and JRF P = .90). For ER, the force magnitude between 2 GT settings showed statistically significant differences (HGT: 9.51 N vs. NGT: 6.13 N) (P < .001). Likewise, during ER, JRFs were different, and the NGT group showed a steep drop in JRF after 10° of ER (HGT: 28.4 N vs. NGT: 18.38 N) (P < .001). GT healing does not seem to impact RSA biomechanics during abduction or forward flexion; however, it does affect biomechanics during external rotation. Overall orthopedic surgeons can expect good results for patients after RSA even with poor GT healing.

Post-traumatic proximal radioulnar synostosis: results of surgical treatment and review of the literature

02-10-2019 – Giuseppe Giannicola, Paolo Spinello, Ciro Villani, Gianluca Cinotti

Journal Article

Post-traumatic proximal radioulnar synostosis is a very rare and disabling condition whose surgical treatment has traditionally been viewed with pessimism. The results of the few case series in the literature are conflicting. Our aims were (1) to describe the clinical results of a case series treated surgically by a single elbow surgeon and (2) to review the literature. Twelve patients were evaluated. Preoperative radiographs and computed tomography scans were performed. According to the Viola and Hastings classification, there was 1 case of type IC synostosis; 3, type IIA; 2, type IIIA; and 8, type IIIB. Two patients had a double synostosis. The synostosis was excised in 10 cases; in addition, radial head excision, radial head arthroplasty, and proximal radial diaphyseal resection were performed in 1, 3, and 2 cases, respectively. The Mayo Elbow Performance Score, modified American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, and Quick
DASH (short version of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire) score were used for the preoperative and postoperative evaluation. The nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test was used for the statistical analysis. The mean follow-up period was 20.5 months. The final mean extension-flexion and pronation-supination arcs were 116° and 123°, respectively. Significant improvements were found in the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (P = .005), modified American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score (P = .012), and Quick
DASH score (P = .002), with mean values of 24, 28, and 17, respectively. One synostosis recurrence and one late disassembly of the radial head arthroplasty were observed. Post-traumatic proximal radioulnar synostosis surgery is effective, but careful preoperative planning based on the pathoanatomic characteristics of each type of synostosis and associated lesions is mandatory. Synostosis excision is performed in most cases, whereas additional surgical procedures should be considered in selected cases.

Revision total elbow arthroplasty failure rates: the impact of primary arthroplasty failure etiology on subsequent revisions

18-12-2019 – Dennis A. DeBernardis, John G. Horneff, Daniel E. Davis, Matthew L. Ramsey, Manuel C. Pontes, Luke S. Austin

Journal Article

The number of primary total elbow arthroplasties (TEAs) performed is increasing annually, necessitating a rise in the number of revision procedures. No studies exist to illustrate reliable indications for revision arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the etiology of primary TEA failure on the failure rate of revision surgery. We retrospectively analyzed the patient charts of all revision TEAs performed at a single institution between 2006 and 2016. The primary outcome was revision failure, defined as the need for a second revision surgical procedure. Patients were organized into cohorts by etiology of primary implant failure. Failure rates, time to second revision, and average number of additional revisions were compared among cohorts. A total of 46 patients with a mean age of 62.7 years and minimum 2-year follow-up were included. The etiologies of failure identified were infection (n = 20), aseptic loosening (n = 17), periprosthetic fracture (n = 6), and bushing wear (n = 3). All noninfectious etiologies were grouped into an additional cohort. Patients who underwent revision for infection demonstrated a significantly greater failure rate and greater number of additional revisions per patient than those with aseptic loosening, those with periprosthetic fracture, and the noninfectious group, as well as a shorter time to failure than the noninfectious group. Patients in whom primary TEA fails because of infection are more likely to experience revision failure and require a greater number of subsequent operations than patients with other etiologies of primary TEA failure. These data question the efficacy of revision surgery in the treatment of infected TEAs.

Predictors of elbow torque among professional baseball pitchers

10-12-2019 – Vincent A. Lizzio, Caleb M. Gulledge, D. Grace Smith, Jason E. Meldau, Peter A. Borowsky, Vasilios Moutzouros, Eric C. Makhni

Journal Article

Overuse injuries of the shoulder and elbow continue to be prevalent in elite baseball pitchers. Pitch velocity has been shown to impact medial elbow torque in adolescent baseball pitchers. However, the determinants of medial elbow torque in professional baseball pitchers are not known. To determine the influence of pitch type, velocity, and player characteristics on medial elbow torque in professional baseball pitchers. Professional baseball pitchers were recruited for participation. Height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and throwing arm measurements were obtained for all study participants. While wearing a gyroscopic sensor equipped with an accelerometer, participants were instructed to throw a standard, randomized sequence of fastballs, changeups, and curveballs. Elbow torque, arm slot, arm speed, shoulder rotation, and ball velocity were recorded for each pitch. A linear mixed model was used to evaluate the association of pitch type with each pitch parameter, adjusting for pitchers’ demographics. A total of 12 professional baseball pitchers were included in this study. Among the pitch types, medial elbow torque was significantly higher in fastballs than in curveballs (P = .001). An increased BMI value was independently associated with decreased elbow torque in pitchers (P = .035). Fastballs place significantly higher torque on the medial elbow than do curveballs, which is consistent with previous studies done on high school and collegiate populations. Pitchers with a higher BMI experience significantly less torque across the medial elbow.

The arthroscopic triple-row modified suture bridge technique for rotator cuff repair: functional outcome and repair integrity

28-08-2019 – Johannes Buckup, Daniel Smolen, Florian Hess, Christoph Sternberg, Jan Leuzinger

Journal Article

The optimal technique for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is still controversial. Large tears with a high grade of retraction have an especially high risk of retearing. This study reports the clinical and radiologic results of a triple-row modified suture bridge technique for the treatment of full-thickness rotator cuff tears with medium and high grades of retraction. A total of 101 shoulders in 100 patients underwent a triple-row modified suture bridge reconstruction for full-thickness rotator cuff tears with retraction grade II and grade III according to Patte; 81 patients were reached for follow-up 36.2 months after surgery. At follow-up, clinical outcome was assessed by the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, subjective shoulder value, visual analog scale score, University of California-Los Angeles shoulder score, and Constant score (CS). At follow-up, an ultrasound examination was performed to determine tendon integrity or retears in all patients. The overall retear rate was 4.9% (4/81). The clinical outcome was good to excellent (American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, 94 ± 11; subjective shoulder value, 92 ± 12; University of California-Los Angeles shoulder score, 33 ± 5; Constant score, 90 ± 9). In the radiologic follow-up, no retear was found in any of the follow-up patients after an average of 36.2 months. There was no significant difference in clinical outcome parameters between rotator cuff tears Patte II and Patte III (P > .05). For tears with a high grade of retraction, surgical treatment using a triple-row modified suture bridge technique represents a good treatment option with a low rate of retearing and good to excellent clinical results.

Congenital pseudarthrosis of the clavicle: surgical decision making and outcomes

21-08-2019 – Arin E. Kim, Carley B. Vuillermin, Donald S. Bae, Julie B. Samora, Peter M. Waters, Andrea S. Bauer

Journal Article

Congenital pseudarthrosis of the clavicle (CPC) is a rare entity in which the primary ossification center of the clavicle fails to coalesce. The natural history of CPC is unknown, and there is controversy regarding surgical vs. conservative treatment. A retrospective review of 47 pediatric patients treated for CPC was performed. The Quick Disabilities of the Arm and Shoulder (Quick
DASH) survey and the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) upper extremity domain were used to assess overall patient satisfaction, function, and quality of life after treatment. Twenty-four of 47 (51%) patients underwent surgical treatment. Of these, 9 patients (38%, 9/24) underwent surgery at <18 months of age using suture fixation alone, whereas the older 15 surgical patients (15/24, 62%) were treated with plate fixation. The younger surgical cohort had a nonunion rate of 43% (3/7) compared with 13% (2/15) in the older cohort. All surgical patients had resolution of preoperative symptoms. Eleven (11/24, 46%) surgical subjects responded to the follow-up survey. Upper extremity function normalized according to the Quick
DASH survey (score of 0 for all subjects). The median PROMIS upper extremity domain score was 55, which was also in the normal range. This series of CPC patients improves our understanding of treatment options and outcomes of surgical treatment. All surgical patients had resolution of preoperative symptoms. Patients treated surgically with stable fixation at an older age had higher rates of union than those treated in infancy with suture fixation. Patient-reported outcomes were favorable overall.

The effect of patient-reported metal allergies on the outcomes of shoulder arthroplasty

21-08-2019 – Justin C. Kennon, Julia Lee, Chad Songy, Dave Shukla, Robert H. Cofield, Joaquin Sanchez-Sotelo, John W. Sperling

Journal Article

Although literature exists regarding hip and knee arthroplasty outcomes in patients with skin allergy to metals, there is minimal information about skin allergy implications on shoulder arthroplasty outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine the results, complications, and failure rate among patients with a self-reported metal allergy undergoing shoulder arthroplasty. Fifty-two shoulder arthroplasties were performed at our Institution in 43 patients with self-reported metal allergies. Forty primary and 12 revision shoulder arthroplasties were performed using anatomic (30) and reverse (22) components. Retrospective chart review was performed to determine metal allergy history, implant composition, pain, motion, and complications. Radiographs were reviewed to determine mechanical failure rates. Average follow-up time was 65 months. Allergies reported included nickel (37), cobalt chrome (4), copper (2), zinc (1), titanium (1), gold (1), and nonspecific metal allergy (8); 8 patients reported multiple metal allergies. All components implanted in patients with nickel allergies contained nickel. At most recent follow-up, pain was rated as none or mild in 88% of shoulders. Active elevation improved from 80° to 141° and external rotation from 24° to 52°. Two revisions were performed for glenoid loosening (3.8%); both were revision cases with substantial glenoid bone loss. One patient with mild pain had a radiographically loose glenoid component 12 years after anatomic shoulder arthroplasty. Results from this study suggest that shoulder arthroplasty in patients with self-reported metal allergy provides satisfactory pain relief and improved range of motion with low revision rates.

Failure to restore the calcar and locking screw cross-threading predicts varus collapse in proximal humerus fracture fixation

27-08-2019 – Eric M. Padegimas, Gerard Chang, Kamran Namjouyan, Surena Namdari

Journal Article

Varus collapse is a common failure mode of proximal humerus fracture (PHF) fixation. The purpose of this study was to analyze predictors of varus collapse of PHF after open reduction, internal fixation (ORIF). All patients who underwent ORIF of a PHF from January 2008 to July 2018 were identified. Known predictors of fixation failure were assessed, including calcar distance, calcar ratio, and calcar restoration. Additionally, the presence of cross-threaded screws was determined. The primary outcome analyzed was varus collapse of the fracture defined as a change in neck shaft angulation to less than 120°. There were 112 patients identified who underwent ORIF of a PHF that met inclusion criteria. The population was 75.0% female (84/112), average age was 62.5 ± 10.4 years (range 40.0-87.9), and average body mass index was 28.0 ± 5.5 (17.5-46.4). There were 17 with varus collapse. In 11 of the 17 patients (64.7%), there was screw cross-threading (vs. 31/95 [32.6%] in those that did not collapse); P = .012. In addition, 8 of the 17 (47.1%) did not have restoration of the calcar (vs. 16/95 [16.8%]; P = .005). This study identifies 2 surgeon-controlled variables that can contribute to varus collapse after ORIF of PHFs. Cross-threading of locking screws and failure to restore the medial calcar can be a function of implant design, surgeon technical skill, and/or bone quality.

Risk of latissimus dorsi tendon rupture after arthroscopic transfer for posterior superior rotator cuff tear: a comparative analysis of 3 humeral head fixation techniques

02-09-2019 – Jean Kany, Padmanaban Sekaran, Jean Grimberg, Rajkumar S. Amavarathi, Philippe Valenti, Bassem Elhassan, Jean David Werthel

Journal Article

To compare latissimus dorsi tendon rupture rates after arthroscopic transfer for posterior superior rotator cuff tear using 3 different humeral head fixation techniques. One-hundred fifty consecutive latissimus dorsi transfers were included. Inclusion criteria were massive irreparable posterosuperior rotator cuff tear with advanced fatty infiltration associated with persistent pain and limited range of motion after failed conservative treatments or surgery. All transfers were arthroscopically assisted and fixed in a transosseous tunnel with a cortical button (group 1, n = 59), “over the top” onto the footprint of the supraspinatus (group 2, n = 47), or posteriorly onto the footprint of the infraspinatus (group 3, n = 44) with 2 suture anchors. The tendons were marked with 3 metallic clips placed intraoperatively at a fixed distance of 2, 4, and 6 cm from the tip. Immediate postoperative standard anteroposterior radiographs were performed to confirm the position of the clips and to determine whether the clips displaced on subsequent radiographs during follow-up, indicating tendon rupture. Repeat radiographs at 3-month follow-up showed higher risk of latissimus dorsi transfer rupture rate in 27/59 patients in group 1 (46%), 11/47 in group 2 (24%), and 7/44 in group 3 (15%). Posterior anchor fixation of the latissimus dorsi tendon onto the infraspinatus footprint had the lowest rupture rate.

A retrospective cohort analysis of arthroscopic Bankart repair with or without remplissage in patients with off-track Hill-Sachs lesion evaluated for functional outcomes, recurrent instability, and range of motion

27-08-2019 – Vivek Pandey, Lohith Gangadharaiah, Sandesh Madi, Kiran Acharya, Shalini Nayak, Lakshmikanth H. Karegowda, W. Jaap Willems

Journal Article

Lone Bankart repair is associated with high rates of recurrence, especially in off-track Hill-Sachs (HS) lesion. The objective of the study was to assess the impact of remplissage in off-track HS lesion influencing the rate of redislocation and range of motion (ROM) of the shoulder. We retrospectively reviewed 136 patients for arthroscopic Bankart repair without remplissage (group 1, n = 77) or with remplissage (group 2, n =59) for recurrent anterior dislocation of the shoulder with glenoid bone loss of <25%. Further subgroups of on- and off-track HS lesion were based on computed tomographic assessment. At a minimum follow-up of 2 years; patients were evaluated for functional scores (Rowe, Constant-Murley, Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index), redislocations, and ROM. At a mean follow-up of 54 and 44 months in group 1 and 2, respectively, there was no difference in postoperative functional scores. There were significantly more dislocations in patients with Bankart repair with off-track lesion than in patients with Bankart repair with on-track lesion (P = .02). There were significantly fewer redislocations in patients with off-track lesion who underwent Bankart repair and remplissage than in those who did not undergo remplissage (P = .0007). Compared with group 1 patients, those in group 2 revealed a statistically significant loss of ROM. Although a nonremplissaged off-track HS lesion remains an important risk factor for recurrent instability, remplissage also results in significant loss of shoulder ROM compared with those who do not undergo remplissage.

Brachial plexus palsy after clavicle fracture: 3xa0cases

01-12-2019 – Tomohiro Saito, Tomohiro Matusmura, Katsushi Takeshita

Journal Article

Brachial plexus palsy after clavicle fracture is extremely rare. We experienced 3 cases of brachial plexus palsy after clavicle fracture and investigated the findings that such patients have in common and the clinical results of these cases. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 3 patients with clavicle fracture who had no neurovascular symptoms at the time of the initial injury but gradually developed brachial plexus palsy within 1 month after the injury. The patients were aged 70, 62, and 68 years; 2 patients were male and 1 was female. The patients’ backgrounds and clinical results were assessed. All patients had a displaced middle-third clavicle fracture and underwent conservative therapy with a figure-8 bandage. The intervals between fracture and symptoms of brachial plexus palsy were 8, 30, and 14 days. The times from symptoms of brachial plexus palsy to surgery were 27, 75, and 28 days. In all patients, surgery revealed a ruptured subclavius muscle and abnormal development of granulation tissue around the fracture site, compressing the brachial plexus. Open reduction and plate fixation was performed in 2 patients, and clavicle resection was performed in 1 patient. The intervals between surgery and full recovery of muscle strength were 11, 6, and 6 months. The findings our 3 patients with brachial plexus palsy after clavicle fracture had in common are old age, middle-third displaced clavicle fracture, and abnormal development of granulation tissue around the fracture site. Surgical intervention yielded good clinical outcomes.

Optimal glenosphere size cannot be determined by patient height

11-09-2019 – Bradley S. Schoch, Terrie Vasilopoulos, Gregory LaChaud, Thomas W. Wright, Chris Roche, Joseph J. King, Jean David Werthel

Journal Article

Glenosphere size remains 1 surgeon-controlled variable that can affect patient outcomes following reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA). There remains no objective criterion to guide surgeons in choosing glenosphere size. This study’s purpose was to evaluate range of motion (ROM) as a function of patient height and glenosphere size to determine the optimal glenosphere size based on patient height. We retrospectively reviewed 589 primary RSAs from a multicenter shoulder arthroplasty database of a single RSA system with multiple glenosphere sizes. Shoulders were separated into groups based on glenosphere size (38 or 42 mm). Predictive accuracy was calculated in relation to height and sex for predicting glenosphere size. Improvements in active ROM and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) were compared based on glenosphere size as a function of height. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated a strong association of height and sex with surgeon selection of glenosphere size, with shorter heights preferentially treated with 38-mm glenospheres and taller heights with 42-mm glenospheres. There were no statistically significant interaction effects of glenosphere size and height on improvements in ROM or PROMs. These results indicate that for a given glenosphere size, there is not an optimal height range to maximize improvements in postoperative outcome measures. Height and sex are highly correlated with a surgeon’s choice of glenosphere size. However, on the basis of improvements in ROM and PROMs, no recommendation can be made for surgeons to select a particular glenosphere size based on a patient’s height. Surgeons should consider other variables when selecting a glenosphere size.

The clinical and radiologicxa0outcome of microfracture on arthroscopic repair for full-thickness rotator cuff tear

17-09-2019 – Anil Pulatkan, Wasim Anwar, Sevil Tokdemir, Sercan Akpinar, Kerem Bilsel

Journal Article

The persistent incidence of retear despite improvements in techniques led orthopedic surgeons to the application of principles of tissue bioengineering to achieve enhanced repair and functional outcomes. The purpose of this study was to compare clinical and radiologic outcomes of arthroscopic single-row repair augmented with microfracture (SRM) at the greater tuberosity with single-row (SR) and double-row (DR) repair in the treatment of full-thickness rotator cuff tears. This is a retrospective comparative study. A total of 123 patients were enrolled for arthroscopic repair of full-thickness rotator cuff tears, with 40 patients treated by SR, 44 by SRM, and 39 by DR. The minimum follow-up was 2 years. The primary outcome was retear rate, which was detected by magnetic resonance imaging, and the secondary outcome was functional outcome. The mean age of the patients was 59.2 years, 58.1 years, and 60.6 years in the SR, SRM, and DR groups, respectively. The retear rate was 33%, 14%, and 36% in the SR, SRM, and DR groups, respectively (P = .045). The SRM group had significantly improved functional outcomes compared with the SR and DR groups in terms of the postoperative Constant score and visual analog scale score (P = .001 and .002, respectively). Delta Constant scores were nonsignificant for retear and intact tendons (P = .137). SRM has a significantly lower retear rate and better functional outcome than SR and DR repair.

The effect of current and former tobacco use on outcomes after primary reverse total shoulder arthroplasty

21-08-2019 – Jordan D. Walters, L. Watson George, Ryan N. Walsh, Jim Y. Wan, Tyler J. Brolin, Frederick M. Azar, Thomas W. Throckmorton

Journal Article

The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of current and former tobacco use on minimum 2-year clinical and radiographic outcomes after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA). Review of primary RTSA patient data identified 186 patients with at least 2 years of follow-up. Patients were classified as nonsmokers (76 patients), former smokers (89 patients), or current smokers (21 patients). Assessment included preoperative and postoperative visual analog scale pain scores, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores, strength, range of motion, complications, revisions, and narcotic use. Radiographs were analyzed for signs of loosening or mechanical failure. Overall mean age of the patients was 70 (48-87) years, and mean follow-up was 2.6 (2.0-5.7) years. Smokers (62.1 years) were significantly younger than nonsmokers (70.7 years) and former smokers (70.8 years; P = .00002). All patients had significant improvements in pain, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, strength, and forward flexion range of motion; however, smokers had higher visual analog scale pain scores (mean, 2.5) than nonsmokers (mean, 1.8) or former smokers (mean, 1.0; P = .014). Otherwise, no differences were found regarding any of the postoperative parameters (P > .05). Aside from increased patient-reported pain, current tobacco use does not appear to negatively affect outcomes after primary RTSA. The RTSA design obviates the need for a functioning rotator cuff, possibly mitigating tobacco’s negative effects previously demonstrated in rotator cuff repair and anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty. Former users obtained outcomes similar to those of nonusers, suggesting that tobacco use is a modifiable risk factor to achieve optimal pain relief after RTSA.

Risk factors for opioid use after total shoulder arthroplasty

10-09-2019 – Zain M. Khazi, Yining Lu, Bhavik H. Patel, Jourdan M. Cancienne, Brian Werner, Brian Forsythe

Journal Article

The purpose was to assess opioid use before and after anatomic and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) and determine patient factors associated with prolonged postoperative opioid use. Patients undergoing primary TSA (anatomic or reverse) were identified within the Humana database from 2007 to 2015. Patients were categorized as opioid-naive patients who did not fill a prescription prior to surgery or those who filled opioid prescriptions within 3 months preoperatively (OU); the OU cohort was subdivided into those filling opioid prescriptions within 1 month preoperatively and those filling opioid prescriptions between 1 and 3 months preoperatively. The incidence of opioid use was evaluated preoperatively and longitudinally tracked for each cohort. Multivariate analysis was used to identify factors associated with opioid use at 12 months after surgery, with statistical significance defined as P < .05. Overall, 12,038 patients (5180 in OU cohort, 43%) underwent primary TSA during the study period. Opioid use declined after the first postoperative month; however, the incidence of opioid use was significantly higher in the OU cohort than in the opioid-naive cohort at 1 year (31.4% vs. 3.1%, P < .0001). Subgroup analysis revealed a similar decline in postoperative opioid use for anatomic and reverse TSA (P < .0001 for both). Multivariate analysis identified chronic preoperative opioid use (ie, filling an opioid prescription between 1 and 3 months prior to surgery) as the strongest risk factor for opioid use at 12 months after anatomic and reverse TSA (P < .0001). More than 40% of patients undergoing TSA received opioid medications within 3 months before surgery. Preoperative opioid use, age younger than 65 years, and fibromyalgia were independent risk factors for opioid use 1 year following anatomic and reverse TSA. Chronic preoperative opioid use conferred the highest risk of prolonged postoperative opioid use.

A randomized controlled trial comparing subscapularis tenotomy with peel in anatomic shoulder arthroplasty

30-11-2019 – Peter Lapner, J Whitcomb Pollock, Tinghua Zhang, Sara Ruggiero, Franco Momoli, Adnan Sheikh, George S. Athwal

Journal Article

Controversy exists regarding the optimal technique of subscapularis tendon mobilization during anatomic shoulder arthroplasty. The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to compare internal rotation strength in the belly-press position and functional outcomes between the subscapularis tenotomy and subscapularis peel approaches during shoulder arthroplasty. Patients undergoing anatomic shoulder arthroplasty were randomized to either a tenotomy or peel approach. The primary outcome was internal rotation strength in the belly-press position, measured by an electronic handheld dynamometer at 24 months postoperatively. Secondary outcomes included the Western Ontario Osteoarthritis of the Shoulder (WOOS) index score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, range of motion, radiographic lucencies, and adverse events. We randomized 100 patients to subscapularis tenotomy (n = 47) or peel (n = 53). Eighty-one percent of the cohort returned for 24 months’ follow-up. Compared with baseline measures, mean internal rotation strength in the belly-press position and WOOS and ASES scores improved in both groups at final follow-up (P < .0001). Intention-to-treat analysis for internal rotation strength at 24 months revealed no significant difference (P = .57) between tenotomy (mean, 4.9 kg; SD, 3.8 kg) and peel (mean, 5.4 kg; SD, 3.9 kg). Comparison of WOOS and ASES scores demonstrated no significant differences between groups at any time point. The healing rates by ultrasound were 72% for tenotomy and 71% for peel (P = .99). No statistically significant difference in internal rotation strength was identified between the tenotomy and peel groups. The secondary outcomes were not significantly different between groups.

Can small glenospheres with eccentricity reduce scapular notching as effectively as large glenospheres without eccentricity? A prospective randomized study

01-12-2019 – Carlos Torrens, Joan Miquel, Raquel Martínez, Fernando Santana

Journal Article

The objective of this study was to analyze whether small glenospheres with eccentricity were comparable to large glenospheres in scapular notch development. This prospective randomized study included 82 patients who had undergone a reverse shoulder arthroplasty with a 2-year follow-up period. After randomization, 43 patients were allocated to receive a 42-mm glenosphere and 39 patients were allocated to receive a 38-mm glenosphere with 2 mm of eccentricity. Scapular notch development was defined after examination of an anteroposterior radiograph at the end of follow-up. Functional outcomes were recorded using the Constant score before surgery and at the end of follow-up. Scapular notch development was present in 16.6% of patients who received a 42-mm glenosphere and 34.2% of patients who received a 38-mm eccentric glenosphere. No significant difference was found between the groups with the number of cases available (P = .07). Functional outcomes significantly increased from preoperatively to postoperatively in both groups, with no significant difference found between them (P = .77). The mean glenosphere overhang measure was 6.3 mm in patients with a 42-mm glenosphere and 6.0 mm in those with a 38-mm eccentric glenosphere (P = .68). No significant differences were noted between patients with a scapular notch and patients without a scapular notch in terms of functional outcomes. Small glenospheres with eccentricity fared slightly worse than large glenospheres regarding scapular notch development, even though no significant differences were noted. Functional outcomes were comparable between the 2 designs.

Addition of 3% hydrogen peroxide to standard skin preparation reduces Cutibacterium acnes–positive culture rate in shoulder surgery: a prospective randomized controlled trial

17-12-2019 – Justin D. Stull, Thema A. Nicholson, Daniel E. Davis, Surena Namdari

Journal Article

Hydrogen peroxide is an inexpensive and effective antimicrobial agent that can be implemented in surgical skin preparations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the decolonization effect of Cutibacterium acnes when adding hydrogen peroxide to a standard sterile preparation for shoulder surgery. This was a single-institution, prospective, randomized controlled trial of male patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy (April 2018 and May 2019). Patients were randomized to a standard skin preparation vs. an additional sterile preparation with 3% hydrogen peroxide. After draping, a 3-mm punch biopsy was obtained from the posterior arthroscopic portal site of all patients. Anaerobic and aerobic culture substrates were used and held for 13 days. Seventy male patients were randomized into the hydrogen peroxide group and 70 male patients were in the traditional group. Twelve (17.1%) patients in the hydrogen peroxide group and 24 (34.2%) patients in the traditional group had positive cultures for C acnes (P = .033). Cultures were positive at a mean of 4.5 days (range 3-7) in the hydrogen peroxide group and 4.1 days (range 3-8) in the traditional group (P = .48). There were no cases of skin reaction to the surgical preparation in either group. The results of this study suggest that the addition of hydrogen peroxide to preoperative surgical site preparation can reduce the C acnes culture rate. Hydrogen peroxide is inexpensive and can be added to the typical skin preparation used prior to shoulder surgery without substantial risk of skin reactions.

A randomized single-blinded trial of early rehabilitation versus immobilization after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty

12-01-2020 – Mia S. Hagen, Sachin Allahabadi, Alan L. Zhang, Brian T. Feeley, Trevor Grace, C. Benjamin Ma

Journal Article

Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) does not have a standard postoperative protocol. Although instability is a worrisome complication, prolonged immobilization may also be disabling in the elderly population. This study aimed to determine if early vs. delayed range of motion (ROM) after RTSA affected postoperative ROM, patient-reported outcomes, and the dislocation rate. A single-blinded, randomized controlled trial was performed enrolling patients from 2013 to 2017. Patients were randomly assigned to either a delayed-rehabilitation group (no ROM for 6 weeks) or early-rehabilitation group (immediate physical therapy for passive and active ROM) and followed up for a minimum of 1 year. Demographic characteristics, ROM, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores, and complications were recorded. Of an initial enrollment of 107 shoulders, 80.3% completed 1-year follow-up: 44 shoulders in the delayed-therapy group and 42 shoulders in the immediate-therapy group. Both groups had significantly improved forward flexion (32° improvement) and abduction (22° improvement) by 3 months. Both groups showed significant improvements in ASES scores by 6 weeks (9.4-point improvement in composite score) with continued improvement through 6 months (35.1 points). No significant differences were found between groups for any postoperative measure, with the exception of the ASES functional score favoring the delayed-therapy group at 6 months (26.3-point improvement vs. 16.7-point improvement). No differences in complications, notching, or narcotic use were noted between groups. Both early- and delayed-ROM protocols after RTSA demonstrated significant, similar improvements in ROM and outcomes. Early initiation of postoperative rehabilitation may benefit the elderly population by avoiding the limitations of prolonged immobilization postoperatively.

Humeral version and neck-shaft angle correlated with demographic parameters in a study of 1104 cadaveric humeri

12-01-2020 – Robby W. Goldberg, Drew F. Williamson, Harry A. Hoyen, Raymond W. Liu

Journal Article

Baseline anatomic data of the humerus are limited by difficulties in quantifying humeral version and the neck-shaft angle (NSA). This study used a 3-dimensional digitizer to quantify normative values for these variables and to identify possible correlations with demographic categories of age, sex, race, and lateralization. Measurements from 1104 cadaveric humeri were collected with a Micro
Scribe G2 digitizer, which produced 3-dimensional positional data of the proximal and distal humeral articular surfaces, as well as the humeral shaft. Version was measured based on the angle between the proximal and distal articular surfaces in the axial plane. The NSA was measured based on the angle between the proximal articular surface and the proximal humeral shaft in the oblique coronal plane. Multiple regression analysis was used to analyze relationships between age, sex, race, and lateralization vs. version and the NSA. The average age was 56.0 ± 10.5 years. Of the specimens, 738 were from white cadavers and 366 were from black cadavers, and 948 were from men and 156 were from women. Average humeral retroversion was 25° ± 7°. White race and left humeri correlated with increased retroversion. The average NSA was 137° ± 6°. White race correlated with an increased NSA. This study provides measurements of humeral retroversion and the NSA in a large data set, providing key normative values. The data suggest that version and the NSA are independent of age and sex. Significant differences exist for retroversion vs. race and laterality, as well as for the NSA vs. race. These demographic guidelines can guide future research and individualize care for patients.

Surgery and physiotherapy were both successful in the treatment of small, acute, traumatic rotator cuff tears: a prospective randomized trial

12-01-2020 – Mats C. Ranebo, Hanna C. Björnsson Hallgren, Theresa Holmgren, Lars E. Adolfsson

Journal Article

Previous randomized trials on cuff repair have included mainly degenerative tears, but studies on acute traumatic tears are lacking. We aimed to compare early surgical repair with nonoperative treatment for traumatic supraspinatus tears. We did a 2-center randomized controlled trial of patients with small rotator cuff tears mainly involving supraspinatus, comparing surgical repair (n = 32) and physiotherapy (n = 26). The primary outcome was a group difference in the Constant-Murley score at 12-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes were differences in the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff index, pain (Numerical Rating Scale 0-10), and Euro quality-of-life-visual analog scale. We used magnetic resonance imaging to assess retear rate, tear progression, fatty infiltration, and atrophy. The mean age was 59.7 years (range, 44-77 years), median sagittal tear size was 9.7 mm (range, 4-21 mm), and baseline characteristics were well balanced between the 2 groups. The repair group had a median Constant-Murley of 83 (25 quartile range [QR]) and the physiotherapy group 78 (QR, 22) at 12 months, with the between-group difference in medians of 4.5 (-5 to 9, 95% confidence interval; P = .68). The corresponding values for the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff index were 91% (QR, 24) vs. 86% (QR, 24), with the between-group difference of 5.0 (-4 to 9, 95% confidence interval; P = .62). There was no difference in Numerical Rating Scale or in Euro quality-of-life-visual analog scale. Retear was found in 6.5% of repaired patients and tear progression >5 mm in 29.2% of unrepaired patients. We found no significant differences in clinical outcomes between cuff repair and nonoperative treatment at 12-month follow-up. Approximately one third of unrepaired patients had a tear enlargement of more than 5 mm.

The role of implant sonication in the diagnosis of periprosthetic shoulder infection

12-01-2020 – Doruk Akgün, Nina Maziak, Fabian Plachel, Paul Siegert, Marvin Minkus, Kathi Thiele, Philipp Moroder

Journal Article

The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of implant sonication fluid cultures in the diagnosis of shoulder periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) compared with tissue culture. This was a retrospective case-control study analyzing all patients who underwent a revision surgery for any kind of suspected septic or aseptic event due to failed shoulder arthroplasty at our institution between July 2014 and December 2018. The diagnostic validity of implant sonication was analyzed on the basis of the last proposed definition criteria of the International Consensus Meeting and compared with standard tissue cultures. Of the 72 patients, a total of 28 (38.9%) were classified as infected. Of the 28 infected patients, 20 (71.4%) had an identified organism by tissue cultures, and Cutibacterium acnes was the most commonly isolated pathogen. The sensitivities of sonicate fluid (≥50 CFU/m
L) and periprosthetic tissue culture for the diagnosis of periprosthetic shoulder infection were 36% and 61% (P = .016), and the specificities were 97.7% and 100% (P > .99), respectively. If no cutoff value was used in sonication culture, the sensitivity increased to 75% whereas the specificity dropped to 82%. Although there was no significant difference in sensitivity between tissue culture and the no-cutoff sonication fluid culture (61% vs. 75%, P = .125), the specificity of tissue culture was significantly higher (100% vs. 82%, P = .01). Tissue culture showed a higher sensitivity and specificity than implant sonication in the diagnosis of shoulder PJI and should remain the gold standard for microbiological diagnosis of shoulder PJI.

Clinical and radiographic outcomes with a posteriorly augmented glenoid for Walch B glenoids in anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty

12-01-2020 – Sean G. Grey, Thomas W. Wright, Pierre-Henri Flurin, Joseph D. Zuckerman, Christopher P. Roche, Richard J. Friedman

Journal Article

Osteoarthritis of the glenohumeral joint is often associated with posterior glenoid wear. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical and radiographic outcomes of a posteriorly augmented glenoid in patients who have a Walch B glenoid deformity when treated with anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty (a
TSA). At total of 68 primary a
TSA patients with osteoarthritis and a Walch B glenoid deformity were treated with an 8° posteriorly augmented glenoid. All patients were evaluated and underwent scoring preoperatively and at latest follow-up with 5 clinical outcome scoring metrics; active range of motion (ROM) was also measured. The mean follow-up period was 50 months, with a 2-year minimum follow-up period. All patients experienced significant improvements in pain and function following a
TSA with a posteriorly augmented glenoid, and 90% of patients exceeded the minimal clinically important difference threshold for the clinical outcome metric scores and ROM measures. Two-thirds of patients exceeded the substantial clinical benefit threshold for the clinical outcome metrics and ROM. Preoperatively, the humeral head was posteriorly subluxated an average of 73% for each Walch B glenoid type, and at latest follow-up, all humeral heads were re-centered on the posteriorly augmented glenoid. Two patients with augmented glenoids who had Walch B2 glenoids underwent revision for aseptic glenoid loosening. Anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty patients with Walch B glenoids receiving an 8° posteriorly augmented wedge glenoid experienced excellent clinical and radiographic outcomes with a patient satisfaction rate greater than 97% and a low complication rate at a mean follow-up of 50 months. Humeral head centering was maintained for each type of Walch B glenoid.

Three-dimensional characterization of trabecular bone mineral density of the proximal ulna using quantitative computed tomography

09-01-2020 – Joseph A. Gil, Katia DaSilva, Eric Johnson, Manuel F. DaSilva, Tyler S. Pidgeon

Journal Article

Although previous studies have measured general proximal forearm bone mineral density (BMD), no study has systematically mapped the 3-dimensional trabecular BMD of the proximal ulna. The aim of this study was to describe the 3-dimensional distribution of the trabecular bone density of the proximal ulna. We hypothesize a variable distribution of proximal ulna trabecular BMD depending on the region of interest (ROI). Computed tomographic (CT) scans of 9 fresh-frozen cadaveric proximal ulna specimens with a mean age of 59.3 ± 8.1 years were studied. Each CT file was converted from DICOM to a QCT file that could be analyzed using QCT software (QCT Pro Version 6.1, Model 4 CT Calibration Phantom; Mind
Ways Software Inc, Austin, TX, USA). The ROIs were defined as spheres of trabecular bone 3 mm in diameter located throughout the proximal ulna. ROIs proximal to the trochlear notch demonstrated higher BMD than ROIs distal to the trochlear notch. Furthermore, volar ROIs adjacent to the ulnohumeral joint tended to have higher BMD than dorsal ROIs. The highest BMD was found in the tip of the olecranon. Hardware in fixation constructs for proximal ulnar fractures should be directed toward ROIs with the highest BMD to maximize purchase. Hardware should approach the ulnohumeral joint without penetrating the joint to capture trabecular bone with the highest BMD. The most important fixation in such a construct will be that which captures trabecular bone with maximum BMD proximal to the trochlear notch (eg, the tip of the olecranon).

Midterm clinical and radiologic results of reverse shoulder arthroplasty with an eccentric glenosphere

09-01-2020 – Philippe Collotte, John Erickson, Thais Dutra Vieira, Peter Domos, Gilles Walch

Journal Article

An eccentric glenosphere (EG) has been proposed as a way of preventing scapular notching after reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA). Our aim was to report the midterm clinical and radiographic results of EG after RSA. A number of the patients described here were included in a previous study with short-term follow-up. The current retrospective study gave us the opportunity to follow many of these patients for a longer period of time. A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was conducted. Statistical significance was set at P < .001. Forty-nine RSAs with an EG and at least 60 months of follow-up were included. Range of motion (ROM), Constant scores (CSs), and Subjective Shoulder Value (SSV) were assessed. Scapular notching was graded according to the Sirveaux classification. At the last follow-up, the mean improvement in active elevation (ROM) was 46° and the mean CS increased by nearly 31 points (both groups P < .001). The final SSV was 70%. Twenty-one patients (43%) had scapular notching, but in two-thirds of patients it was low-grade. The use of an EG provided excellent clinical outcomes that persisted with midterm follow-up. The rate of notching was lower than in other studies with EGs, but further studies are required to confirm this. An EG was safe and there were no issues with baseplate loosening or failure.

Short-term evaluation of humeral stress shielding following reverse shoulder arthroplasty using press-fit fixation compared with cemented fixation

09-01-2020 – Patrick J. Denard, Georges Haidamous, Reuben Gobezie, Anthony A. Romeo, Evan Lederman

Journal Article

The purpose of this study was to compare the functional outcomes and humeral stress shielding of a reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) placed with either cement or press-fit fixation. The hypothesis was that there would be no difference in functional outcomes or stress shielding. We performed a multicenter retrospective review of primary RSAs performed with standard-length stems. The stems were identical in geometry and coating with the only variable being whether the stems were secured with cement or by a press-fit technique. The functional outcomes and radiographs of 93 press-fit stems and 26 cemented stems were reviewed at a minimum of 2 years postoperatively. Significant improvements were noted in all ranges of motion and functional outcomes from baseline (P .05). Calcar osteolysis was seen in 43% of press-fit and 58% of cemented stems (P = .266). Proximal lateral stress shielding was more common in the press-fit group (68%) than in the cemented group (25%) (P = .045). Adaptive changes were considered low in 97% of press-fit stems, and there were no cases of tuberosity resorption. No evidence of loosening or humeral component shift was noted in either group. At short-term follow-up, no differences in functional outcomes or stem loosening were found between press-fit fixation and cemented fixation of an RSA humeral stem. Proximal stress shielding was more common with press-fit fixation with the stem in this study, but the overall changes were considered low in 97% of cases. Further study is needed to evaluate the mid- to long-term differences regarding stress shielding.

Defining the younger patient: age as a predictive factor for outcomes in shoulder arthroplasty

09-01-2020 – Earl E. Brewley, Kaitlyn N. Christmas, R. Allen Gorman, Katheryne L. Downes, Mark A. Mighell, Mark A. Frankle

Journal Article

The purpose of this study was to define an age cutoff at which clinical outcomes and revision rates differ for patients undergoing primary anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) and patients undergoing primary reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA). This retrospective cohort study included 1250 primary shoulder arthroplasties (1131 patients) with minimum 2-year clinical follow-up (mean, 50 months [range, 24-146 months]). TSA (n = 518; mean age, 68.1 years [range, 28-90 years]) was performed for osteoarthritis in most cases (99%), whereas the primary diagnoses for RSA (n = 732; mean age, 70.8 years [range, 22-91 years]) included rotator cuff arthropathy (35%), massive cuff tear without osteoarthritis (29.8%), and osteoarthritis (20.5%). Outcomes included range of motion, the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, and the revision rate. The relationship between age at the time of surgery in 5-year increments (46-50 years, 51-55 years, and so on) and the revision rate was examined to identify the age cutoff; this was then used to assess clinical outcomes. In patients younger than 65 years, TSA was associated with a 3.4-fold increased risk of revision (P = .01). RSA performed in patients younger than 60 years was associated with a 4.8-fold increased risk of revision (P < .001). TSA patients aged 65 years or older and RSA patients aged 60 years or older had better total ASES scores (82 vs. 77 [P = .03] and 72 vs. 62 [P = .002], respectively) and better internal rotation (interquartile range, TSA 5-6 vs. 4-5 [P = .002] and RSA 4-5 vs 3-4 [P = .04])-where 6 represents T4 to T6 and 4 represents T11 to L1-than their younger counterparts. Age at index arthroplasty affects outcomes and the risk of revision. Primary TSA patients younger than 65 years and RSA patients younger than 60 years have a significantly increased revision risk. These age cutoffs are also correlated with differences in ASES scores and internal rotation.

Restriction in the hip internal rotation of the stride leg is associated with elbow and shoulder pain in elite young baseball players

16-09-2019 – Takuya Sekiguchi, Yoshihiro Hagiwara, Yutaka Yabe, Masahiro Tsuchiya, Nobuyuki Itaya, Shinichiro Yoshida, Toshihisa Yano, Yasuhito Sogi, Kazuaki Suzuki, Eiji Itoi

Journal Article

Evidence is scarce concerning the relationship of physical dysfunction of the trunk and lower extremities with elbow and shoulder pain in young baseball players. This study aimed to examine the association of joint flexibility of the trunk and lower extremities and dynamic postural control with elbow and shoulder pain among elite young baseball players. We analyzed baseball players (aged 9-12 years) who participated in the National Junior Sports Clubs Baseball Festival. Range of motion in external rotation and internal rotation (IR) of the hip, as well as the finger-to-floor distance and heel-to-buttock distance, was measured. The straight-leg-raise test was also conducted. Dynamic postural control was evaluated using the Star Excursion Balance Test. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association of physical function with the elbow or shoulder pain incidence. Of 210 players surveyed, 177 without elbow or shoulder pain were included in the analysis. Of the participants, 16 (9.0%) reported having elbow or shoulder pain during the tournament. Participants with the incidence of elbow or shoulder pain had a significant restriction in hip IR of the stride leg compared with those without pain (35.8° vs. 43.7°, P = .022). There were no significant associations of other joint flexibilities and the Star Excursion Balance Test with elbow or shoulder pain. Decreased hip IR range of motion of the stride leg was significantly associated with the elbow or shoulder pain incidence. Players, coaches, and clinicians should consider the physical function of the trunk and lower extremities for the prevention of elbow and shoulder pain.

Isolated displaced type II partial articular radial head fracture: correlation of preoperative imaging with intraoperative findings of lateral ulnar collateral ligament tear

16-09-2019 – Luigi Tarallo, Giuseppe Porcellini, Giovanni Merolla, Andrea Pellegrini, Andrea Giorgini, Fabio Catani

Journal Article

The aim of this study was to determine the lateral ulnar collateral ligament (LUCL) injury associated with isolated radial head fracture (RHF) and the relationship of the ligament injury with the displacement of the fragment-loss of contact-in unstable displaced partial articular RHF in individuals without any history of ulnohumeral dislocation. We retrospectively identified 131 consecutive patients who underwent open reduction and internal fixation of isolated closed Mason type II RHF performed at our institution. We identified 3 subsets by the pattern of RHF and the position of the unstable fragment (anterior or posterior) relative to the capitulum humeri: displaced stable (group I), displaced anterior unstable (group II), and displaced posterior unstable (group III). Standard radiographs were obtained preoperatively and postoperatively. The pattern of lateral collateral ligament avulsion and its distribution were inferred from intraoperative records. Preoperative radiographs of the 131 patients showed 101 nonseparated fractures (77%, group I) and 30 unstable fractures (23%). Anterior displacement of the fragment was found in 18 elbows (14%, group II) and posterior displacement in 12 (9%, group III). LUCL avulsion was found in 18 of 30 unstable RHFs (60%) and in 1 of 60 stable RHFs (1.6%). RHF is a complex fracture often associated with soft tissue lesions. It is important to determine which structures need to be repaired to avoid complications that could lead to elbow instability. The RHF pattern and classification as stable or unstable can help the surgeon in the identification and treatment of LUCL lesions.

Long-term outcomes after Instrumented Bone Preserving total elbow arthroplasty: a radiostereometric study with a minimum follow-up of 10 years

01-10-2019 – Bart ten Brinke, Nienke M. Kosse, Petra E. Flikweert, Marco van der Pluijm, Denise Eygendaal

Journal Article

Aseptic loosening is a main concern in elbow arthroplasty. Evaluation of implant migration using radiostereometric analysis (RSA) might increase understanding of implant loosening. Previously, 2-year RSA results of 16 Instrumented Bone Preserving (IBP) elbow prostheses showed migration of the humeral component in the first weeks but most components stabilized within 6 months postoperatively. In follow-up, the present study evaluated long-term survival, the relation between early migration and survival, and the long-term migration and clinical outcomes. Sixteen patients who received an IBP prosthesis were prospectively followed with a median follow-up time of 136 months (range 82-165). Migration was measured using RSA. Clinical results were described using the Elbow Function Assessment (EFA), Broberg and Morrey elbow functional rating index, Oxford Elbow Score (OES), and visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and satisfaction. Four patients underwent a revision within 10 years, and 2 more were planned for revision surgery after 14 years. Five patients died with their prosthesis in situ. Early migration was not associated with survival. Long-term migration patterns varied widely. Median EFA score was 58.5, Broberg and Morrey score was 50, and OES score was 32. Median VAS score for pain was 2 and that for satisfaction was 7.5. Ten-year survival of the IBP total elbow prosthesis was 75%, decreasing to 63% after 14 years of follow-up. Long-term implant failure could not be predicted by 2-year migration results in this study. Although short-term clinical results were promising, long-term outcomes worsened in all patients.

Cost analysis of Tommy John surgery for Major League Baseball teams

02-11-2019 – Jason E. Meldau, Karan Srivastava, Kelechi R. Okoroha, Christopher S. Ahmad, Vasilios Moutzouros, Eric C. Makhni

Journal Article

The economic loss following ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction (UCLR) in Major League Baseball (MLB) pitchers has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study is to quantify the financial impact of UCLR on MLB teams. We hypothesize that MLB teams incur significant losses annually as a result of salaries paid to injured players following reconstruction. Public records were accessed to identify MLB pitchers from January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2014, who had undergone UCLR. Contract terms and time away from competition were used to approximate economic loss. Successful return was considered when a pitcher returned to play in at least 1 Minor League Baseball (Mi
LB) or MLB game. One hundred ninety-four MLB pitchers underwent UCLR from 2004 to 2014, missing on average 180.2 days of the MLB regular season. Cost of recovery (COR) amounted to $395 million, averaging $1.9 million per player. Starting pitchers accounted for the largest total COR at $239.6 million, whereas closers had the largest economic loss per player ($3.9 million/player). Only 77% of pitchers returned to MLB play. UCLR has a substantial economic impact on MLB teams. Starting pitchers represented a majority of team cost, but closers represented higher costs per pitcher.

Predictors of failure after conservative treatment of symptomatic partial-thickness rotator cuff tear

11-08-2019 – Morteza Nakhaei Amroodi, Mostafa Salariyeh

Journal Article

Further studies are required to determine the effectiveness of conservative treatment of partial-thickness rotator cuff tear (PTRCT). Here, we aim to identify the predictors of failure after conservative treatment in a large series of patients with symptomatic PTRCT. The outcome of conservative treatment in a retrospective cohort of 272 patients with symptomatic PTRCT was evaluated. Demographic, clinical, and radiographic characteristics were extracted from the patients’ medical records. Subjective assessments included Constant Shoulder Score (CSS), visual analog scale for pain (VAS pain), activities of daily living (ADL) score, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, all performed at the first visit. The association of treatment failure with the patient/tear characteristics was assessed. The bursal-type PTRCT was associated with male gender (P = .02), earlier referral of the patients (P = .001), more nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug consumption (P = .004), more positive painful arc syndrome (P = .006), and lower CSS (P < .001). These symptoms subsided completely or considerably in 172 (63.2%) patients after the conservative treatment, from which the disease relapsed in 21 (12.2%) patients at the mean follow-up of 22.2 ± 8.8 months. The symptoms led to surgery in the remaining 100 (36.8%) patients. The failure rate of conservative treatment was significantly higher in the dominant injuries (P = .015), the bursal type (P < .001), and tears involving more than 50% of the depth of the tendon (P 50% of the tendon depth are factors capable of predicting failure after conservative management of PTRCT.

Subscapularis structural integrity and function after arthroscopic Latarjet procedure at a minimum 2-year follow-up

15-08-2019 – María Valencia, Gloria Fernández-Bermejo, María D. Martín-Ríos, Javier Fernández-Jara, Diana Morcillo-Barrenechea, Ismael Coifman-Lucena, Antonio M. Foruria, Emilio Calvo

Journal Article

Subscapularis function after arthroscopic Bankart repair has been widely studied. However, data regarding subscapularis performance after arthroscopic Latarjet procedures are lacking. This study aimed to evaluate subscapularis clinical and radiologic performance after arthroscopic Latarjet procedures. We included 40 patients who underwent arthroscopic Latarjet procedure with a minimum 2-year follow-up. Clinical evaluation included Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index and Rowe scores, specific subscapularis isokinetic study, and lift-off tests. Contralateral measurements were used for comparison. Computed tomographic evaluation included graft consolidation, muscle dimensions, and degree of fatty atrophy, calculated as the mean muscle attenuation (MMA). There was a decrease of 8.3% of maximum internal rotation peak torque in the operated arm (P = .02). However, there was no significant difference in the agonist-antagonist ratio: 76.9% in the operated arm and 76% in the contralateral (P = .82). Lift-off strength test demonstrated a decrease in the first year but not at final follow-up (P = .38). There was a significant decrease in lift-off distance of 23% compared to the contralateral side (P < .001). Subscapularis MMA was diminished when compared to the infraspinatus/teres minor (P < .001) at the expense of its upper part (P = .03). Hyperlaxity and number of dislocation episodes were correlated to a lower MMA (P = .046 and P = .005). Arthroscopic Latarjet procedures provide satisfactory clinical results. There seems to be a diminished subscapularis MMA depending on its superior half. Hyperlaxity and number of previous dislocations were correlated to a lower MMA. Although there was a decrease in the maximum internal rotation peak torque, we did not find any difference in the agonist-antagonist ratio or in the final lift-off strength between sides.

Type V superior labral anterior-posterior (SLAP) lesion in recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability

01-09-2019 – Amr Abdel-Mordy Kandeel

Journal Article

The literature has reported debatable diagnostic accuracy of clinical provocative tests for a type II superior labral anteroposterior (SLAP) lesion, especially in the context of a type V SLAP (concurrent Bankart and type II SLAP) lesion. This study was conducted to determine whether the investigated provocative tests offer reliable predictive values in the diagnosis of type II SLAP lesions in patients with recurrent anterior glenohumeral (GH) instability. This prospective case-control study carried out between September 2014 and September 2018 included 51 patients with post-traumatic recurrent anterior GH instability. Patients were prospectively evaluated for type II SLAP lesions by 9 provocative tests: Jobe relocation test, abduction-external rotation test, anterior slide test, biceps load test I, biceps load test II, pain provocation test, labral tension test, crank test, and the O’Driscoll dynamic labral shear test. The results of these tests were compared with findings of diagnostic arthroscopic GH examinations (control). Statistical analysis revealed the mean age of the studied group to be 26.1 ± 7.56 years, with male predominance (50 patients; 98.04%). Arthroscopic examination revealed a Bankart lesion in isolation and in association with a type II SLAP lesion (ie, a type V SLAP lesion) in 15 (29.4%) and 36 (70.6%) patients, respectively. The anterior slide test yielded the highest positive and lowest negative likelihood ratios (2.91 and 0.52, respectively). Except for the anterior slide test, which can be validated for the clinical diagnosis of type II SLAP lesions in patients with traumatic recurrent anterior GH instability, the investigated tests offer poor predictive values and should be cautiously used in clinical practice.

Difficulty in performing activities of daily living associated with internal rotation after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty

21-08-2019 – Myung Seo Kim, Ho Yeon Jeong, Jong Dae Kim, Kyung Han Ro, Sung-Min Rhee, Yong Girl Rhee

Journal Article

Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) is a widely accepted treatment for irreparable massive rotator cuff tear (m
RCT) and cuff tear arthropathy (CTA), but its impact on activities of daily living (ADLs) remains unclear. We retrospectively analyzed 77 patients (age range, 54-87 years; follow-up range, 36.1-120.3 months) with irreparable m
RCT and CTA treated by medialized RSA between 2008 and 2015. Ten activities considered essential for daily living were selected and scored from 0 to 3. The mean visual analog scale scores during motion and University of California at Los Angeles and Constant scores significantly improved at final follow-up (all P < .001). Active forward flexion, external rotation at the side, and internal rotation to the posterior (IRp) were 92.5%, 79.6%, and 48.4% of the contralateral side, respectively, at final follow-up. Active forward flexion and external rotation at the side recovered within 6 months after surgery, similar to the level at final follow-up, but IRp did not reach the preoperative status until final follow-up. ADLs with mean scores of less than 2.0 at final follow-up were "wash the opposite shoulder," "wash the opposite axilla," "use a back pocket," "manage the toilet," and "wash the back" (only 36.4% of patients were able to wash their back at final follow-up). RSA for irreparable m
RCT and CTA showed satisfactory clinical outcomes. However, IRp was associated with a limited range compared with the other shoulder motions; therefore, all ADLs associated with internal rotation demonstrated lower recovery rates than expected.

Evaluation of cerebral oxygen perfusion during shoulder arthroplasty performed in the semi–beach chair position

14-08-2019 – Justin H. Chan, Hector Perez, Harrison Lee, Matthew Saltzman, Guido Marra

Journal Article

The beach chair position is commonly used when performing shoulder arthroplasty. However, this position has been associated with hypotension, potentially leading to cerebral hypoperfusion, which may cause neurologic injury. In addition, shoulder arthroplasty cases are associated with longer operative times, posing a potentially greater risk of cerebral hypoperfusion. We aim to evaluate the risk of cerebral desaturation events (CDEs) during the course of total shoulder arthroplasty. Twenty-six patients undergoing shoulder arthroplasties were monitored for changes in cerebral perfusion. Seven specific time-points during the procedure were labeled for comparison of events: baseline, beach chair, incision, humeral broaching, glenoid reaming, glenoid component implantation, and humeral component implantation. Cerebral oxygen perfusion was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. A CDE was described as a decrease of oxygen saturation greater than 20%. Nineteeen of 25 subjects experienced a CDE. 42% of these patients experienced CDEs during semi-beach chair positioning. Patients experienced the largest oxygen saturation drop during semi-beach chair positioning. Transition from baseline to semi-beach chair was the only event to have a statistically significant decrease in cerebral perfusion (8%, P < .05). There was a statistically significant percentage change in mean oxygen saturation in the semi-beach chair interval (10%, P < .01) and the semi-beach chair to incision interval (7%, P < .01). Most patients experienced an intraoperative CDE, with greatest incidence during semi-beach chair positioning. The largest decline in cerebral oxygen saturation occurred during semi-beach chair positioning. Implant implantation was not associated with decrease in cerebral oximetry.

Characteristics of functional shoulder instability

06-08-2019 – Philipp Moroder, Victor Danzinger, Nina Maziak, Fabian Plachel, Stephan Pauly, Markus Scheibel, Marvin Minkus

Journal Article

Pathologic activation pattern of muscles can cause shoulder instability. We propose to call this pathology functional shoulder instability (FSI). The purpose of this prospective study was to provide an in-detail description of the characteristics of FSI. In the year 2017, a total of 36 consecutive cases of FSI presenting to our outpatient clinic were prospectively collected. Diagnostic investigation included a pathology-specific questionnaire, standardized clinical scores, clinical examination, psychological evaluation, video and dynamic fluoroscopy documentation of the instability mechanism, as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In a final reviewing process, the material from all collected cases was evaluated and, according to the observed pattern, different subtypes of FSI were determined and compared. Based on the pathomechanism, positional FSI (78%) was distinguished from nonpositional FSI (22%). Controllable positional FSI was observed in 6% of all cases and noncontrollable positional FSI in 72%, whereas controllable and noncontrollable nonpositional FSI were each detected in 11% of the cases. The different subtypes of FSI showed significant differences in all clinical scores (Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index: P = .002, Rowe Score: P = .001, Subjective Shoulder Value: P = .001) and regarding functional impairment (shoulder stability: P < .001, daily activities: P = .001, sports activities: P < .001). Seventy-eight percent had posterior, 17% anterior, and 6% multidirectional instability. Although several patients showed constitutional glenoid shape alterations or soft tissue hyperlaxity, only few patients with acquired minor structural defects were observed. FSI can be classified into 4 subtypes based on pathomechanism and volitional control. Depending on the subtype, patients show different degrees of functional impairment. The majority of patients suffer from unidirectional posterior FSI.

Clinical results of bony increased-offset reverse shoulder arthroplasty (BIO-RSA) associated with an onlay 145° curved stem in patients with cuff tear arthropathy: a comparative study

12-08-2019 – Edoardo Franceschetti, Riccardo Ranieri, Edoardo Giovanetti de Sanctis, Alessio Palumbo, Francesco Franceschi

Journal Article

The main limits of the Grammont design reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) are loss of external rotation and scapular notching. They can be addressed with glenoid or humeral lateralization. The aim of the study was to compare outcomes of lateralized bony increased-offset RSA (BIO-RSA) vs. standard RSA in patients with an onlay 145° curved stem. A comparative cohort study of 29 standard RSAs and 30 BIO-RSAs was performed. At 2 years postoperatively, Constant score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, visual analog scale score, range of motion, and radiographs were evaluated. After comparison between the groups, patients were analyzed considering patients younger and older than 65 years. All parameters significantly improved after surgery in both groups. Postoperatively, the 2 groups did not show any clinical and radiographic differences (P > .05). In patients .05). In patients >65 years, standard technique showed a positive trend for all the parameters (P > .05). No other significant differences were found. At 2 years of follow-up, the use of standard RSA or BIO-RSA in an implant with an onlay 145° curved stem provided similar outcomes. The humeral lateralization alone is sufficient to decrease notching and to improve external rotation. BIO-RSA increases external rotation in patients between 50 and 65 years old. Glenoid bone graft in RSA has a high incorporation rate (completed in 90%).

Return to play and performance after shoulder instability in National Basketball Association athletes

24-08-2019 – Yining Lu, Kelechi R. Okoroha, Bhavik H. Patel, Benedict U. Nwachukwu, James D. Baker, Alexander J. Idarraga, Brian Forsythe

Journal Article

We hypothesized that players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) who sustained a shoulder destabilizing injury could return to play (RTP) successfully at a high rate regardless of treatment type. We used publicly available data to identify and evaluate 50 players who sustained an in-season shoulder instability event (subluxation/dislocation) while playing in the NBA. Demographic variables, return to NBA gameplay, incidence of surgery, time to RTP, recurrent instability events, and player efficiency rating (PER) were collected. Overall RTP was determined, and players were compared by type of injury and mode of treatment. All players (50/50) returned to game play after sustaining a shoulder instability event. In those treated nonoperatively, athletes who sustained shoulder subluxations returned after an average of 3.6 weeks, compared with 7.6 weeks in those who sustained a shoulder dislocation (P = .037). Players who underwent operative management returned after an average of 19 weeks. Athletes treated operatively were found to have a longer time interval between a recurrent instability event (70 weeks vs. 28.5 weeks, P = .001). We found 100% rate of RTP after a shoulder instability event in an NBA athlete. Players who experience shoulder dislocations were found to miss more time before RTP and were more likely to undergo surgical intervention compared with those who experienced a subluxation. Surgical repair maintained a longer interval between recurrent instability. Future investigations should aim to evaluate outcomes based on surgical procedures and identify possible risk factors predictive of recurrent instability or failure to RTP.

Shoulder arthroplasty in patients with immunosuppression following solid organ transplantation

12-08-2019 – Taku Hatta, Joseph M. Statz, Eiji Itoi, Robert H. Cofield, John W. Sperling, Mark E. Morrey

Journal Article

The purpose was to determine the risk and outcomes of primary shoulder arthroplasties in patients with immunosuppression who had undergone solid organ transplantation. Using a single institution’s total joint registry, we reviewed 30 primary shoulder arthroplasties in 25 post-transplantation patients, including 12 total shoulder arthroplasties, 10 hemiarthroplasties, and 8 reverse shoulder arthroplasties, between 1985 and 2012. Therapy and patient variables were recorded, including immunosuppressive therapy protocols, the date of preceding solid organ transplantation, and specific medications taken in the perioperative period. We matched a cohort of control patients for age, sex, type of implant, and year of surgery at a ratio of 4:1. Two groups were compared regarding mortality risk, complications, and clinical outcomes (pain score, range of motion, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score). No periprosthetic infections occurred in the post-transplantation group at a mean follow-up of 39 months. However, the post-transplantation group showed an increased risk of periprosthetic fractures compared with the control group (hazard ratio, 8.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-70.98; P = .03). Despite the increase in fractures, the overall number of complications did not differ between the groups. Furthermore, postoperative shoulder function and outcome scores were not significantly different between patients who had a prior transplant and those who did not. Primary shoulder arthroplasty in patients with immunosuppression who underwent solid organ transplantation is a successful procedure to treat glenohumeral arthritis. In contrast, there may be an increased risk of periprosthetic fractures in patients with a history of a solid organ transplant.

Effects of self-stretching with mobilization on shoulder range of motion in individuals with glenohumeral internal rotation deficits: axa0randomized controlled trial

20-10-2019 – Min-Hyeok Kang, Jae-Seop Oh

Journal Article

The combined effects of cross-body stretching and dorsal glide mobilization have not been examined previously, although both stretching and mobilization maneuvers are effective for improving shoulder range of motion (ROM). Thus, the aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of stretching with mobilization (SWM) on glenohumeral (GH) internal rotation (IR) and horizontal adduction (HA) ROM. Forty individuals with GH IR deficits were randomized to perform simultaneous combined cross-body stretching and dorsal glide mobilization (SWM group, comprising 10 male and 10 female patients) or cross-body stretching alone (stretching group, comprising 10 male and 10 female patients). GH IR ROM, HA ROM, and shoulder mobility were assessed before and immediately following interventions. Group and time differences were analyzed using 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. Greater changes in GH IR ROM (6°, P < .001), HA ROM (10°, P < .001), and shoulder mobility (-2 cm, P = .018) were observed in the SWM group than in the stretching group, although significant increases were observed in GH IR ROM (SWM group, P < .001; stretching group, P < .001), HA ROM (SWM group, P < .001; stretching group, P = .042), and shoulder mobility (SWM group, P < .001; stretching group, P < .001) after both interventions. This study shows that SWM could be a useful exercise for shoulder ROM recovery in individuals with GH IR deficits.

Operative treatment of displaced midshaft clavicular fractures is not cost-effective

30-09-2019 – Anne-Kathrine R. Sørensen, Lianna H. Hammeken, Andreas H. Qvist, Steen L. Jensen, Lars H. Ehlers

Journal Article

Conventional treatment of displaced midshaft clavicular fractures is nonoperative. Recent studies have implied that operative treatment might result in a faster return to work, resulting in a decreased productivity loss for society. The cost utility of plate fixation vs. nonoperative treatment of displaced midshaft clavicular fractures has not previously been investigated using a societal perspective. Decision analytical modeling of incremental costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) was performed. Data on utility, hospitalization, and productivity costs were retrieved from a Danish randomized controlled trial. Supplementary data were taken from randomized controlled trials identified in the literature. A 1-year time horizon was applied, and all prices were reported with respect to a 2016 level. Operative treatment was associated with a larger QALY gain in patients and a higher cost compared with nonoperative treatment. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was estimated in Danish currency (Danish krone [kr]) at kr1,360,000 (€182,306) per QALY from a health-sector perspective and kr1,388,738 (€186,158) per QALY from a societal perspective. Considering a subgroup analysis of patients with a high-load shoulder profession, operative treatment was dominated by nonoperative treatment from a health-sector perspective. Considering a societal perspective, the ICER was estimated at -kr889,091 (-€119,181) per reduction of 1 QALY. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses showed that the results were subject to uncertainty. Operative treatment is not cost-effective when considering a threshold of €34,000/QALY. However, for a subgroup of patients with a high-load shoulder profession, operative treatment might be cost-effective compared with nonoperative treatment.

Next-generation sequencing for diagnosis of infection: is more sensitive really better?

18-10-2019 – Allison J. Rao, Ian S. MacLean, Amanda J. Naylor, Grant E. Garrigues, Nikhil N. Verma, Gregory P. Nicholson

Journal Article

The utility of next-generation sequencing (NGS) in differentiating between active infection and contaminant or baseline flora remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to compare NGS with culture-based methods in primary shoulder arthroplasty. A prospective series of primary shoulder arthroplasty patients with no history of infection or antibiotic use within 60 days of surgery was enrolled. All patients received standard perioperative antibiotics. After skin incision, a 10 × 3-mm sample of the medial skin edge was excised. A 2 × 2-cm synovial tissue biopsy was taken from the rotator interval after subscapularis takedown. Each sample set was halved and sent for NGS and standard cultures. Samples from 25 patients were analyzed. Standard aerobic/anaerobic cultures were positive in 10 skin samples (40%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 20%-60%) and 3 deep tissue samples (12%, 90% CI 1%-23%]). NGS detected ≥1 bacterial species in 17 of the skin samples (68%, 95% CI 49%-87%) and 7 deep tissue samples (28%, 95% CI 9%-47%). There was a significant difference (P < .03) in the mean number of bacterial species detected with NGS between the positive standard culture (1.6 species) and the negative standard culture groups (5.7 species). NGS identified bacteria at higher rates in skin and deep tissue samples than standard culture did in native, uninfected patients undergoing primary procedures. Further research is needed to determine which NGS results are clinically relevant and which are false positives before NGS can be reliably used in orthopedic cases.

Factors associated with choice for surgery in newly symptomatic degenerative rotator cuff tears: a prospective cohort evaluation

20-10-2019 – Jay D. Keener, Alexander W. Aleem, Aaron M. Chamberlain, Julianne Sefko, Karen Steger-May

Journal Article

The patient-related factors for the perceived need for surgery for degenerative rotator cuff tears are not known. The purpose of this study is to examine patient- and tear-specific factors leading to surgery in newly painful degenerative rotator cuff tears. Asymptomatic, degenerative rotator cuff tears were followed prospectively to identify the onset of pain and tear enlargement. Newly painful tears were continually monitored with a focus on identifying patient-specific (age, occupation, activity level) and tear-specific (tear type and size, tear progression, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, muscle degeneration) factors that are associated with surgical intervention. Forty-eight of 169 newly painful shoulders were eventually managed surgically. Factors associated with surgical treatment included younger age (P = .0004), pain development earlier in surveillance (P = .0002), a greater increase in pain (P = .0001), a decline in American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score (P < .0001), and a history of contralateral shoulder surgery (P = .0006). Eighty-five of the 169 tears (50%) enlarged either before or within 2 years of pain development. Neither tear type (P = .13), tear enlargement (P = .67) nor tear size (P = .51) was associated with surgery. Neither the severity of muscle degeneration, occupational status, hand dominance, Shoulder Activity Score, nor changes in RAND-12 mental or physical scales differed between groups. For newly painful rotator cuff tears, patient-specific factors such as younger age and prior surgery on the contralateral shoulder are more predictive of future surgery than tear-specific factors or changes in tear size over time.

Autologous chondrocyte implantation for treatment of focal articular cartilage defects of the humeral head

25-09-2019 – Elisabeth Boehm, Marvin Minkus, Markus Scheibel

Journal Article

Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) constitutes an established treatment option for cartilage defects of the knee joint. Experience in the shoulder, however, is limited, and the management of cartilage defects remains a challenge. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results after ACI with 3-dimensional spheroids of human autologous matrix-associated chondrocytes in the shoulder. Seven male patients (median age, 42.8 years [range, 18-55 years]) underwent ACI for symptomatic focal grade IV cartilage lesions of the humeral head by an open or arthroscopic approach. Clinical parameters (range of motion, visual analog scale score, Subjective Shoulder Value, Constant score, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Standardized Shoulder Assessment Form score) and osteoarthritis grades were assessed. Arthroscopic re-evaluation was additionally performed in 5 patients. After a median follow-up period of 32 months (range, 22-58 months), the median Subjective Shoulder Value was 95% (range, 70%-100%) compared with 60% (range, 30%-60%) preoperatively, the visual analog scale score was 0 at rest and was a median of 0 (range, 0-2) during exercise, the median Constant score was 95 points (range, 80-100 points), and the median American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score was 97 points (range, 90-100 points). The median preoperative size of the cartilage lesion was 3 cm ACI using 3-dimensional spheroids of human autologous matrix-associated chondrocytes for treatment of grade IV articular cartilage lesions of the humeral head achieves satisfactory clinical results during a short- to mid-term follow-up period and leads to successful defect coverage with only minor radiologic degenerative changes. In this case series, ACI proved to constitute a viable treatment in the shoulder joint. However, in consideration of the 2-stage surgical design and the cost intensiveness of this procedure, the indication is restricted to young and active symptomatic patients in our practice.

JSES family of journals

14-12-2019 – William J. Mallon, Pierre Mansat


Exercise therapy may affect scapular position and motion in individuals with scapular dyskinesis: a systematic review of clinical trials

20-08-2019 – Afsun Nodehi Moghadam, Leila Rahnama, Shohreh Noorizadeh Dehkordi, Shima Abdollahi

Journal Article, Review

Therapeutic exercise for scapular muscles is suggested to be effective in reducing shoulder pain in patients with rotator cuff disorders, whereas its effectiveness on scapular position and motion has remained unclear. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to investigate whether exercise therapy improves scapular position and motion in individuals with scapular dyskinesis. This study is a wide systematic review including any type of clinical trial in which the effect of any type of therapeutic exercise, including scapular muscle strengthening, stretching, and scapular stabilization exercise, is investigated in adult participants. Twenty studies were included in this systematic review. Studies were categorized on the basis of the techniques they used to measure scapular position and motion and the included participants. Methodologic quality of the studies was assessed by the Cochrane tool of assessing the risk of bias. Eight studies used 3-dimensional techniques for measuring scapular motions. Among them, 5 studies showed significant effects of exercise on scapular motion, of which 3 studies investigated individuals with subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS). The other 12 studies used 2-dimensional measurement techniques, of which 8 studies reported significant effects of exercise on scapular position and motion both in SIS patients and in asymptomatic individuals. However, their methodologic quality was debatable. Therefore, there was conflicting evidence for the effect of exercise on scapular dyskinesis. There is a lack of evidence for beneficial effects of exercise in improving scapular position and motion in individuals with scapular dyskinesis. However, exercise is beneficial in reducing pain and disability in individuals with SIS.

Mortality after inpatient stay for proximal humeral fractures

31-08-2019 – John Adam, Mohannad Basil Ammori, Iliyasu Isah, Muthu Jeyam, Usman Butt

Journal Article

A proximal humeral fracture is well established as a fracture of fragility in elderly patients. However, this injury does not receive the same emphasis on post-injury management as a femoral neck fracture. The objectives of this study were to establish the influence of sustaining a proximal humeral fracture on mortality and to identify the variables predictive of 5-year mortality. Between January 2007 and January 2011, 288 consecutive patients who were admitted after sustaining a proximal humeral fracture were identified from the clinical coding department. Data were retrospectively collected and included patient demographic characteristics, comorbidities, anemia, physical and social independence, length of inpatient stay, management, and mortality. Of the patients, 13 (4.5%) had died at 1 month; 28 (9.7%), at 3 months; 46 (16.0%), at 1 year; and 117 (40.6%), at 5 years. A Cox proportional hazards regression identified male sex, comorbidities, unemployment or retirement, and nonoperative management as independent predictors of 5-year mortality. Elderly patients who require admission after sustaining a proximal humeral fracture are frail and subject to a greater-than-average risk of mortality for their age. The risk of mortality is greater for those of male sex who have comorbidities and a loss of physical and social independence.

Application of a new polyester patch in arthroscopic massive rotator cuff repair—a prospective cohort study

14-08-2019 – Daniel Smolen, Nicolas Haffner, Rainer Mittermayr, Florian Hess, Christoph Sternberg, Jan Leuzinger

Journal Article

Massive rotator cuff (RC) tears still present a clinically challenging problem, with reported rerupture rates in up to 94%. The study objective was to determine the impact of synthetic patch augmentation for massive RC tears. Between June 2012 and 2014, we performed 50 arthroscopic RC reconstructions augmented with a synthetic polyester patch. Pre- and postoperative imaging methods included arthrographic magnetic resonance imaging, arthrographic computed tomography, and ultrasound examination to determine tendon integrity or rerupture. Clinical outcome was evaluated using the Constant-Murley score and the subjective shoulder value. Mean clinical midterm and final follow-up was 22 months (9-35 months) and 52 months (25-74 months), respectively. The mean Constant-Murley score increased significantly from 36.5 (±16.4 standard deviation [SD]) preoperatively to a midterm value of 81.2 (±9.6 SD; P < .0001) and further improved to a mean of 83.4 (±10.8 SD) at final follow-up. The mean subjective shoulder value increased from 40.3 (±24.3 SD) to 89.2 (±12.9 SD; P < .0001) at midterm and to 89.6 (±15.2 SD) at final follow-up. We observed 7 complete reruptures (14%). However, reruptures did not correlate with revision surgery, which was performed in 8 patients. The main reason for revision was frozen shoulder or arthrofibrosis with an intact reconstruction and patch, which was performed in 6 cases. The retear rate of 14% compared favorably with nonaugmented RC repairs in the literature. Therefore, we conclude that patch augmentation in massive RC tears is feasible to reduce retears and to improve clinical outcome.

Pyrocarbon interposition shoulder arthroplasty in young arthritic patients: a prospective observational study

28-08-2019 – Hugo Barret, Marc-Olivier Gauci, Tristan Langlais, Olivier van der Meijden, Laurie Tran, Pascal Boileau

Journal Article

We evaluated survival and midterm results of pyrocarbon interposition shoulder arthroplasty (PISA) in arthritic patients younger than 65 years. Fifty-eight PISAs (In
Spyre; Tornier-Wright, Bloomington, MN, USA), implanted in 56 patients between 2010 and 2015, were prospectively observed. The mean age at surgery was 52 ± 13 years. The cause was primary osteoarthritis (18), fracture sequelae (16), post-instability arthritis (15), aseptic necrosis (3), inflammatory disease (2), and failed hemiarthroplasty (4); 34 shoulders (61%) had previously undergone surgery. Glenoid erosion was assessed in 4 grades according to the Sperling classification. Humeral erosion was also assessed in 4 grades. Multivariate analysis was used to determine predisposing risk factors for both humeral and glenoid erosion. At a mean follow-up of 47 ± 15 months, survival rate was 90%. Six patients (10%) required conversion to reverse total shoulder prosthesis for painful glenoid erosion (n = 2) and humeral erosion with greater tuberosity stress fractures (n = 4). The mean Constant score and subjective shoulder value significantly increased from 36 ± 14 points to 70 ± 15 points and 32% ± 14% to 75% ± 19%, respectively (P < .001). Humeral medialization was observed in 78% of the cases with increased pain score. Uncorrected anteroposterior implant subluxation (12 cases) was associated with lower Constant score (50 points vs. 72 points; P = .02) and lower subjective shoulder value (53% vs. 78%; P = .002). On multivariate analysis, no risk factors for glenoid or humeral erosion were found. At midterm follow-up, PISA does not protect from progressive glenoid erosion and can lead to greater tuberosity erosion and stress fractures. Longer follow-up is required to see whether PISA survival will be superior to that of hemiarthroplasty.

Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty in the younger patient (≤65 years): a systematic review

08-09-2019 – Seline Y. Vancolen, Rawaan Elsawi, Nolan S. Horner, Timothy Leroux, Bashar Alolabi, Moin Khan

Journal Article, Review

The purpose of this study was to evaluate outcomes of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) in patients aged ≤65 years. MEDLINE, Embase, and PubMed were searched for relevant studies from database inception to September 18, 2018. All studies that evaluated RTSA in patients aged ≤65 years were included. Two independent reviewers screened all studies and performed a quality assessment. In the total of 6 studies reviewed, 245 participants underwent RTSA, with the most common indications being failed rotator cuff repair and rotator cuff tear arthropathy. Postoperative functional outcomes indicated a significant level of improvement across all reported outcomes at a mean follow-up of 49 months (range, 19-140 months) (P < .05). The pooled mean complication rate was 18% (n = 44/245), and this higher rate may be due to 36% of patients undergoing an RTSA for a failed arthroplasty procedure and the inclusion of older studies that lacked modern implants and techniques. Although there is a significant improvement in functional outcomes at midterm follow-up for RTSA in the patients aged ≤65 years, the pooled complication rates are high. However, the results of this systematic review are limited because of the heterogenous patient population undergoing surgery for various indications, including revision arthroplasty. Long-term studies and registry data are required using current modern techniques and implants to provide an accurate assessment of outcomes following RTSA in a young patient population.

Relation between preoperative electromyographic activity of the deltoid and upper trapezius muscle and clinical results in patients treated with reverse shoulder arthroplasty

20-08-2019 – HongRi Li, Seung-hyun Yoon, Doohyung Lee, Heewoong Chung

Journal Article

If patients susceptible to poor clinical outcomes could be predicted before reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA), it would help to set reasonable postsurgical patient expectations in the preoperative setting. Our hypothesis was that the preoperative electromyographic (EMG) activity of the deltoid and upper trapezius muscles would be correlated with clinical outcomes of patients undergoing RSA. EMG activity of the deltoid and upper trapezius muscles was measured in 25 patients scheduled to undergo RSA during 3 motions: shrugging, forward flexion, and abduction. Their postoperative clinical results were assessed prospectively during regular outpatient visits, including strength, active range of motion (ROM), pain, and functional scores. The correlations between the preoperative EMG activities and clinical results were analyzed. Postoperative shoulder strength after RSA was increased in patients with greater preoperative EMG activity of the middle deltoid and upper trapezius. Preoperative EMG activity of the anterior or middle deltoid muscle was associated with active ROM in flexion or abduction, whereas EMG activity of the posterior deltoid was associated with active ROM in external rotation. Shoulder strength after RSA was positively correlated with preoperative EMG activity of the deltoid and upper trapezius. Active ROM after RSA was positively correlated with preoperative EMG activity of the deltoid. Therefore, preoperative EMG measurements of the deltoid and upper trapezius may predict clinical outcomes after RSA.

Three-dimensional in vivo scapular kinematics and scapulohumeral rhythm: a comparison between active and passive motion

12-08-2019 – Bonggun Lee, Doosup Kim, Younghwan Jang, Hanbin Jin

Journal Article

The aim of this study was to compare the scapular kinematics and scapulohumeral rhythm of healthy participants during arm elevation and lowering and to find the difference between active motion and passive motion of the shoulder. The study examined the shoulders of 10 healthy men (mean age, 23.5 years; age range, 22-28 years). The shoulders of participants were elevated and lowered while fluoroscopic images were taken, and 3-dimensional bone models were created from 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional images using model registration techniques. The Euler angle sequences of the models’ scapular kinematics and scapulohumeral rhythm were compared during active and passive shoulder motion. There was a significant statistical difference of upward rotation during arm elevation between active and passive shoulder movements (P = .027). In particular, the upward rotation between 45° and 90° of elevation showed a statistically significant difference (P < .001). When the scapula was tilted posteriorly by active motion, it resulted in a statistically significant difference as there was more tilting in the high-degree range of motions than when it was tilted by passive motion (P < .001). There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups in scapular external rotation. However, during arm lowering, scapular kinematics did not show statistically significant difference between active and passive motion. The scapular kinematics showed statistically significant differences between active and passive motion of upward rotation and posterior tilting of the scapula during arm elevation, but there were none during lowering. In terms of upward rotation, active shoulders rotated more upward during arm elevation.

Posterior shoulder tightness can be a risk factor of scapular malposition: a cadaveric biomechanical study

20-08-2019 – Teruhisa Mihata, Michelle H. McGarry, Masaki Akeda, Alexander B. Peterson, Ross C. Hunter, Lauren Nguyen, Masashi Neo, Thay Q. Lee

Journal Article

Scapular malposition and posterior shoulder tightness are key pathologic processes in the shoulder of throwing athletes. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of posterior capsule tightness, posterior rotator cuff muscle tightness, or both on scapular position. Ten shoulders from 5 fresh frozen cadaveric male torsos were tested in maximum internal, neutral, and maximum external shoulder rotations at 0°, 45°, and 90° of shoulder abduction. Scapular rotation-namely, upward and downward rotation, internal and external rotation, and anterior and posterior tilt-and the scapula-spine distance were measured by using a Micro
Scribe digitizer (Revware, Raleigh, NC, USA). Each shoulder underwent 4 experimental stages: intact; isolated posterior rotator cuff muscle (infraspinatus and teres minor) tightness; both posterior rotator cuff muscle and capsule tightness; and isolated posterior capsule tightness. Posterior muscle tightness significantly decreased upward rotation (P< .05) only in maximum shoulder internal rotation at 45° or 90° of shoulder abduction, whereas posterior capsule tightness did not affect upward rotation (P= .09 to .96). Posterior capsule tightness significantly increased scapular internal rotation (P< .01), but posterior muscle tightness did not change scapular internal rotation (P= .62 to .89). Posterior capsule tightness significantly increased both the superior and inferior scapula-spine distance (ie, caused scapular protraction) in maximum shoulder external rotation at 90° of abduction (P< .01). Posterior shoulder tightness resulted in scapular malposition. However, the muscular and capsular components of that tightness affected the scapular position differently. For the treatment of scapula malposition, stretching of the posterior shoulder capsule and muscles is recommended.

Density distribution of the type E2 glenoid in cuff tear arthropathy

02-09-2019 – Matthew D. Mahaffy, Nikolas K. Knowles, Carolyn Berkmortel, Sejla Abdic, Gilles Walch, James A. Johnson, George S. Athwal

Journal Article

Little is known about the cortical-like and cancellous bone density variations in superiorly eroded glenoids due to cuff tear arthropathy. The purpose of this study was to analyze regional bone density in type E2 glenoids. Clinical shoulder computed tomography scans were obtained from 32 patients with a type E2 superior erosion (10 men and 22 women; mean age, 73 years). Measurement regions were organized into quadrants (superior, inferior, anterior, and posterior) and depth regions. The depth regions were incremented by 2 mm from 0 to 10 mm. A repeated-measures multiple analysis of variance was performed to assess differences and interactions between mean densities (cortical-like and cancellous bone) in each depth, in each quadrant, and between sexes. The lowest cancellous bone density was found in the inferior glenoid quadrant compared with all other quadrants (307 ± 50 Hounsfield units [HU], P < .001). At the glenoid surface, the superior quadrant contained the highest mean density for cortical-like bone (895 ± 97 HU); this differed significantly from the posterior, anterior, and inferior quadrants (P ≤ .033). As for depth of measurement, cortical-like bone was most dense at the glenoid surface (0-2 mm, 892 ± 91 HU), and density decreased significantly at depths greater than 2 mm (P ≤ .019). In patients with type E2 glenoids due to cuff tear arthropathy, the densest bone was found in the superior quadrant in the area of erosion. The inferior quadrant, which tends to be unloaded as the humeral head migrates superiorly, had the lowest density bone. In addition, the best-quality bone was located at the glenoid surface as compared with deeper in the vault.

A prospective study comparing tendon-to-bone interface healing using an interposition bioresorbable scaffold with a vented anchor for primary rotator cuff repair in sheep

12-08-2019 – Jeremiah Easley, Christian Puttlitz, Eileen Hackett, Cecily Broomfield, Lucas Nakamura, Michael Hawes, Charles Getz, Mark Frankle, Patrick St. Pierre, Robert Tashjian, P. Dean Cummings, Joseph Abboud, Derek Harper, Kirk McGilvray

Journal Article

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical and histologic properties of rotator cuff repairs using a vented anchor attached to a bioresorbable interpositional scaffold composed of aligned PLGA (poly(l-lactide-co-glycoside)) microfibers in an animal model compared to standard anchors in an ovine model. Fifty-six (n = 56) skeletally mature sheep were randomly assigned to a repair of an acute infraspinatus tendon detachment using a innovative anchor-PLGA scaffold device (Treatment) or a similar anchor without the scaffold (Control). Animals were humanely euthanized at 7 and 12 weeks post repair. Histologic and biomechanical properties of the repairs were evaluated and compared. The Treatment group had a significantly higher fibroblast count at 7 weeks compared to the Control group. The tendon bone repair distance, percentage perpendicular fibers, new bone formation at the tendon-bone interface, and collagen type III deposition was significantly greater for the Treatment group compared with the Control group at 12 weeks (P ≤ .05). A positive correlation was identified in the Treatment group between increased failure loads at 12 weeks and the following parameters: tendon-bone integration, new bone formation, and collagen type III. No statistically significant differences in biomechanical properties were identified between Treatment and Control Groups (P > .05). Use of a vented anchor attached to a bioresorbable interpositional scaffold composed of aligned PLGA microfibers improves the histologic properties of rotator cuff repairs in a sheep model. Improved histology was correlated with improved final construct strength at the 12-week time point.

Validity and internal consistency of the thoracic outlet syndrome indexxa0for patients with thoracic outlet syndrome

03-09-2019 – Martti Vastamäki, Niina Ruopsa, Heidi Vastamäki, Katri Laimi, Leena Ristolainen, Mikhail Saltychev

Journal Article

No validated scales exist specifically for measuring quality of life (QoL) and functioning level in patients with thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS). This cross-sectional survey examined whether some items adopted from validated QoL scales could be suitable for patients with TOS. To find an optimal thoracic outlet syndrome index (TOSI), a panel of 14 specialists experienced in treating TOS independently evaluated the relevance of 19 items adopted from scales used in other upper-extremity syndromes. After undergoing surgery for TOS, 52 patients rated the relevance of those items found by experts to be relevant. Content validity was measured by a content validity index, content validity ratio, and modified κ. The internal consistency of 15 retained items was assessed with the Cronbach α, and its construct validity was assessed by an exploratory factor analysis. Of the 19 items, 15 were considered relevant for TOS by the panelists, with an overall test content validity index of 0.93. The internal consistency of these 15 items was excellent. The exploratory factor analysis accompanied by a parallel analysis confirmed the uni-dimensionality of the TOSI. All 15 items that the panelists considered relevant were also items that the patients marked with scores over 7 points on an 11-point scale of relevance. The internally consistent, face- and content-valid TOSI scale is proposed for use in evaluating specifically the QoL in TOS patients, as well as improving future longitudinal studies comparing functioning before and after interventions or spontaneous recovery in TOS patients.

Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation scores correlate positively with American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores postoperatively in patients undergoing rotator cuff repair

12-08-2019 – Julia S. Retzky, Matthew Baker, Casey V. Hannan, Uma Srikumaran

Journal Article

The American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) shoulder score and the Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) measure shoulder function. Relative to the ASES questionnaire, the SANE questionnaire is shorter and easier to score. We sought to determine (1) the correlation between ASES and SANE scores preoperatively and at 2 years postoperatively in patients undergoing rotator cuff repair (RCR) or shoulder arthroplasty and (2) the correlation between the change in ASES scores and change in SANE scores. We reviewed the records of 107 patients who underwent RCR (n = 74) or shoulder arthroplasty (n = 33), which included patients undergoing total shoulder arthroplasty (n = 18) and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (n = 15), at our institution from 2014 to 2015 and who completed the ASES and SANE questionnaires preoperatively and at least 2 years postoperatively. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to determine the relationship between SANE and ASES scores in RCR patients and arthroplasty patients (both total shoulder arthroplasty and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty) at each time point. In the RCR group, correlations between SANE and ASES scores were moderately positive preoperatively (r = 0.30) and strongly positive postoperatively (r = 0.86). In the arthroplasty group, correlations between SANE and ASES scores were moderately positive preoperatively (r = 0.46) and strongly positive postoperatively (r = 0.78). SANE scores correlate positively with ASES scores postoperatively in patients undergoing RCR. Therefore, SANE scores, together with clinician-based and combination scores, can be used to assess postoperative shoulder function in these patients.

Proximal humeral osteolysis and glenoid radiolucent lines in an anatomic shoulder arthroplasty: a comparison of a ceramic and a metal humeral head component

04-01-2020 – Simon N. Bell, Maxim U.S.I. Christmas, Jennifer A. Coghlan

Journal Article

In vitro wear studies demonstrate decreased polyethylene wear with a ceramic compared with a metal humeral head. In this in vivo study, we analyzed prospectively collected 5-year data, comparing the outcomes of 2 types of humeral implants. Sixty-two anatomic total shoulder arthroplasties (TSAs) (59 patients) were performed using the same glenoid component and 2 types of modular humeral implants (metal-head long-stem prosthesis in group A vs. ceramic-head stemless prosthesis in group B). Radiographic analysis for proximal humeral osteolysis and glenoid component radiolucent lines was performed at an average of 5.5 years. Functional outcomes were prospectively evaluated according to the visual analog scale score for pain; satisfaction level; American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score; active elevation; Shoulder Pain and Disability Index score; and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score. There were 39 TSAs in group A (mean age, 68.1 years) and 23 TSAs in group B (mean age, 67 years). Clinical improvement was similar for both groups. Some proximal humeral osteolysis occurred in 56% of all TSAs. Group A showed increased osteolysis compared with group B (72% vs. 30%, P = .005). Glenoid radiolucent lines were far more frequent in group A, and group A showed a direct relationship between the extent of humeral osteolysis and the severity of glenoid radiolucent lines (P < .001). The stemless ceramic-head replacements showed fewer glenoid radiolucent lines and less humeral osteolysis than the long-stem metal-head replacements. In the group with metal-head replacements, correlation was shown between glenoid radiolucent lines and humeral osteolysis.

Anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty with an inlay glenoid component: clinical outcomes and return to activity

04-01-2020 – Gregory L. Cvetanovich, Amanda J. Naylor, Michael C. OBrien, Brian R. Waterman, Grant H. Garcia, Gregory P. Nicholson

Journal Article

Biomechanical studies show that inlay glenoid components in total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) can reduce edge loading and opposite-edge lift-off forces with humeral translation compared with onlay glenoids. However, clinical data for these implants are lacking. We report clinical outcomes and return to activities after anatomic TSA with an inlay glenoid component and a stemless ovoid humeral head in an active, young patient population. A retrospective review of TSA with an inlay glenoid component and an ovoid humeral head component was performed for 27 shoulders. Patients were evaluated with patient-reported outcome measures, range of motion, and radiographs. Return to occupational and sporting activity, complications, and reoperations were analyzed. A total of 27 shoulders were available for minimum 2-year follow-up. Age averaged 52.1 years, and 92.6% of shoulders were in male patients. The preoperative Walch grade was A1 or A2 in 15 shoulders (55%), B1 in 8 (30%), and B2 in 4 (15%). Patients showed significant improvements in patient-reported outcome measures, active forward flexion, and external rotation (P < .001) with no reoperations. At an average of 3.7 months, the rate of return to work was 92.6%, with 76.0% of those patients returning to their preoperative occupational demand level. At an average of 9.1 months, 75% of patients who responded to our custom survey returned to sport, with 50% achieving the same level or a higher level of sporting activity. Annual postoperative radiographs revealed no inlay component loosening. Anatomic TSA with an inlay glenoid coupled with a stemless ovoid humeral head in an active population resulted in improved clinical outcomes, no reoperations or radiographic loosening, and a high rate of return to activity at shorter-term follow-up.

Industry payments to authors of Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery shoulder arthroplasty manuscripts are accurately disclosed by most authors and are not significantly associated with better reported treatment outcomes

04-01-2020 – Jeremy S. Somerson, Matthew C. Comley, Ahmed Mansi, Moni B. Neradilek, Frederick A. Matsen

Journal Article

Author transparency in disclosing potential conflicts of interest when reporting outcomes for shoulder arthroplasty implants is important. Using the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Open Payments Program (OPP) database, we analyzed articles in the Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery to evaluate (1) discrepancies between the stated conflicts of interest and associated payments recorded in the database, (2) the magnitude and types of payments received, and (3) possible relationships between industry financial support and positive study outcomes. Articles reporting clinical outcomes of shoulder arthroplasty from 2016 and 2017 were reviewed. Articles identifying a specific shoulder arthroplasty implant and having at least 1 author based in the United States were included. Payment types, amounts, and sources were extracted from disclosure statements in the manuscript and considered relevant if they were received from the implant manufacturer. Published disclosure statements were compared against the OPP database. Study outcomes demonstrating a clinical benefit were considered “positive.” Payments to authors reporting positive outcomes were compared with those reporting nonpositive outcomes. Implant manufacturers provided $16,051,261 to authors of shoulder arthroplasty publications over a 2-year period. Approximately half of senior authors (46%) received royalty payments, more than 90% of which ($14,910,873; 93%) were reported in disclosure statements. Although authors of articles with positive outcomes received greater payments than those reporting nonpositive outcomes, these differences were not statistically significant. The majority of author disclosure statements accurately reflected the OPP data. Payments were not significantly associated with positive outcomes reported for the specific implant.

Psychosocial factors affecting outcomes after shoulder arthroplasty: a systematic review

04-01-2020 – Sravya P. Vajapey, Gregory L. Cvetanovich, Julie Y. Bishop, Andrew S. Neviaser

Journal Article

Both anatomic and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty are considered successful surgeries to treat a variety of painful shoulder conditions. Although implant survivorship for both is good to excellent in the long term, a variety of factors-clinical, technical, and psychosocial-may affect patient-reported outcomes after shoulder arthroplasty. A comprehensive review of the literature was performed systematically using keywords “shoulder arthroplasty outcomes,” “psychosocial factors shoulder,” “shoulder replacement outcomes,” “depression shoulder arthroplasty,” “satisfaction shoulder arthroplasty,” “factors shoulder replacement,” “expectations shoulder arthroplasty,” and “predictors shoulder arthroplasty.” Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were screened and analyzed. Type of surgery performed, sample size, outcome measures, and other factors influencing patient outcomes were recorded and analyzed. Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Six reviewed mental health disorders as predictors of postoperative outcome after shoulder arthroplasty. Of these, 4 found that disorders such a depression and anxiety were associated with increased risk of perioperative complications and lower final functional outcome scores. Two studies evaluated workers’ compensation status as a possible predictor of outcomes and found that patients with claims had lower satisfaction and outcome scores at final follow-up compared with those without claims. Two studies showed that preoperative opioid use was associated with lower outcome scores and overall satisfaction rate after shoulder arthroplasty. Three studies showed that higher patient confidence and preoperative expectations were correlated with better outcomes. Our review shows that psychosocial factors may play just as important role in affecting patient outcomes after total shoulder arthroplasty as technical factors.

Acellular dermal matrix augmentation significantly increases ultimate load to failure of pectoralis major tendon repair: a biomechanical study

21-12-2019 – Raffy Mirzayan, Steven M. Andelman, Paul M. Sethi, Joshua B. Baldino, Brendan J. Comer, Elifho Obopilwe, Daichi Morikawa, Alexander Otto, Julian Mehl, Matthew Murphy, Augustus D. Mazzocca

Journal Article

Biomechanical studies have demonstrated that standard pectoralis major tendon (PMT) repairs have inferior strength compared with native tendon. Augmentation of PMT repair with an acellular dermal matrix (ADM) will increase the ultimate load to failure. Eighteen cadaveric specimens were allocated to 3 repair groups: standard repair (SR); augmented repair (AR) with ADM; and intact, native tendon (NT). Specimens were tested for cyclic elongation, linear stiffness, load to 5 mm displacement, maximum load to failure, and method of failure. Maximum load to failure in AR (1450 ± 295 N) was significantly higher than SR (921 ± 159 N; P = .0042) and equivalent to NT (1289 ± 240 N; P = .49). NT required the highest load to displace 5 mm (709 ± 202 N), which was higher than AR (346 ± 95 N; P < .001) and SR (375 ± 55; P = .0015). NT stiffness (125 ± 42 N/mm) was greater than the AR (69 ± 19 N/mm; P = .0073) or SR (75 ± 11 N/mm; P = .015). The mode of failure for SR was suture pullout from the PMT as opposed to button pullout from the humerus (fracture) for AR. ADM augmentation of PMT repair significantly increases ultimate load to failure.

Importance of radar gun inclusion during return-to-throwing rehabilitation following ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction in baseball pitchers: a simulation study

21-12-2019 – Vincent A. Lizzio, D. Grace Smith, Toufic R. Jildeh, Caleb M. Gulledge, Alexander J. Swantek, Jeffrey P. Stephens, Brian M. Schulz, Eric C. Makhni

Journal Article

Rehabilitation following elbow ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction in baseball pitchers relies on a progression of pitching activities to ensure protection and gradual strengthening of the reconstructed ligament. The purpose of this study was to determine the medial elbow torque associated with pitches at various effort levels and determine whether radar gun assistance improves players’ abilities to accurately match partial-effort pitches with true references based on maximum pitch velocity. Thirty-seven healthy high school and collegiate baseball pitchers were included in this study. Participants were excluded if they were injured, recovering from injury, or otherwise not currently pitching at full effort. Pitch parameters were collected using a validated wearable sensor. Participants threw 5 pitches at 50%, 75%, and 100% subjective effort. Pitchers then threw 5 pitches at 50% maximum velocity and 75% maximum velocity, as measured by a radar gun. Thirty-seven pitchers completed this study. Pitches thrown at 50% and 75% partial effort were significantly faster and generated higher elbow torque than did pitches thrown at 50% and 75% velocity, respectively (P < .001). A 10% decrease in percentage of maximum velocity was associated with a 13% decrease in percentage of maximum elbow torque (β coefficient = 1.3, R Pitchers generate higher-than-intended forces when throwing at 50% and 75% effort during a subjective partial-effort throwing protocol. Use of a radar gun to guide partial-effort throwing during throwing rehabilitation programs may protect the reconstructed elbow from excess medial torque.

Arthroscopic osteocapsular arthroplasty for advanced-stage primary osteoarthritis of the elbow using a computed tomography–based classification

14-12-2019 – Jae-Man Kwak, Hyojune Kim, Yucheng Sun, Erica Kholinne, Kyoung Hwan Koh, In-Ho Jeon

Journal Article

Arthroscopic osteocapsular arthroplasty for stage III osteoarthritis (advanced stage) shows worse clinical and radiologic outcomes compared with stage I or II according to computed tomography (CT)-based classification. Clinical and radiologic outcomes in 65 patients treated with arthroscopic osteocapsular arthroplasty were retrospectively analyzed for range of motion (ROM) arc, functional score (Mayo Elbow Performance Score [MEPS]), and pain score (visual analog scale [VAS]). Patients were classified into stage I or II (n = 44) and stage III (n = 21) groups according to CT-based classification, and postoperative clinical outcomes and complications were analyzed. Mean follow-up duration was 32.9 ± 13.7 months (range, 24-69). The average patient age was 52 ± 10 years (range, 40-63). Improvements from preoperative to final follow-up were seen in the overall ROM-flexion from 94° ± 19° to 129° ± 14° (P < .01), ROM-extension from 25° ± 12° to 14° ± 7° (P < .01), MEPS from 45 ± 13 to 78 ± 14 (P < .01), and VAS score from 6.3 ± 1.6 to 3.1 ± 1.4 (P < .01). Subgroup analysis using the CT-based classification revealed that stage III led to worsened VAS score and MEPS than stage I or II. Arthroscopic osteocapsular arthroplasty can be recommended for its favorable overall treatment outcomes for elbow osteoarthritis. However, stage III shows worse clinical and radiologic outcomes compared with stage I or II according to CT-based classification.

Same-day discharge is not inferior to longer length of in-hospital stay for 90-day readmissions following shoulder arthroplasty

14-12-2019 – Jonathan D. Kramer, Priscilla H. Chan, Heather A. Prentice, Joshua Hatch, Mark T. Dillon, Ronald A. Navarro

Journal Article

Shoulder arthroplasty is a common orthopedic procedure, performed historically in the inpatient setting. However, interest in same-day discharge has increased. We sought to evaluate 90-day readmission, 90-day emergency department (ED) visit, 90-day deep infection, 90-day venous thromboembolism (VTE), and 1-year mortality after same-day shoulder arthroplasty compared with an inpatient stay. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from an integrated health care system’s Shoulder Arthroplasty Registry. A total of 6503 elective primary unilateral total shoulder and reverse total shoulder arthroplasties performed between 2005 and 2016 were included; 405 (6%) had same-day discharge. The likelihood of 90-day events, including readmission, ED visit, deep infection, and VTE, and 1-year mortality after same-day discharge was compared with 1- to 4-night inpatient stay using generalized estimating equations with noninferiority testing, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, race, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, select comorbidities, osteoarthritis, anesthesia type, procedure type, and surgeon effect. We failed to observe a difference between same-day discharge and 1- to 4-night stay in terms of 90-day readmission, 90-day ED visit, and 1-year mortality. Same-day discharge was not inferior to 1- to 4-night stay regarding 90-day readmission, but we did not have evidence to support noninferiority for 90-day ED visits or 1-year mortality. Ninety-day deep infections and VTE were too infrequent for adjusted analysis. We found same-day shoulder arthroplasty not to be inferior to an inpatient stay for 90-day readmission. Future investigation into the reasons for readmission and ED visit after same-day shoulder arthroplasty and interventions to mitigate these adverse events is needed.

Clinical and radiographic outcomes with a posteriorly augmented glenoid for Walch B2, B3, and C glenoids in reverse total shoulder arthroplasty

10-12-2019 – Mandeep Virk, Michael Yip, Lindsey Liuzza, Mina Abdelshahed, Albit Paoli, Sean Grey, Thomas Wright, Pierre-Henri Flurin, Christopher Roche, Joseph D. Zuckerman

Journal Article

The purpose of this study is to quantify the clinical and radiographic outcomes of patients with severe posterior glenoid wear who were treated with reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (r
TSA) and a posterior augmented baseplate. A total of 67 primary r
TSA patients with osteoarthritis and posterior glenoid wear were treated with an 8° posterior augmented glenoid baseplate. All patients had a Walch B2, B3, or C glenoid, 2-year minimum follow-up, and mean follow-up of 40 months. All patients were scored preoperatively and at the latest follow-up using 5 clinical outcome metrics; active range of motion was also measured. A Student’s 2-tailed, unpaired t-test quantified differences in outcomes, where P < .05 denoted significance. All patients experienced significant improvements in pain and function after primary r
TSA with a posterior augmented glenoid baseplate. Three complications were reported for a rate of 4.5%; no cases of aseptic glenoid loosening occurred. A total of 90% of patients exceeded the minimal clinically important difference threshold, and 80% of patients exceeded the substantial clinical benefit threshold for each clinical outcome metric and range of motion measure. No differences in outcomes or complications were observed between Walch B2 and B3 patients, demonstrating that this full-wedge posterior augmented baseplate was equally good in each type of glenoid deformity. Primary r
TSA patients with Walch B2, B3, and C glenoids who received an 8° posterior augmented glenoid baseplate experienced excellent clinical and radiographic outcomes with a low complication rate and no reports of aseptic glenoid loosening at a mean follow-up of 40 months.

Clinical outcomes following conservative and surgical management of floating shoulder injuries: a systematic review

10-12-2019 – Alex R. Dombrowsky, Sellers Boudreau, Jon Quade, Eugene W. Brabston, Brent A. Ponce, Amit M. Momaya

Journal Article, Review

Floating shoulder is an uncommon injury characterized by fractures of the clavicle and ipsilateral scapular neck. No consensus exists on management. The purpose of this study was to analyze the existing literature on treatment and clinical outcomes of floating shoulder injuries to provide a baseline understanding of current treatment strategies of this injury. A systematic review was performed to identity published literature on outcomes and management of floating shoulder injuries. Searches were performed using PubMed, Embase, and SCOPUS. Seventeen studies were identified that included data for 371 shoulders. The mean reported age was 39.4 years (range, 16-82) and the mean follow-up was 49.4 months (range, 6-312). The major mechanism of injury was motor vehicle accident (51%) followed by fall from height (16%). Of the 371 shoulders, 215 (58%) were treated surgically, whereas 156 shoulders (42%) were managed nonoperatively. The most commonly reported outcome score was the Constant-Murley score (9 studies), followed by the Herscovici Floating Shoulder Injury score (5 studies). The mean Constant-Murley score was 80% of ideal maximum for both shoulders treated surgically and those treated nonoperatively. Satisfactory outcomes can be expected following both surgical fixation and nonoperative management of floating shoulder injuries when appropriately individualized to the patient, as evidenced by clinical outcome scores. Floating shoulder injuries with significant displacement of the scapular neck may benefit from surgical fixation of both the clavicle and scapula fractures. In those with minimal or nondisplaced scapular neck fractures, good outcomes may be achieved when treated nonoperatively or with surgical fixation of the clavicle alone.

Arthroscopic shoulder stabilization in the young athlete: return to sport and revision stabilization rates

10-12-2019 – Frank A. Cordasco, Brian Lin, Michael Heller, Lori Ann Asaro, Daphne Ling, Jacob G. Calcei

Journal Article

Shoulder instability in young athletes is a complex problem with higher recurrence, higher reoperation, and lower return to sport (RTS) rates after arthroscopic shoulder stabilization compared with adults. This is a prospective case series of young athletes with anterior shoulder instability after arthroscopic stabilization surgery. Primary outcomes were RTS and revision surgery, minimum follow-up was 24 months. Exclusion criteria were more than 3 preoperative episodes of instability, significant bone loss, or primary posterior instability. Demographic data, recurrent instability, revision surgery, sports pre- and postsurgery, patient satisfaction, level of RTS, time to RTS, and Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) scores were analyzed. Sixty-seven athletes met inclusion criteria, 19 females and 48 males, with a mean age of 17.5 years (range, 13-21 years). Fifty-nine (88%) athletes returned to sport at an average of 7.1 months (standard deviation, ±1.8); 50 (75%) returned to the same level or higher. Football and lacrosse were the most common sports. Four of 67 athletes (6%), all male, underwent revision stabilization at 11-36 months for recurrent instability. The overall mean SANE score was 88. This study demonstrates that when the high-risk athlete, 21 years old or younger, is appropriately selected for arthroscopic shoulder stabilization by excluding those with 3 or more preoperative shoulder instability episodes and those with off-track and engaging instability patterns, excellent outcomes can be achieved with low revision surgery rates, high RTS rates, and high patient satisfaction.

“Retrospective review of open and arthroscopic repair of anterosuperior rotator cuff tears with subscapularis involvement: a single surgeons experience”

10-12-2019 – Andrew S. Neviaser, Daniel A. Charen, Jillian M. Cotter, Alicia K. Harrison, Paul J. Cagle, Evan L. Flatow

Journal Article

There have been conflicting results when comparing outcomes of open vs. arthroscopic anterosuperior rotator cuff repairs with subscapularis involvement. The purpose of this study was to evaluate midterm outcome differences and complications following open vs. arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff tears involving the subscapularis by a single surgeon. This was a retrospective review of 57 rotator cuff repairs involving the subscapularis performed by a single surgeon over a 10-year period. During this time, the surgeon transitioned from open to arthroscopic repair. Preoperative and postoperative range of motion, lift-off test, belly press test, and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) Standardized Shoulder Assessment form scores were measured. Eighteen patients had open procedures and 39 had arthroscopic repair. The mean preoperative ASES score for the open group was 39 and postoperatively was 79. The mean preoperative ASES score for the arthroscopic group was 44 and improved to 80 postoperatively. There was no significant difference in score or change in score between the 2 groups (P > .05). There was only 1 complication. It occurred in the open group and was a superficial wound dehiscence. This study demonstrated no outcome differences between open and arthroscopic rotator cuff repair involving the subscapularis, even with large subscapularis tears. Both techniques significantly improved shoulder function. Arthroscopic and open rotator cuff repairs including the subscapularis are relatively safe procedures, and either technique is an acceptable option.

Clinical and radiographic outcomes of the open Latarjet procedure in skeletally immature patients

10-12-2019 – Peter Domos, Mikaël Chelli, Enricomaria Lunini, Francesco Ascione, Michael J. Bercik, Lionel Neyton, Arnaud Godeneche, Gilles Walch

Journal Article

Recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability has been studied in the young population and limited evidence is available for adolescent patients. Our study is a retrospective review of patients aged <17 years who underwent open Latarjet procedure. Forty-five patients were available for review. Clinical outcomes were assessed by range of movements, stability, Walch-Duplay score (WDS), Rowe score (RS), Constant-Murley score (CMS), Subjective Shoulder Value (SSV), and return to sport. Radiographs were reviewed for osteoarthritis and complications. The median age of patients was 15.7 years (13-17), and 56% had hyperlaxity. The median follow-up time was 6.6 years (3-26). The median postoperative movements showed recovered elevation (175°), external rotation (60°), and internal rotation (T9 level). Seventy-five percent of patients returned to the same level of sport, and 98% were satisfied. Clinical outcomes showed WDS, RS, and CMS scores of 85, 95, and 84 points, respectively, and an SSV of 95%. Twenty percent of patients described mild postoperative pain, and 1 had persistent stiffness. Other complications included 24% subjective apprehension, 4% redislocation, 4% wound problems, and 2% infection. Nine percent of cases had postoperative arthritis. The overall reoperation rate was 11%: 1 open washout for infection and 4 arthroscopic screw removal due to persistent pain. We found that hyperlaxity, female sex, and large or deep Hill-Sachs lesions were frequently associated with persistent apprehension at the last follow-up. The open Latarjet procedure provides a low rate of recurrent instability with acceptable complication rates in the long term for skeletally immature patients. It is an effective, safe treatment option without any significant glenoid growth disturbance.

Uncemented fixation of a monoblock ingrowth polyethylene glenoid: early follow-up

10-12-2019 – Bradley S. Schoch, Ali Zarezadeh, Michael Priddy, Joseph J. King, Thomas W. Wright

Journal Article

Traditional monoblock pegged glenoid components are implanted with cement, increasing operative time and potentially violating more bone than those inserted without cement. We study the early radiographic loosening and reoperation rate following uncemented fixation of a hybrid cage monoblock polyethylene glenoid component. Between 2013 and 2015, a total of 51 shoulders underwent anatomic shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) using a hybrid ingrowth cage polyethylene glenoid component by a single surgeon, with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. In all cases, the glenoid component was placed without cement. Mean follow-up was 33 months (range, 24-57). The primary outcome was Lazarus scale-assessed radiographic loosening. Secondary outcomes included reoperation, range of motion (ROM), and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). Twelve glenoid components (24%) had radiolucent lines. Glenoid lines were rated grade 1, grade 2, and grade 5 (6, 4, and 2 shoulders, respectively). Six shoulders (12%) had humeral lucent lines. Two shoulders (4%) underwent reoperation, only 1 of these occurring due to isolated failure of the glenoid component. As a group, mean ROM and PROMs improved significantly compared with preoperative values and exceeded the minimal clinically important difference. Glenoid loosening remains a major concern at mid- to long-term follow-up of TSA. Placement of this hybrid cage monoblock polyethylene glenoid component in a completely uncemented fashion does not lead to early clinical loosening, after which bony ingrowth into the central cage can be expected. Uncemented fixation of this hybrid cage component appears to be a safe treatment option for patients undergoing primary TSA.

Outcomes of reverse shoulder arthroplasty using a short stem through a superolateral approach

10-12-2019 – Ruben Dukan, Mohammad Bahman, Marc-Antoine Rousseau, Patrick Boyer

Journal Article

Reverse shoulder arthroplasties have progressed in recent decades to become the most popular type of arthroplasty. Short stems with metaphyseal fixation have been developed to preserve bone stock and facilitate possible revision. Accurate positioning of these implants can be challenging using the superolateral approach. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical and radiologic results of reverse short-stem arthroplasties using a superolateral approach with a minimum of 2 years’ follow-up. Between January 2015 and December 2016, a total of 76 patients underwent reverse shoulder arthroplasty surgery (79 shoulders) using a short uncemented humeral stem for shoulder arthritis with irreparable rotator cuff tear. Arthroplasties for post-traumatic osteoarthritis were excluded. Functional outcomes were assessed using Constant Score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Standardized Shoulder Assessment Form (ASES), visual analog scale (VAS), and range of motion. Radiographic analysis was used to evaluate component loosening, implant position, and implant filling ratio. The mean age was 70.8 years. At a mean of 38.8-month follow-up, there were significant improvements in Constant score (44.2 to 87.9, P < .001), ASES score (36.2 to 84.3, P < .001), and VAS score (6.8 to 0.4, P < .001). Forward flexion improved from 89°to 131°(P < .001), and external rotation improved from 25° to 36°(P < .001). No evidence of periprosthetic loosening was visible. Mean varus of the humeral stem was 1°(±6°). The mean glenoidal inclination was 98°(±7°), which corresponds to a lower tilt of 8°. The average filling ratio was between 50% and 60% in both the metaphysis and the diaphysis. The clinical results obtained in this study were satisfying, with a significantly low complication rate. Hence, short-stem reverse shoulder arthroplasty using a superolateral approach, while taking particular care to protect the deltoid, remains our method of choice.

Rasch analysis of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) instrument in patients with a humeral shaft fracture

02-12-2019 – Esther M.M. Van Lieshout, Kiran C. Mahabier, Wim E. Tuinebreijer, Michael H.J. Verhofstad, Dennis Den Hartog, Hugo W. Bolhuis, P. Koen Bos, Maarten W.G.A. Bronkhorst, Milko M.M. Bruijninckx, Jeroen De Haan, Axel R. Deenik, P. Ted Den Hoed, Martin G. Eversdijk, J. Carel Goslings, Robert Haverlag, Martin J. Heetveld, Albertus J.H. Kerver, Karel A. Kolkman, Peter A. Leenhouts, Sven A.G. Meylaerts

Journal Article

The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) instrument was developed to assess the disability experienced by patients with any musculoskeletal condition of the upper extremity and to monitor change in symptoms and upper-limb function over time. The 30 items are scored on a 5-point rating scale. The Dutch-language version of the DASH instrument (DASH-DLV) has been examined with the classical test theory in patients with a humeral shaft fracture. This study aimed to examine the DASH-DLV with a more rigorous and extensive analysis by applying the Rasch model. Data of 400 patients included in a multicenter, prospective study comparing operative and nonoperative treatment of adult patients with a humeral shaft fracture were used. The person-item map, item fit statistics, reliability, response category ordering, and dimensionality were examined. Raw data were converted to linear measures using the Rasch model. The DASH-DLV showed a good fit to the Rasch model, except for item 26 (“Tingling [pins and needles] in your arm, shoulder or hand”). The person reliability was 0.92. In general, the category functioning of the 5-point rating scale was working well. Dimensionality analysis revealed that the DASH-DLV is a unidimensional scale. Differential item functioning for sex was not detected, and only item 26 exhibited differential item functioning as a function for age. The DASH-DLV fits the stringent Rasch model in a clinical situation with a group of adult patients with a humeral shaft fracture. Adequate measurement for scientific research can be obtained to evaluate longitudinal intervention research.